Manu Smriti

Adhyaya 1

ॐ श्री परमात्मने नमः


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संस्कृत्म
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मनुमेकाग्रमासीनमभिगम्य महर्षयः । प्रतिपूज्य यथान्यायमिदं वचनमब्रुवन् ॥ १.१॥
manumekāgramāsīnamabhigamya maharṣayaḥ | pratipūjya yathānyāyamidaṃ vacanamabruvan || 1.1||
1.1. The great sages approached Manu, who was seated with a collected mind, and, having duly worshipped him, spoke as follows:

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Shloka :   1

भगवन् सर्ववर्णानां यथावदनुपूर्वशः । अन्तरप्रभवानां च धर्मान्नो वक्तुमर्हसि ॥ १.२॥
bhagavan sarvavarṇānāṃ yathāvadanupūrvaśaḥ | antaraprabhavānāṃ ca dharmānno vaktumarhasi || 1.2||
1.2. ’Deign, divine one, to declare to us precisely and in due order the sacred laws of each of the (four chief) castes (varna) and of the intermediate ones.

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त्वमेको ह्यस्य सर्वस्य विधानस्य स्वयम्भुवः । अचिन्त्यस्याप्रमेयस्य कार्यतत्त्वार्थवित्प्रभो ॥ १.३॥
tvameko hyasya sarvasya vidhānasya svayambhuvaḥ | acintyasyāprameyasya kāryatattvārthavitprabho || 1.3||
1.3. ’For thou, O Lord, alone knowest the purport, (i.e.) the rites, and the knowledge of the soul, (taught) in this whole ordinance of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), which is unknowable and unfathomable.’

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स तैः पृष्टस्तथा सम्यगमितोजा महात्मभिः । प्रत्युवाचार्च्य तान् सर्वान् महर्षींश्रूयतामिति ॥ १.४॥
sa taiḥ pṛṣṭastathā samyagamitojā mahātmabhiḥ | pratyuvācārcya tān sarvān maharṣīṃśrūyatāmiti || 1.4||
1.4. He, whose power is measureless, being thus asked by the high-minded great sages, duly honoured them, and answered, ’Listen!’

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आसीदिदं तमोभूतमप्रज्ञातमलक्षणम् । अप्रतर्क्यमविज्ञेयं प्रसुप्तमिव सर्वतः ॥ १.५॥
āsīdidaṃ tamobhūtamaprajñātamalakṣaṇam | apratarkyamavijñeyaṃ prasuptamiva sarvataḥ || 1.5||
1.5. This (universe) existed in the shape of Darkness, unperceived, destitute of distinctive marks, unattainable by reasoning, unknowable, wholly immersed, as it were, in deep sleep.

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ततः स्वयम्भूर्भगवानव्यक्तो व्यञ्जयन्निदम् । महाभूतादि वृत्तोजाः प्रादुरासीत्तमोनुदः ॥ १.६॥
tataḥ svayambhūrbhagavānavyakto vyañjayannidam | mahābhūtādi vṛttojāḥ prādurāsīttamonudaḥ || 1.6||
1.6. Then the divine Self-existent (Svayambhu, himself) indiscernible, (but) making (all) this, the great elements and the rest, discernible, appeared with irresistible (creative) power, dispelling the darkness.

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योऽसावतीन्द्रियग्राह्यः सूक्ष्मोऽव्यक्तः सनातनः । सर्वभूतमयोऽचिन्त्यः स एष स्वयमुद्बभौ ॥ १.७॥
yo'sāvatīndriyagrāhyaḥ sūkṣmo'vyaktaḥ sanātanaḥ | sarvabhūtamayo'cintyaḥ sa eṣa svayamudbabhau || 1.7||
1.7. He who can be perceived by the internal organ (alone), who is subtile, indiscernible, and eternal, who contains all created beings and is inconceivable, shone forth of his own (will).

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सोऽभिध्याय शरीरात्स्वात्सिसृक्षुर्विविधाः प्रजाः । अप एव ससर्जादौ तासु वीर्यमवासृजत् ॥ १.८॥
so'bhidhyāya śarīrātsvātsisṛkṣurvividhāḥ prajāḥ | apa eva sasarjādau tāsu vīryamavāsṛjat || 1.8||
1.8. He, desiring to produce beings of many kinds from his own body, first with a thought created the waters,,and placed his seed in them.

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तदण्डमभवद्धैमं सहस्रांशुसमप्रभम् । तस्मिञ्जज्ञे स्वयं ब्रह्मा सर्वलोकपितामहः ॥ १.९॥
tadaṇḍamabhavaddhaimaṃ sahasrāṃśusamaprabham | tasmiñjajñe svayaṃ brahmā sarvalokapitāmahaḥ || 1.9||
1.9. That (seed) became a golden egg, in brilliancy equal to the sun; in that (egg) he himself was born as Brahman, the progenitor of the whole world.

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आपो नारा इति प्रोक्ता आपो वै नरसूनवः । ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वं तेन नारायणः स्मृतः ॥ १.१०॥
āpo nārā iti proktā āpo vai narasūnavaḥ | tā yadasyāyanaṃ pūrvaṃ tena nārāyaṇaḥ smṛtaḥ || 1.10||
1.10. The waters are called narah, (for) the waters are, indeed, the offspring of Nara; as they were his first residence (ayana), he thence is named Narayana.

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यत्तत्कारणमव्यक्तं नित्यं सदसदात्मकम् । तद्विसृष्टः स पुरुषो लोके ब्रह्मैति कीर्त्यते ॥ १.११॥
yattatkāraṇamavyaktaṃ nityaṃ sadasadātmakam | tadvisṛṣṭaḥ sa puruṣo loke brahmaiti kīrtyate || 1.11||
1.11. From that (first) cause, which is indiscernible, eternal, and both real and unreal, was produced that male (Purusha), who is famed in this world (under the appellation of) Brahman.

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तस्मिन्नण्डे स भगवानुषित्वा परिवत्सरम् । स्वयमेवात्मनो ध्यानात्तदण्डमकरोद्द्विधा ॥ १.१२॥
tasminnaṇḍe sa bhagavānuṣitvā parivatsaram | svayamevātmano dhyānāttadaṇḍamakaroddvidhā || 1.12||
1.12. The divine one resided in that egg during a whole year, then he himself by his thought (alone) divided it into two halves;

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ताभ्यां स शकलाभ्यां च दिवं भूमिं च निर्ममे । मध्ये व्योम दिशश्चाष्टावपां स्थानं च शाश्वतम् ॥ १.१३॥
tābhyāṃ sa śakalābhyāṃ ca divaṃ bhūmiṃ ca nirmame | madhye vyoma diśaścāṣṭāvapāṃ sthānaṃ ca śāśvatam || 1.13||
1.13. And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle sphere, the eight points of the horizon, and the eternal abode of the waters.

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उद्बबर्हात्मनश्चैव मनः सदसदात्मकम् । मनसश्चाप्यहङ्कारमभिमन्तारमीश्वरम् ॥ १.१४॥
udbabarhātmanaścaiva manaḥ sadasadātmakam | manasaścāpyahaṅkāramabhimantāramīśvaram || 1.14||
1.14. From himself (atmanah) he also drew forth the mind, which is both real and unreal, likewise from the mind egoism, which possesses the function of self-consciousness (and is) lordly;

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महान्तमेव चात्मानं सर्वाणि त्रिगुणानि च । विषयाणां ग्रहीतॄणि शनैः पञ्चैन्द्रियाणि च ॥ १.१५॥
mahāntameva cātmānaṃ sarvāṇi triguṇāni ca | viṣayāṇāṃ grahītṝṇi śanaiḥ pañcaindriyāṇi ca || 1.15||
1.15. Moreover, the great one, the soul, and all (products) affected by the three qualities, and, in their order, the five organs which perceive the objects of sensation.

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तेषां त्ववयवान् सूक्ष्मान् षण्णामप्यमितौजसाम् । संनिवेश्यात्ममात्रासु सर्वभूतानि निर्ममे ॥ १.१६॥
teṣāṃ tvavayavān sūkṣmān ṣaṇṇāmapyamitaujasām | saṃniveśyātmamātrāsu sarvabhūtāni nirmame || 1.16||
1.16. But, joining minute particles even of those six, which possess measureless power, with particles of

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यन् मूर्त्यवयवाः सूक्ष्मास्तानीमान्याश्रयन्ति षट् । तस्माच्छरीरमित्याहुस्तस्य मूर्तिं मनीषिणः ॥ १.१७॥
yan mūrtyavayavāḥ sūkṣmāstānīmānyāśrayanti ṣaṭ | tasmāccharīramityāhustasya mūrtiṃ manīṣiṇaḥ || 1.17||
1.17. Because those six (kinds of) minute particles, which form the (creator’s) frame, enter (a-sri) these (creatures), therefore the wise call his frame sarira, (the body.)

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तदाविशन्ति भूतानि महान्ति सह कर्मभिः । मनश्चावयवैः सूक्ष्मैः सर्वभूतकृदव्ययम् ॥ १.१८॥
tadāviśanti bhūtāni mahānti saha karmabhiḥ | manaścāvayavaiḥ sūkṣmaiḥ sarvabhūtakṛdavyayam || 1.18||
1.18. That the great elements enter, together with their functions and the mind, through its minute parts the framer of all beings, the imperishable one.

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तेषामिदं तु सप्तानां पुरुषाणां महौजसाम् । सूक्ष्माभ्यो मूर्तिमात्राभ्यः सम्भवत्यव्ययाद्व्ययम् ॥ १.१९॥
teṣāmidaṃ tu saptānāṃ puruṣāṇāṃ mahaujasām | sūkṣmābhyo mūrtimātrābhyaḥ sambhavatyavyayādvyayam || 1.19||
1.19. But from minute body (-framing) particles of these seven very powerful Purushas springs this (world), the perishable from the imperishable.

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आद्याद्यस्य गुणं त्वेषामवाप्नोति परः परः । यो यो यावतिथश्चैषां स स तावद्गुणः स्मृतः ॥ १.२०॥
ādyādyasya guṇaṃ tveṣāmavāpnoti paraḥ paraḥ | yo yo yāvatithaścaiṣāṃ sa sa tāvadguṇaḥ smṛtaḥ || 1.20||
1.20. Among them each succeeding (element) acquires the quality of the preceding one, and whatever place (in the sequence) each of them occupies, even so many qualities it is declared to possess.

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सर्वेषां तु स नामानि कर्माणि च पृथक्पृथक् । वेदशब्देभ्य एवादौ पृथक्संस्थाश्च निर्ममे ॥ १.२१॥
sarveṣāṃ tu sa nāmāni karmāṇi ca pṛthakpṛthak | vedaśabdebhya evādau pṛthaksaṃsthāśca nirmame || 1.21||
1.21. But in the beginning he assigned their several names, actions, and conditions to all (created beings), even according to the words of the Veda.

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कर्मात्मनां च देवानां सोऽसृजत्प्राणिनां प्रभुः । साध्यानां च गणं सूक्ष्मं यज्ञं चैव सनातनम् ॥ १.२२॥
karmātmanāṃ ca devānāṃ so'sṛjatprāṇināṃ prabhuḥ | sādhyānāṃ ca gaṇaṃ sūkṣmaṃ yajñaṃ caiva sanātanam || 1.22||
1.22. He, the Lord, also created the class of the gods, who are endowed with life, and whose nature is action; and the subtile class of the Sadhyas, and the eternal sacrifice

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अग्निवायुरविभ्यस्तु त्रयं ब्रह्म सनातनम् । दुदोह यज्ञसिद्ध्यर्थं ऋच्। यजुस्। सामलक्षणम् ॥ १.२३॥
agnivāyuravibhyastu trayaṃ brahma sanātanam | dudoha yajñasiddhyarthaṃ ṛc| yajus| sāmalakṣaṇam || 1.23||
1.23. But from fire, wind, and the sun he drew forth the threefold eternal Veda, called Rik, Yagus, and Saman, for the due performance of the sacrifice.

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कालं कालविभक्तीश्च नक्षत्राणि ग्रहांस्तथा । सरितः सागरान् शैलान् समानि विषमानि च ॥ १.२४॥
kālaṃ kālavibhaktīśca nakṣatrāṇi grahāṃstathā | saritaḥ sāgarān śailān samāni viṣamāni ca || 1.24||
1.24. Time and the divisions of time, the lunar mansions and the planets, the rivers, the oceans, the mountains, plains, and uneven ground.

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तपो वाचं रतिं चैव कामं च क्रोधमेव च । सृष्टिं ससर्ज चैवैमां स्रष्टुमिच्छन्निमाः प्रजाः ॥ १.२५॥
tapo vācaṃ ratiṃ caiva kāmaṃ ca krodhameva ca | sṛṣṭiṃ sasarja caivaimāṃ sraṣṭumicchannimāḥ prajāḥ || 1.25||
1.25. Austerity, speech, pleasure, desire, and anger, this whole creation he likewise produced, as he desired to call these beings into existence.

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कर्मणां च विवेकाय धर्माधर्मौ व्यवेचयत् । द्वन्द्वैरयोजयच्चैमाः सुखदुःखादिभिः प्रजाः ॥ १.२६॥
karmaṇāṃ ca vivekāya dharmādharmau vyavecayat | dvandvairayojayaccaimāḥ sukhaduḥkhādibhiḥ prajāḥ || 1.26||
1.26. Moreover, in order to distinguish actions, he separated merit from demerit, and he caused the creatures to be affected by the pairs (of opposites), such as pain and pleasure.

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अण्व्यो मात्रा विनाशिन्यो दशार्धानां तु याः स्मृताः । ताभिः सार्धमिदं सर्वं सम्भवत्यनुपूर्वशः ॥ १.२७॥
aṇvyo mātrā vināśinyo daśārdhānāṃ tu yāḥ smṛtāḥ | tābhiḥ sārdhamidaṃ sarvaṃ sambhavatyanupūrvaśaḥ || 1.27||
1.27. But with the minute perishable particles of the five (elements) which have been mentioned, this whole (world) is framed in due order.

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यं तु कर्मणि यस्मिन् स न्ययुङ्क्त प्रथमं प्रभुः । स तदेव स्वयं भेजे सृज्यमानः पुनः पुनः ॥ १.२८॥
yaṃ tu karmaṇi yasmin sa nyayuṅkta prathamaṃ prabhuḥ | sa tadeva svayaṃ bheje sṛjyamānaḥ punaḥ punaḥ || 1.28||
1.28. But to whatever course of action the Lord at first appointed each (kind of beings), that alone it has spontaneously adopted in each succeeding creation.

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हिंस्राहिंस्रे मृदुक्रूरे धर्माधर्मावृतानृते । यद्यस्य सोऽदधात्सर्गे तत्तस्य स्वयमाविशत् ॥ १.२९॥
hiṃsrāhiṃsre mṛdukrūre dharmādharmāvṛtānṛte | yadyasya so'dadhātsarge tattasya svayamāviśat || 1.29||
1.29. Whatever he assigned to each at the (first) creation, noxiousness or harmlessness, gentleness or ferocity, virtue or sin, truth or falsehood, that clung (afterwards) spontaneously to it.

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यथर्तुलिङ्गान्यर्तवः स्वयमेवर्तुपर्यये । स्वानि स्वान्यभिपद्यन्ते तथा कर्माणि देहिनः ॥ १.३०॥
yathartuliṅgānyartavaḥ svayamevartuparyaye | svāni svānyabhipadyante tathā karmāṇi dehinaḥ || 1.30||
1.30. As at the change of the seasons each season of its own accord assumes its distinctive marks, even so corporeal beings (resume in new births) their (appointed) course of action.

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लोकानां तु विवृद्ध्यर्थं मुखबाहूरुपादतः । ब्राह्मणं क्षत्रियं वैश्यं शूद्रं च निरवर्तयत् ॥ १.३१॥
lokānāṃ tu vivṛddhyarthaṃ mukhabāhūrupādataḥ | brāhmaṇaṃ kṣatriyaṃ vaiśyaṃ śūdraṃ ca niravartayat || 1.31||
1.31. But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra to proceed from his mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his feet.

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द्विधा कृत्वाऽत्मनो देहमर्धेन पुरुषोऽभवत् । अर्धेन नारी तस्यां स विराजमसृजत्प्रभुः ॥ १.३२॥
dvidhā kṛtvā'tmano dehamardhena puruṣo'bhavat | ardhena nārī tasyāṃ sa virājamasṛjatprabhuḥ || 1.32||
1.32. Dividing his own body, the Lord became half male and half female; with that (female) he produced Virag.

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तपस्तप्त्वाऽसृजद्यं तु स स्वयं पुरुषो विराट् । तं मां वित्तास्य सर्वस्य स्रष्टारं द्विजसत्तमाः ॥ १.३३॥
tapastaptvā'sṛjadyaṃ tu sa svayaṃ puruṣo virāṭ | taṃ māṃ vittāsya sarvasya sraṣṭāraṃ dvijasattamāḥ || 1.33||
1.33. But know me, O most holy among the twice-born, to be the creator of this whole (world), whom that male, Virag, himself produced, having performed austerities.

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अहं प्रजाः सिसृक्षुस्तु तपस्तप्त्वा सुदुश्चरम् । पतीन् प्रजानामसृजं महर्षीनादितो दश ॥ १.३४॥
ahaṃ prajāḥ sisṛkṣustu tapastaptvā suduścaram | patīn prajānāmasṛjaṃ maharṣīnādito daśa || 1.34||
1.34. Then I, desiring to produce created beings, performed very difficult austerities, and (thereby) called into existence ten great sages, lords of created beings,

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मरीचिमत्र्यङ्गिरसौ पुलस्त्यं पुलहं क्रतुम् । प्रचेतसं वसिष्ठं च भृगुं नारदमेव च ॥ १.३५॥
marīcimatryaṅgirasau pulastyaṃ pulahaṃ kratum | pracetasaṃ vasiṣṭhaṃ ca bhṛguṃ nāradameva ca || 1.35||
1.35. Mariki, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Praketas, Vasishtha, Bhrigu, and Narada.

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Shloka :   35

एते मनूंस्तु सप्तान् यानसृजन् भूरितेजसः । देवान् देवनिकायांश्च महर्षींश्चामितोजसः ॥ १.३६॥
ete manūṃstu saptān yānasṛjan bhūritejasaḥ | devān devanikāyāṃśca maharṣīṃścāmitojasaḥ || 1.36||
1.36. They created seven other Manus possessing great brilliancy, gods and classes of gods and great sages of measureless power,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   36

यक्षरक्षः पिशाचांश्च गन्धर्वाप्सरसोऽसुरान् । नागान् सर्पान् सुपर्णांश्च पितॄणांश्च पृथग्गणम् ॥ १.३७॥
yakṣarakṣaḥ piśācāṃśca gandharvāpsaraso'surān | nāgān sarpān suparṇāṃśca pitṝṇāṃśca pṛthaggaṇam || 1.37||
1.37. Yakshas (the servants of Kubera, the demons called) Rakshasas and Pisakas, Gandharvas (or musicians of the gods), Apsarases (the dancers of the gods), Asuras, (the snake-deities called) Nagas and Sarpas, (the bird- deities called) Suparnas and the several classes of the manes,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   37

विद्युतोऽशनिमेघांश्च रोहितैन्द्रधनूंषि च । उल्कानिर्घातकेतूंश्च ज्योतींष्युच्चावचानि च ॥ १.३८॥
vidyuto'śanimeghāṃśca rohitaindradhanūṃṣi ca | ulkānirghātaketūṃśca jyotīṃṣyuccāvacāni ca || 1.38||
1.38. Lightnings, thunderbolts and clouds, imperfect (rohita) and perfect rainbows, falling meteors, supernatural noises, comets, and heavenly lights of many kinds,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   38

किन्नरान् वानरान् मत्स्यान् विविधांश्च विहङ्गमान् । पशून् मृगान् मनुष्यांश्च व्यालांश्चोभयतोदतः ॥ १.३९॥
kinnarān vānarān matsyān vividhāṃśca vihaṅgamān | paśūn mṛgān manuṣyāṃśca vyālāṃścobhayatodataḥ || 1.39||
1.39 (Horse-faced) Kinnaras, monkeys, fishes, birds of many kinds, cattle, deer, men, and carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   39

कृमिकीटपतङ्गांश्च यूकामक्षिकमत्कुणम् । सर्वं च दंशमशकं स्थावरं च पृथग्विधम् ॥ १.४०॥
kṛmikīṭapataṅgāṃśca yūkāmakṣikamatkuṇam | sarvaṃ ca daṃśamaśakaṃ sthāvaraṃ ca pṛthagvidham || 1.40||
1.40. Small and large worms and beetles, moths, lice, flies, bugs, all stinging and biting insects and the several kinds of immovable things.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   40

एवमेतैरिदं सर्वं मन्नियोगान् महात्मभिः । यथाकर्म तपोयोगात्सृष्टं स्थावरजङ्गमम् ॥ १.४१॥
evametairidaṃ sarvaṃ manniyogān mahātmabhiḥ | yathākarma tapoyogātsṛṣṭaṃ sthāvarajaṅgamam || 1.41||
1.41. Thus was this whole (creation), both the immovable and the movable, produced by those high-minded ones by means of austerities and at my command, (each being) according to (the results of) its actions.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   41

येषां तु यादृशं कर्म भूतानामिह कीर्तितम् । तत्तथा वोऽभिधास्यामि क्रमयोगं च जन्मनि ॥ १.४२॥
yeṣāṃ tu yādṛśaṃ karma bhūtānāmiha kīrtitam | tattathā vo'bhidhāsyāmi kramayogaṃ ca janmani || 1.42||
1.42. But whatever act is stated (to belong) to (each of) those creatures here below, that I will truly declare to you, as well as their order in respect to birth.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   42

पशवश्च मृगाश्चैव व्यालाश्चोभयतोदतः । रक्षांसि च पिशाचाश्च मनुषाश्च जरायुजाः ॥ १.४३॥
paśavaśca mṛgāścaiva vyālāścobhayatodataḥ | rakṣāṃsi ca piśācāśca manuṣāśca jarāyujāḥ || 1.43||
1.43. Cattle, deer, carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth, Rakshasas, Pisakas, and men are born from the womb.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   43

अण्डजाः पक्षिणः सर्पा नक्रा मत्स्याश्च कच्छपाः । यानि चैवं। प्रकाराणि स्थलजान्यौदकानि च ॥ १.४४॥
aṇḍajāḥ pakṣiṇaḥ sarpā nakrā matsyāśca kacchapāḥ | yāni caivaṃ| prakārāṇi sthalajānyaudakāni ca || 1.44||
1.44. From eggs are born birds, snakes, crocodiles, fishes, tortoises, as well as similar terrestrial and aquatic (animals).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   44

स्वेदजं दंशमशकं यूकामक्षिकमत्कुणम् । ऊष्मणश्चोपजायन्ते यच्चान्यत्किं चिदीदृशम् ॥ १.४५॥
svedajaṃ daṃśamaśakaṃ yūkāmakṣikamatkuṇam | ūṣmaṇaścopajāyante yaccānyatkiṃ cidīdṛśam || 1.45||
1.45. From hot moisture spring stinging and biting insects, lice, flies, bugs, and all other (creatures) of that kind which are produced by heat.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   45

उद्भिज्जाः स्थावराः सर्वे बीजकाण्डप्ररोहिणः । ओषध्यः फलपाकान्ता बहुपुष्पफलोपगाः ॥ १.४६॥
udbhijjāḥ sthāvarāḥ sarve bījakāṇḍaprarohiṇaḥ | oṣadhyaḥ phalapākāntā bahupuṣpaphalopagāḥ || 1.46||
1.46. All plants, propagated by seed or by slips, grow from shoots; annual plants (are those) which, bearing many flowers and fruits, perish after the ripening of their fruit;

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   46

अपुष्पाः फलवन्तो ये ते वनस्पतयः स्मृताः । पुष्पिणः फलिनश्चैव वृक्षास्तूभयतः स्मृताः ॥ १.४७॥
apuṣpāḥ phalavanto ye te vanaspatayaḥ smṛtāḥ | puṣpiṇaḥ phalinaścaiva vṛkṣāstūbhayataḥ smṛtāḥ || 1.47||
1.47. (Those trees) which bear fruit without flowers are called vanaspati (lords of the forest); but those which bear both flowers and fruit are called vriksha.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   47

गुच्छगुल्मं तु विविधं तथैव तृणजातयः । बीजकाण्डरुहाण्येव प्रताना वल्ल्य एव च ॥ १.४८॥
gucchagulmaṃ tu vividhaṃ tathaiva tṛṇajātayaḥ | bījakāṇḍaruhāṇyeva pratānā vallya eva ca || 1.48||
1.48. But the various plants with many stalks, growing from one or several roots, the different kinds of grasses, the climbing plants and the creepers spring all from seed or from slips.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   48

तमसा बहुरूपेण वेष्टिताः कर्महेतुना । अन्तस्संज्ञा भवन्त्येते सुखदुःखसमन्विताः ॥ १.४९॥
tamasā bahurūpeṇa veṣṭitāḥ karmahetunā | antassaṃjñā bhavantyete sukhaduḥkhasamanvitāḥ || 1.49||
1.49. These (plants) which are surrounded by multiform Darkness, the result of their acts (in former existences), possess internal consciousness and experience pleasure and pain.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   49

एतदन्तास्तु गतयो ब्रह्माद्याः समुदाहृताः । घोरेऽस्मिन् भूतसंसारे नित्यं सततयायिनि ॥ १.५०॥
etadantāstu gatayo brahmādyāḥ samudāhṛtāḥ | ghore'smin bhūtasaṃsāre nityaṃ satatayāyini || 1.50||
1.50. The (various) conditions in this always terrible and constantly changing circle of births and deaths to which created beings are subject, are stated to begin with (that of) Brahman, and to end with (that of) these (just mentioned immovable creatures).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   50

एवं सर्वं स सृष्ट्वैदं मां चाचिन्त्यपराक्रमः । आत्मन्यन्तर्दधे भूयः कालं कालेन पीडयन् ॥ १.५१॥
evaṃ sarvaṃ sa sṛṣṭvaidaṃ māṃ cācintyaparākramaḥ | ātmanyantardadhe bhūyaḥ kālaṃ kālena pīḍayan || 1.51||
1.51. When he whose power is incomprehensible, had thus produced the universe and men, he disappeared in himself, repeatedly suppressing one period by means of the other.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   51

यदा स देवो जागर्ति तदेवं चेष्टते जगत् । यदा स्वपिति शान्तात्मा तदा सर्वं निमीलति ॥ १.५२॥
yadā sa devo jāgarti tadevaṃ ceṣṭate jagat | yadā svapiti śāntātmā tadā sarvaṃ nimīlati || 1.52||
1.52. When that divine one wakes, then this world stirs; when he slumbers tranquilly, then the universe sinks to sleep.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   52

तस्मिन् स्वपति तु स्वस्थे कर्मात्मानः शरीरिणः । स्वकर्मभ्यो निवर्तन्ते मनश्च ग्लानिमृच्छति ॥ १.५३॥
tasmin svapati tu svasthe karmātmānaḥ śarīriṇaḥ | svakarmabhyo nivartante manaśca glānimṛcchati || 1.53||
1.53. But when he reposes in calm sleep, the corporeal beings whose nature is action, desist from their actions and mind becomes inert.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   53

युगपत्तु प्रलीयन्ते यदा तस्मिन् महात्मनि । तदाऽयं सर्वभूतात्मा सुखं स्वपिति निर्वृतः ॥ १.५४॥
yugapattu pralīyante yadā tasmin mahātmani | tadā'yaṃ sarvabhūtātmā sukhaṃ svapiti nirvṛtaḥ || 1.54||
1.54. When they are absorbed all at once in that great soul, then he who is the soul of all beings sweetly slumbers, free from all care and occupation.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   54

तमोऽयं तु समाश्रित्य चिरं तिष्ठति सैन्द्रियः । न च स्वं कुरुते कर्म तदोत्क्रामति मूर्तितः ॥ १.५५॥
tamo'yaṃ tu samāśritya ciraṃ tiṣṭhati saindriyaḥ | na ca svaṃ kurute karma tadotkrāmati mūrtitaḥ || 1.55||
1.55. When this (soul) has entered darkness, it remains for a long time united with the organs (of sensation), but performs not its functions; it then leaves the corporeal frame.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   55

यदाऽणुमात्रिको भूत्वा बीजं स्थाणु चरिष्णु च । समाविशति संसृष्टस्तदा मूर्तिं विमुञ्चति ॥ १.५६॥
yadā'ṇumātriko bhūtvā bījaṃ sthāṇu cariṣṇu ca | samāviśati saṃsṛṣṭastadā mūrtiṃ vimuñcati || 1.56||
1.56. When, being clothed with minute particles (only), it enters into vegetable or animal seed, it then assumes, united (with the fine body), a (new) corporeal frame.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   56

एवं स जाग्रत्स्वप्नाभ्यामिदं सर्वं चराचरम् । सञ्जीवयति चाजस्रं प्रमापयति चाव्ययः ॥ १.५७॥
evaṃ sa jāgratsvapnābhyāmidaṃ sarvaṃ carācaram | sañjīvayati cājasraṃ pramāpayati cāvyayaḥ || 1.57||
1.57. Thus he, the imperishable one, by (alternately) waking and slumbering, incessantly revivifies and destroys this whole movable and immovable (creation).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   57

इदं शास्त्रं तु कृत्वाऽसौ मामेव स्वयमादितः । विधिवद्ग्राहयामास मरीच्यादींस्त्वहं मुनीन् ॥ १.५८॥
idaṃ śāstraṃ tu kṛtvā'sau māmeva svayamāditaḥ | vidhivadgrāhayāmāsa marīcyādīṃstvahaṃ munīn || 1.58||
1.58. But he having composed these Institutes (of the sacred law), himself taught them, according to the rule, to me alone in the beginning; next I (taught them) to Mariki and the other sages.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   58

एतद्वोऽयं भृगुः शास्त्रं श्रावयिष्यत्यशेषतः । एतधि मत्तोऽधिजगे सर्वमेषोऽखिलं मुनिः ॥ १.५९॥
etadvo'yaṃ bhṛguḥ śāstraṃ śrāvayiṣyatyaśeṣataḥ | etadhi matto'dhijage sarvameṣo'khilaṃ muniḥ || 1.59||
1.59. Bhrigu, here, will fully recite to you these Institutes; for that sage learned the whole in its entirety from me.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   59

ततस्तथा स तेनोक्तो महर्षिमनुना भृगुः । तानब्रवीदृषीन् सर्वान् प्रीतात्मा श्रूयतामिति ॥ १.६०॥
tatastathā sa tenokto maharṣimanunā bhṛguḥ | tānabravīdṛṣīn sarvān prītātmā śrūyatāmiti || 1.60||
1.60. Then that great sage Bhrigu, being thus addressed by Manu, spoke, pleased in his heart, to all the sages, ’Listen!’

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   60

स्वायम्भुवस्यास्य मनोः षड्वंश्या मनवोऽपरे । सृष्टवन्तः प्रजाः स्वाः स्वा महात्मानो महौजसः ॥ १.६१॥
svāyambhuvasyāsya manoḥ ṣaḍvaṃśyā manavo'pare | sṛṣṭavantaḥ prajāḥ svāḥ svā mahātmāno mahaujasaḥ || 1.61||
1.61. Six other high-minded, very powerful Manus, who belong to the race of this Manu, the descendant of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), and who have severally produced created beings,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   61

स्वारोचिषश्चोत्तमश्च तामसो रैवतस्तथा । चाक्षुषश्च महातेजा विवस्वत्सुत एव च ॥ १.६२॥
svārociṣaścottamaśca tāmaso raivatastathā | cākṣuṣaśca mahātejā vivasvatsuta eva ca || 1.62||
1.62. (Are) Svarokisha, Auttami, Tamasa, Raivata, Kakshusha, possessing great lustre, and the son of Vivasvat.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   62

स्वायम्भुवाद्याः सप्तैते मनवो भूरितेजसः । स्वे स्वेऽन्तरे सर्वमिदमुत्पाद्यापुश्चराचरम् ॥ १.६३॥
svāyambhuvādyāḥ saptaite manavo bhūritejasaḥ | sve sve'ntare sarvamidamutpādyāpuścarācaram || 1.63||
1.63. These seven very glorious Manus, the first among whom is Svayambhuva, produced and protected this whole movable and immovable (creation), each during the period (allotted to him).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   63

निमेषा दश चाष्टौ च काष्ठा त्रिंशत्तु ताः कला । त्रिंशत्कला मुहूर्तः स्यादहोरात्रं तु तावतः ॥ १.६४॥
nimeṣā daśa cāṣṭau ca kāṣṭhā triṃśattu tāḥ kalā | triṃśatkalā muhūrtaḥ syādahorātraṃ tu tāvataḥ || 1.64||
1.64. Eighteen nimeshas (twinklings of the eye, are one kashtha), thirty kashthas one kala, thirty kalas one muhurta, and as many (muhurtas) one day and night.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   64

अहोरात्रे विभजते सूर्यो मानुषदैविके । रात्रिः स्वप्नाय भूतानां चेष्टायै कर्मणामहः ॥ १.६५॥
ahorātre vibhajate sūryo mānuṣadaivike | rātriḥ svapnāya bhūtānāṃ ceṣṭāyai karmaṇāmahaḥ || 1.65||
1.65. The sun divides days and nights, both human and divine, the night (being intended) for the repose of created beings and the day for exertion.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   65

पित्र्ये रात्र्यहनी मासः प्रविभागस्तु पक्षयोः । कर्मचेष्टास्वहः कृष्णः शुक्लः स्वप्नाय शर्वरी ॥ १.६६॥
pitrye rātryahanī māsaḥ pravibhāgastu pakṣayoḥ | karmaceṣṭāsvahaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ śuklaḥ svapnāya śarvarī || 1.66||
1.66. A month is a day and a night of the manes, but the division is according to fortnights. The dark (fortnight) is their day for active exertion, the bright (fortnight) their night for sleep.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   66

दैवे रात्र्यहनी वर्षं प्रविभागस्तयोः पुनः । अहस्तत्रोदगयनं रात्रिः स्याद्दक्षिणायनम् ॥ १.६७॥
daive rātryahanī varṣaṃ pravibhāgastayoḥ punaḥ | ahastatrodagayanaṃ rātriḥ syāddakṣiṇāyanam || 1.67||
1.67. A year is a day and a night of the gods; their division is (as follows): the half year during which the sun progresses to the north will be the day, that during which it goes southwards the night.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   67

ब्राह्मस्य तु क्षपाहस्य यत्प्रमाणं समासतः । एकैकशो युगानां तु क्रमशस्तन्निबोधत ॥ १.६८॥
brāhmasya tu kṣapāhasya yatpramāṇaṃ samāsataḥ | ekaikaśo yugānāṃ tu kramaśastannibodhata || 1.68||
1.68. But hear now the brief (description of) the duration of a night and a day of Brahman and of the several ages (of the world, yuga) according to their order.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   68

चत्वार्याहुः सहस्राणि वर्षाणां तत्कृतं युगम् । तस्य तावत्शती संध्या संध्यांशश्च तथाविधः ॥ १.६९॥
catvāryāhuḥ sahasrāṇi varṣāṇāṃ tatkṛtaṃ yugam | tasya tāvatśatī saṃdhyā saṃdhyāṃśaśca tathāvidhaḥ || 1.69||
1.69. They declare that the Krita age (consists of) four thousand years (of the gods); the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   69

इतरेषु ससंध्येषु ससंध्यांशेषु च त्रिषु । एकापायेन वर्तन्ते सहस्राणि शतानि च ॥ १.७०॥
itareṣu sasaṃdhyeṣu sasaṃdhyāṃśeṣu ca triṣu | ekāpāyena vartante sahasrāṇi śatāni ca || 1.70||
1.70. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one (in each).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   70

यदेतत्परिसङ्ख्यातमादावेव चतुर्युगम् । एतद्द्वादशसाहस्रं देवानां युगमुच्यते ॥ १.७१॥
yadetatparisaṅkhyātamādāveva caturyugam | etaddvādaśasāhasraṃ devānāṃ yugamucyate || 1.71||
1.71. These twelve thousand (years) which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four (human) ages, are called one age of the gods.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   71

दैविकानां युगानां तु सहस्रं परिसङ्ख्यया । ब्राह्ममेकमहर्ज्ञेयं तावती रात्रिरेव च ॥ १.७२॥
daivikānāṃ yugānāṃ tu sahasraṃ parisaṅkhyayā | brāhmamekamaharjñeyaṃ tāvatī rātrireva ca || 1.72||
1.72. But know that the sum of one thousand ages of the gods (makes) one day of Brahman, and that his night has the same length.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   72

तद्वै युगसहस्रान्तं ब्राह्मं पुण्यमहर्विदुः । रात्रिं च तावतीमेव तेऽहोरात्रविदो जनाः ॥ १.७३॥
tadvai yugasahasrāntaṃ brāhmaṃ puṇyamaharviduḥ | rātriṃ ca tāvatīmeva te'horātravido janāḥ || 1.73||
1.73. Those (only, who) know that the holy day of Brahman, indeed, ends after (the completion of) one thousand ages (of the gods) and that his night lasts as long, (are really) men acquainted with (the length of) days and nights.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   73

तस्य सोऽहर्निशस्यान्ते प्रसुप्तः प्रतिबुध्यते । प्रतिबुद्धश्च सृजति मनः सदसदात्मकम् ॥ १.७४॥
tasya so'harniśasyānte prasuptaḥ pratibudhyate | pratibuddhaśca sṛjati manaḥ sadasadātmakam || 1.74||
1.74. At the end of that day and night he who was asleep, awakes and, after awaking, creates mind, which is both real and unreal.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   74

मनः सृष्टिं विकुरुते चोद्यमानं सिसृक्षया । आकाशं जायते तस्मात्तस्य शब्दं गुणं विदुः ॥ १.७५॥
manaḥ sṛṣṭiṃ vikurute codyamānaṃ sisṛkṣayā | ākāśaṃ jāyate tasmāttasya śabdaṃ guṇaṃ viduḥ || 1.75||
1.75. Mind, impelled by (Brahman’s) desire to create, performs the work of creation by modifying itself, thence ether is produced; they declare that sound is the quality of the latter.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   75

आकाशात्तु विकुर्वाणात्सर्वगन्धवहः शुचिः । बलवाञ्जायते वायुः स वै स्पर्शगुणो मतः ॥ १.७६॥
ākāśāttu vikurvāṇātsarvagandhavahaḥ śuciḥ | balavāñjāyate vāyuḥ sa vai sparśaguṇo mataḥ || 1.76||
1.76. But from ether, modifying itself, springs the pure, powerful wind, the vehicle of all perfumes; that is held to possess the quality of touch.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   76

वायोरपि विकुर्वाणाद्विरोचिष्णु तमोनुदम् । ज्योतिरुत्पद्यते भास्वत्तद्रूपगुणमुच्यते ॥ १.७७॥
vāyorapi vikurvāṇādvirociṣṇu tamonudam | jyotirutpadyate bhāsvattadrūpaguṇamucyate || 1.77||
1.77. Next from wind modifying itself, proceeds the brilliant light, which illuminates and dispels darkness; that is declared to possess the quality of colour;

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   77

ज्योतिषश्च विकुर्वाणादापो रसगुणाः स्मृताः । अद्भ्यो गन्धगुणा भूमिरित्येषा सृष्टिरादितः ॥ १.७८॥
jyotiṣaśca vikurvāṇādāpo rasaguṇāḥ smṛtāḥ | adbhyo gandhaguṇā bhūmirityeṣā sṛṣṭirāditaḥ || 1.78||
1.78. And from light, modifying itself, (is produced) water, possessing the quality of taste, from water earth which has the quality of smell; such is the creation in the beginning.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   78

यद्प्राग्द्वादशसाहस्रमुदितं दैविकं युगम् । तदेकसप्ततिगुणं मन्वन्तरमिहोच्यते ॥ १.७९॥
yadprāgdvādaśasāhasramuditaṃ daivikaṃ yugam | tadekasaptatiguṇaṃ manvantaramihocyate || 1.79||
1.79. The before-mentioned age of the gods, (or) twelve thousand (of their years), being multiplied by seventy- one, (constitutes what) is here named the period of a Manu (Manvantara).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   79

मन्वन्तराण्यसङ्ख्यानि सर्गः संहार एव च । क्रीडन्निवैतत्कुरुते परमेष्ठी पुनः पुनः ॥ १.८०॥
manvantarāṇyasaṅkhyāni sargaḥ saṃhāra eva ca | krīḍannivaitatkurute parameṣṭhī punaḥ punaḥ || 1.80||
1.80. The Manvantaras, the creations and destructions (of the world, are) numberless; sporting, as it were, Brahman repeats this again and again.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   80

चतुष्पात्सकलो धर्मः सत्यं चैव कृते युगे । नाधर्मेणागमः कश्चिन् मनुष्यान् उपवर्तते ॥ १.८१॥
catuṣpātsakalo dharmaḥ satyaṃ caiva kṛte yuge | nādharmeṇāgamaḥ kaścin manuṣyān upavartate || 1.81||
1.81. In the Krita age Dharma is four-footed and entire, and (so is) Truth; nor does any gain accrue to men by unrighteousness.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   81

इतरेष्वागमाद्धर्मः पादशस्त्ववरोपितः । चौरिकानृतमायाभिर्धर्मश्चापैति पादशः ॥ १.८२॥
itareṣvāgamāddharmaḥ pādaśastvavaropitaḥ | caurikānṛtamāyābhirdharmaścāpaiti pādaśaḥ || 1.82||
1.82. In the other (three ages), by reason of (unjust) gains (agama), Dharma is deprived successively of one foot, and through (the prevalence of) theft, falsehood, and fraud the merit (gained by men) is diminished by one fourth (in each).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   82

अरोगाः सर्वसिद्धार्थाश्चतुर्वर्षशतायुषः । कृते त्रेतादिषु वयो ह्रसति पादशः ॥ १.८३॥
arogāḥ sarvasiddhārthāścaturvarṣaśatāyuṣaḥ | kṛte tretādiṣu vayo hrasati pādaśaḥ || 1.83||
1.83. (Men are) free from disease, accomplish all their aims, and live four hundred years in the Krita age, but in the Treta and (in each of) the succeeding (ages) their life is lessened by one quarter.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   83

वेदोक्तमायुर्मर्त्यानामाशिषश्चैव कर्मणाम् । फलन्त्यनुयुगं लोके प्रभावश्च शरीरिणाम् ॥ १.८४॥
vedoktamāyurmartyānāmāśiṣaścaiva karmaṇām | phalantyanuyugaṃ loke prabhāvaśca śarīriṇām || 1.84||
1.84. The life of mortals, mentioned in the Veda, the desired results of sacrificial rites and the (supernatural) power of embodied (spirits) are fruits proportioned among men according to (the character of) the age.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   84

अन्ये कृतयुगे धर्मास्त्रेतायां द्वापरेऽपरे । अन्ये कलियुगे नॄणां युगह्रासानुरूपतः ॥ १.८५॥
anye kṛtayuge dharmāstretāyāṃ dvāpare'pare | anye kaliyuge nṝṇāṃ yugahrāsānurūpataḥ || 1.85||
1.85. One set of duties (is prescribed) for men in the Krita age, different ones in the Treta and in the Dvapara, and (again) another (set) in the Kali, in a proportion as (those) ages decrease in length.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   85

तपः परं कृतयुगे त्रेतायां ज्ञानमुच्यते । द्वापरे यज्ञमेवाहुर्दानमेकं कलौ युगे ॥ १.८६॥
tapaḥ paraṃ kṛtayuge tretāyāṃ jñānamucyate | dvāpare yajñamevāhurdānamekaṃ kalau yuge || 1.86||
1.86. In the Krita age the chief (virtue) is declared to be (the performance of) austerities, in the Treta (divine) knowledge, in the Dvapara (the performance of) sacrifices, in the Kali liberality alone.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   86

सर्वस्यास्य तु सर्गस्य गुप्त्यर्थं स महाद्युतिः । मुखबाहूरुपज्जानां पृथक्कर्माण्यकल्पयत् ॥ १.८७॥
sarvasyāsya tu sargasya guptyarthaṃ sa mahādyutiḥ | mukhabāhūrupajjānāṃ pṛthakkarmāṇyakalpayat || 1.87||
1.87. But in order to protect this universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned separate (duties and) occupations to those who sprang from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   87

अध्यापनमध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहं चैव ब्राह्मणानामकल्पयत् ॥ १.८८॥
adhyāpanamadhyayanaṃ yajanaṃ yājanaṃ tathā | dānaṃ pratigrahaṃ caiva brāhmaṇānāmakalpayat || 1.88||
1.88. To Brahmanas he assigned teaching and studying (the Veda), sacrificing for their own benefit and for others, giving and accepting (of alms).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   88

प्रजानां रक्षणं दानमिज्याऽध्ययनमेव च । विषयेष्वप्रसक्तिश्च क्षत्रियस्य समादिशत् ॥ १.८९॥
prajānāṃ rakṣaṇaṃ dānamijyā'dhyayanameva ca | viṣayeṣvaprasaktiśca kṣatriyasya samādiśat || 1.89||
1.89. The Kshatriya he commanded to protect the people, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study (the Veda), and to abstain from attaching himself to sensual pleasures;

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   89

पशूनां रक्षणं दानमिज्याऽध्ययनमेव च । वणिक्पथं कुसीदं च वैश्यस्य कृषिमेव च ॥ १.९०॥
paśūnāṃ rakṣaṇaṃ dānamijyā'dhyayanameva ca | vaṇikpathaṃ kusīdaṃ ca vaiśyasya kṛṣimeva ca || 1.90||
1.90. The Vaisya to tend cattle, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study (the Veda), to trade, to lend money, and to cultivate land.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   90

एकमेव तु शूद्रस्य प्रभुः कर्म समादिशत् । एतेषामेव वर्णानां शुश्रूषामनसूयया ॥ १.९१॥
ekameva tu śūdrasya prabhuḥ karma samādiśat | eteṣāmeva varṇānāṃ śuśrūṣāmanasūyayā || 1.91||
1.91. One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Sudra, to serve meekly even these (other) three castes.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   91

ऊर्ध्वं नाभेर्मेध्यतरः पुरुषः परिकीर्तितः । तस्मान् मेध्यतमं त्वस्य मुखमुक्तं स्वयम्भुवा ॥ १.९२॥
ūrdhvaṃ nābhermedhyataraḥ puruṣaḥ parikīrtitaḥ | tasmān medhyatamaṃ tvasya mukhamuktaṃ svayambhuvā || 1.92||
1.92. Man is stated to be purer above the navel (than below); hence the Self-existent (Svayambhu) has declared the purest (part) of him (to be) his mouth.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   92

उत्तमाङ्गोद्भवाज्ज्यैष्ठ्याद्ब्रह्मणश्चैव धारणात् । सर्वस्यैवास्य सर्गस्य धर्मतो ब्राह्मणः प्रभुः ॥ १.९३॥
uttamāṅgodbhavājjyaiṣṭhyādbrahmaṇaścaiva dhāraṇāt | sarvasyaivāsya sargasya dharmato brāhmaṇaḥ prabhuḥ || 1.93||
1.93. As the Brahmana sprang from (Brahman’s) mouth, as he was the first-born, and as he possesses the Veda, he is by right the lord of this whole creation.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   93

तं हि स्वयम्भूः स्वादास्यात्तपस्तप्त्वाऽदितोऽसृजत् । हव्यकव्याभिवाह्याय सर्वस्यास्य च गुप्तये ॥ १.९४॥
taṃ hi svayambhūḥ svādāsyāttapastaptvā'dito'sṛjat | havyakavyābhivāhyāya sarvasyāsya ca guptaye || 1.94||
1.94. For the Self-existent (Svayambhu), having performed austerities, produced him first from his own mouth, in order that the offerings might be conveyed to the gods and manes and that this universe might be preserved.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   94

यस्यास्येन सदाऽश्नन्ति हव्यानि त्रिदिवौकसः । कव्यानि चैव पितरः किं भूतमधिकं ततः ॥ १.९५॥
yasyāsyena sadā'śnanti havyāni tridivaukasaḥ | kavyāni caiva pitaraḥ kiṃ bhūtamadhikaṃ tataḥ || 1.95||
1.95. What created being can surpass him, through whose mouth the gods continually consume the sacrificial viands and the manes the offerings to the dead?

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   95

भूतानां प्राणिनः श्रेष्ठाः प्राणिनां बुद्धिजीविनः । बुद्धिमत्सु नराः श्रेष्ठा नरेषु ब्राह्मणाः स्मृताः ॥ १.९६॥
bhūtānāṃ prāṇinaḥ śreṣṭhāḥ prāṇināṃ buddhijīvinaḥ | buddhimatsu narāḥ śreṣṭhā nareṣu brāhmaṇāḥ smṛtāḥ || 1.96||
1.96. Of created beings the most excellent are said to be those which are animated; of the animated, those which subsist by intelligence; of the intelligent, mankind; and of men, the Brahmanas;

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   96

ब्राह्मणेषु च विद्वांसो विद्वत्सु कृतबुद्धयः । कृतबुद्धिषु कर्तारः कर्तृषु ब्रह्मवेदिनः ॥ १.९७॥
brāhmaṇeṣu ca vidvāṃso vidvatsu kṛtabuddhayaḥ | kṛtabuddhiṣu kartāraḥ kartṛṣu brahmavedinaḥ || 1.97||
1.97. Of Brahmanas, those learned (in the Veda); of the learned, those who recognise (the necessity and the manner of performing the prescribed duties); of those who possess this knowledge, those who perform them; of the performers, those who know the Brahman.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   97

उत्पत्तिरेव विप्रस्य मूर्तिर्धर्मस्य शाश्वती । स हि धर्मार्थमुत्पन्नो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥ १.९८॥
utpattireva viprasya mūrtirdharmasya śāśvatī | sa hi dharmārthamutpanno brahmabhūyāya kalpate || 1.98||
1.98. The very birth of a Brahmana is an eternal incarnation of the sacred law; for he is born to (fulfil) the sacred law, and becomes one with Brahman.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   98

ब्राह्मणो जायमानो हि पृथिव्यामधिजायते । ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां धर्मकोशस्य गुप्तये ॥ १.९९॥
brāhmaṇo jāyamāno hi pṛthivyāmadhijāyate | īśvaraḥ sarvabhūtānāṃ dharmakośasya guptaye || 1.99||
1.99. A Brahmana, coming into existence, is born as the highest on earth, the lord of all created beings, for the protection of the treasury of the law.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   99

सर्वं स्वं ब्राह्मणस्येदं यत्किं चित्जगतीगतम् । श्रैष्ठ्येनाभिजनेनेदं सर्वं वै ब्राह्मणोऽर्हति ॥ १.१००॥
sarvaṃ svaṃ brāhmaṇasyedaṃ yatkiṃ citjagatīgatam | śraiṣṭhyenābhijanenedaṃ sarvaṃ vai brāhmaṇo'rhati || 1.100||
1.100. Whatever exists in the world is, the property of the Brahmana; on account of the excellence of his origin The Brahmana is, indeed, entitled to all.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   100

स्वमेव ब्राह्मणो भुङ्क्ते स्वं वस्ते स्वं ददाति च । आनृशंस्याद्ब्राह्मणस्य भुञ्जते हीतरे जनाः ॥ १.१०१॥
svameva brāhmaṇo bhuṅkte svaṃ vaste svaṃ dadāti ca | ānṛśaṃsyādbrāhmaṇasya bhuñjate hītare janāḥ || 1.101||
1.101. The Brahmana eats but his own food, wears but his own apparel, bestows but his own in alms; other mortals subsist through the benevolence of the Brahmana.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   101

तस्य कर्मविवेकार्थं शेषाणामनुपूर्वशः । स्वायम्भुवो मनुर्धीमानिदं शास्त्रमकल्पयत् ॥ १.१०२॥
tasya karmavivekārthaṃ śeṣāṇāmanupūrvaśaḥ | svāyambhuvo manurdhīmānidaṃ śāstramakalpayat || 1.102||
1.102. In order to clearly settle his duties those of the other (castes) according to their order, wise Manu sprung from the Self-existent, composed these Institutes (of the sacred Law).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   102

विदुषा ब्राह्मणेनैदमध्येतव्यं प्रयत्नतः । शिश्येभ्यश्च प्रवक्तव्यं सम्यग़् नान्येन केन चित् ॥ १.१०३॥
viduṣā brāhmaṇenaidamadhyetavyaṃ prayatnataḥ | śiśyebhyaśca pravaktavyaṃ samyaga़् nānyena kena cit || 1.103||
1.103. A learned Brahmana must carefully study them, and he must duly instruct his pupils in them, but nobody else (shall do it).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   103

इदं शास्त्रमधीयानो ब्राह्मणः शंसितव्रतः । मनोवाक्देहजैर्नित्यं कर्मदोषैर्न लिप्यते ॥ १.१०४॥
idaṃ śāstramadhīyāno brāhmaṇaḥ śaṃsitavrataḥ | manovākdehajairnityaṃ karmadoṣairna lipyate || 1.104||
1.104. A Brahmana who studies these Institutes (and) faithfully fulfils the duties (prescribed therein), is never tainted by sins, arising from thoughts, words, or deeds

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   104

पुनाति पङ्क्तिवंश्यांश्च सप्त सप्त परावरान् । पृथिवीमपि चैवेमां कृत्स्नामेकोऽपि सोऽर्हति ॥ १.१०५॥
punāti paṅktivaṃśyāṃśca sapta sapta parāvarān | pṛthivīmapi caivemāṃ kṛtsnāmeko'pi so'rhati || 1.105||
1.105. He sanctifies any company (which he may enter), seven ancestors and seven descendants, and he alone deserves (to possess) this whole earth.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   105

इदं स्वस्त्ययनं श्रेष्ठमिदं बुद्धिविवर्धनम् । इदं यशस्यं सततम् इदं निःश्रेयसं परम् ॥ १.१०६॥
idaṃ svastyayanaṃ śreṣṭhamidaṃ buddhivivardhanam | idaṃ yaśasyaṃ satatam idaṃ niḥśreyasaṃ param || 1.106||
1.106. (To study) this (work) is the best means of securing welfare, it increases understanding, it procures fame and long life, it (leads to) supreme bliss.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   106

अस्मिन् धर्मेऽखिलेनोक्तौ गुणदोषौ च कर्मणाम् । चतुर्णामपि वर्णानामाचारश्चैव शाश्वतः ॥ १.१०७॥
asmin dharme'khilenoktau guṇadoṣau ca karmaṇām | caturṇāmapi varṇānāmācāraścaiva śāśvataḥ || 1.107||
1.107. In this (work) the sacred law has been fully stated as well as the good and bad qualities of (human) actions and the immemorial rule of conduct, (to be followed) by all the four castes (varna).

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   107

आचारः परमो धर्मः श्रुत्योक्तः स्मार्त एव च । तस्मादस्मिन् सदा युक्तो नित्यं स्यादात्मवान् द्विजः ॥ १.१०८॥
ācāraḥ paramo dharmaḥ śrutyoktaḥ smārta eva ca | tasmādasmin sadā yukto nityaṃ syādātmavān dvijaḥ || 1.108||
1.108. The rule of conduct is transcendent law, whether it be taught in the revealed texts or in the sacred tradition; hence a twice-born man who possesses regard for himself, should be always careful to (follow) it.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   108

आचाराद्विच्युतो विप्रो न वेदफलमश्नुते । आचारेण तु संयुक्तः सम्पूर्णफलभाक्स्मृतः ॥ १.१०९॥
ācārādvicyuto vipro na vedaphalamaśnute | ācāreṇa tu saṃyuktaḥ sampūrṇaphalabhāksmṛtaḥ || 1.109||
1.109. A Brahmana who departs from the rule of conduct, does not reap the fruit of the Veda, but he who duly follows it, will obtain the full reward.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   109

एवमाचारतो दृष्ट्वा धर्मस्य मुनयो गतिम् । सर्वस्य तपसो मूलमाचारं जगृहुः परम् ॥ १.११०॥
evamācārato dṛṣṭvā dharmasya munayo gatim | sarvasya tapaso mūlamācāraṃ jagṛhuḥ param || 1.110||
1.110. The sages who saw that the sacred law is thus grounded on the rule of conduct, have taken good conduct to be the most excellent root of all austerity.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   110

जगतश्च समुत्पत्तिं संस्कारविधिमेव च । व्रतचर्यौपचारं च स्नानस्य च परं विधिम् ॥ १.१११॥
jagataśca samutpattiṃ saṃskāravidhimeva ca | vratacaryaupacāraṃ ca snānasya ca paraṃ vidhim || 1.111||
1.111. The creation of the universe, the rule of the sacraments, the ordinances of studentship, and the respectful behaviour (towards Gurus), the most excellent rule of bathing (on return from the teacher’s house),

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   111

दाराधिगमनं चैव विवाहानां च लक्षणम् । महायज्ञविधानं च श्राद्धकल्पं च शाश्वतम् ॥ १.११२॥
dārādhigamanaṃ caiva vivāhānāṃ ca lakṣaṇam | mahāyajñavidhānaṃ ca śrāddhakalpaṃ ca śāśvatam || 1.112||
1.112. (The law of) marriage and the description of the (various) marriage-rites, the regulations for the great sacrifices and the eternal rule of the funeral sacrifices,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   112

वृत्तीनां लक्षणं चैव स्नातकस्य व्रतानि च । भक्ष्याभक्ष्यं च शौचं च द्रव्याणां शुद्धिमेव च ॥ १.११३॥
vṛttīnāṃ lakṣaṇaṃ caiva snātakasya vratāni ca | bhakṣyābhakṣyaṃ ca śaucaṃ ca dravyāṇāṃ śuddhimeva ca || 1.113||
1.113. The description of the modes of (gaining) subsistence and the duties of a Snataka, (the rules regarding) lawful and forbidden food, the purification of men and of things,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   113

स्त्रीधर्मयोगं तापस्यं मोक्षं संन्यासमेव च । राज्ञश्च धर्ममखिलं कार्याणां च विनिर्णयम् ॥ १.११४॥
strīdharmayogaṃ tāpasyaṃ mokṣaṃ saṃnyāsameva ca | rājñaśca dharmamakhilaṃ kāryāṇāṃ ca vinirṇayam || 1.114||
1.114. The laws concerning women, (the law) of hermits, (the manner of gaining) final emancipation and (of) renouncing the world, the whole duty of a king and the manner of deciding lawsuits,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   114

साक्षिप्रश्नविधानं च धर्मं स्त्रीपुंसयोरपि । विभागधर्मं द्यूतं च कण्टकानां च शोधनम् ॥ १.११५॥
sākṣipraśnavidhānaṃ ca dharmaṃ strīpuṃsayorapi | vibhāgadharmaṃ dyūtaṃ ca kaṇṭakānāṃ ca śodhanam || 1.115||
1.115. The rules for the examination of witnesses, the laws concerning husband and wife, the law of (inheritance and) division, (the law concerning) gambling and the removal of (men nocuous like) thorns,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   115

वैश्यशूद्रोपचारं च सङ्कीर्णानां च सम्भवम् । आपद्धर्मं च वर्णानां प्रायश्चित्तविधिं तथा ॥ १.११६॥
vaiśyaśūdropacāraṃ ca saṅkīrṇānāṃ ca sambhavam | āpaddharmaṃ ca varṇānāṃ prāyaścittavidhiṃ tathā || 1.116||
1.116. (The law concerning) the behaviour of Vaisyas and Sudras, the origin of the mixed castes, the law for all castes in times of distress and the law of penances,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   116

संसारगमनं चैव त्रिविधं कर्मसम्भवम् । निःश्रेयसं कर्मणां च गुणदोषपरीक्षणम् ॥ १.११७॥
saṃsāragamanaṃ caiva trividhaṃ karmasambhavam | niḥśreyasaṃ karmaṇāṃ ca guṇadoṣaparīkṣaṇam || 1.117||
1.117. The threefold course of transmigrations, the result of (good or bad) actions, (the manner of attaining) supreme bliss and the examination of the good and bad qualities of actions,

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   117

देशधर्मान्जातिधर्मान् कुलधर्मांश्च शाश्वतान् । पाषण्डगणधर्मांश्च शास्त्रेऽस्मिन्नुक्तवान् मनुः ॥ १.११८॥
deśadharmānjātidharmān kuladharmāṃśca śāśvatān | pāṣaṇḍagaṇadharmāṃśca śāstre'sminnuktavān manuḥ || 1.118||
1.118. The primeval laws of countries, of castes (gati), of families, and the rules concerning heretics and companies (of traders and the like)- (all that) Manu has declared in these Institutes.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   118

यथैदमुक्तवांशास्त्रं पुरा पृष्टो मनुर्मया । तथैदं यूयमप्यद्य मत्सकाशान्निबोधत ॥ १.११९॥
yathaidamuktavāṃśāstraṃ purā pṛṣṭo manurmayā | tathaidaṃ yūyamapyadya matsakāśānnibodhata || 1.119||
1.119. As Manu, in reply to my questions, formerly promulgated these Institutes, even so learn ye also the (whole work) from me.

Adhyaya : 1

Shloka :   119

ॐ श्री परमात्मने नमः

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