Manu Smriti

Adhyaya 10

ॐ श्री परमात्मने नमः


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संस्कृत्म
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अधीयीरंस्त्रयो वर्णाः स्वकर्मस्था द्विजातयः । प्रब्रूयाद्ब्राह्मणस्त्वेषां नेतराविति निश्चयः ॥ १०.१॥
adhīyīraṃstrayo varṇāḥ svakarmasthā dvijātayaḥ | prabrūyādbrāhmaṇastveṣāṃ netarāviti niścayaḥ || 10.1||
10.1. Let the three twice-born castes (varna), discharging their (prescribed) duties, study (the Veda); but among them the Brahmana (alone) shall teach it, not the other two; that is an established rule.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   1

सर्वेषां ब्राह्मणो विद्याद्वृत्त्युपायान् यथाविधि । प्रब्रूयादितरेभ्यश्च स्वयं चैव तथा भवेत् ॥ १०.२॥
sarveṣāṃ brāhmaṇo vidyādvṛttyupāyān yathāvidhi | prabrūyāditarebhyaśca svayaṃ caiva tathā bhavet || 10.2||
10.2. The Brahmana must know the means of subsistence (prescribed) by law for all, instruct the others, and himself live according to (the law)

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   2

वैशेष्यात्प्रकृतिश्रैष्ठ्यान्नियमस्य च धारणात् । संस्कारस्य विशेषाच्च वर्णानां ब्राह्मणः प्रभुः ॥ १०.३॥
vaiśeṣyātprakṛtiśraiṣṭhyānniyamasya ca dhāraṇāt | saṃskārasya viśeṣācca varṇānāṃ brāhmaṇaḥ prabhuḥ || 10.3||
10.3. On account of his pre-eminence, on account of the superiority of his origin, on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules, and on account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) castes (varna).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   3

ब्राह्मणः क्षत्रियो वैश्यस्त्रयो वर्णा द्विजातयः । चतुर्थ एकजातिस्तु शूद्रो नास्ति तु पञ्चमः ॥ १०.४॥
brāhmaṇaḥ kṣatriyo vaiśyastrayo varṇā dvijātayaḥ | caturtha ekajātistu śūdro nāsti tu pañcamaḥ || 10.4||
10.4. Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya castes (varna) are the twice-born ones, but the fourth, the Sudra, has one birth only; there is no fifth (caste).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   4

सर्ववर्णेषु तुल्यासु पत्नीष्वक्षतयोनिषु । आनुलोम्येन सम्भूता जात्या ज्ञेयास्त एव ते ॥ १०.५॥
sarvavarṇeṣu tulyāsu patnīṣvakṣatayoniṣu | ānulomyena sambhūtā jātyā jñeyāsta eva te || 10.5||
10.5. In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers)

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   5

स्त्रीष्वनन्तरजातासु द्विजैरुत्पादितान् सुतान् । सदृशानेव तानाहुर्मातृदोषविगर्हितान् ॥ १०.६॥
strīṣvanantarajātāsu dvijairutpāditān sutān | sadṛśāneva tānāhurmātṛdoṣavigarhitān || 10.6||
10.6. Sons, begotten by twice-born man on wives of the next lower castes, they declare to be similar (to their fathers, but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   6

अनन्तरासु जातानां विधिरेष सनातनः । द्व्येकान्तरासु जातानां धर्म्यं विद्यादिमं विधिम् ॥ १०.७॥
anantarāsu jātānāṃ vidhireṣa sanātanaḥ | dvyekāntarāsu jātānāṃ dharmyaṃ vidyādimaṃ vidhim || 10.7||
10.7. Such is the eternal law concerning (children) born of wives one degree lower (than their husbands); know (that) the following rule (is applicable) to those born of women two or three degrees lower.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   7

ब्राह्मणाद्वैश्यकन्यायामम्बष्ठो नाम जायते । निषादः शूद्रकन्यायां यः पारशव उच्यते ॥ १०.८॥
brāhmaṇādvaiśyakanyāyāmambaṣṭho nāma jāyate | niṣādaḥ śūdrakanyāyāṃ yaḥ pāraśava ucyate || 10.8||
10.8. From a Brahmana a with the daughter of a Vaisya is born (a son) called an Ambashtha, with the daughter of a sudra a Nishada, who is also called Parasava.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   8

क्षत्रियात्शूद्रकन्यायां क्रूराचारविहारवान् । क्षत्रशूद्रवपुर्जन्तुरुग्रो नाम प्रजायते ॥ १०.९॥
kṣatriyātśūdrakanyāyāṃ krūrācāravihāravān | kṣatraśūdravapurjanturugro nāma prajāyate || 10.9||
10.9. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a Sudra springs a being, called Ugra, resembling both a Kshatriya and a Sudra, ferocious in his manners, and delighting in cruelty.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   9

विप्रस्य त्रिषु वर्णेषु नृपतेर्वर्णयोर्द्वयोः । वैश्यस्य वर्णे चैकस्मिन् षडेतेऽपसदाः स्मृताः ॥ १०.१०॥
viprasya triṣu varṇeṣu nṛpatervarṇayordvayoḥ | vaiśyasya varṇe caikasmin ṣaḍete'pasadāḥ smṛtāḥ || 10.10||
10.10. Children of a Brahmana by (women of) the three (lower) castes, of a Kshatriya by (wives of) the two (lower) castes, and of a Vaisya by (a wife of) the one caste (below him) are all six called base-born (apasada).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   10

क्षत्रियाद्विप्रकन्यायां सूतो भवति जातितः । वैश्यान् मागधवैदेहौ राजविप्राङ्गनासुतौ ॥ १०.११॥
kṣatriyādviprakanyāyāṃ sūto bhavati jātitaḥ | vaiśyān māgadhavaidehau rājaviprāṅganāsutau || 10.11||
10.11. From a Kshatriya by the daughter of a Brahmana is born (a son called) according to his caste (gati) a Suta; from a Vaisya by females of the royal and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   11

शूद्रादायोगवः क्षत्ता चण्डालश्चाधमो नृणाम् । वैश्यराजन्यविप्रासु जायन्ते वर्णसङ्कराः ॥ १०.१२॥
śūdrādāyogavaḥ kṣattā caṇḍālaścādhamo nṛṇām | vaiśyarājanyaviprāsu jāyante varṇasaṅkarāḥ || 10.12||
10.12. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men, by Vaisya, Kshatriya, and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe their origin to) a confusion of the castes.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   12

एकान्तरे त्वानुलोम्यादम्बष्ठोग्रौ यथा स्मृतौ । क्षत्तृवैदेहकौ तद्वत्प्रातिलोम्येऽपि जन्मनि ॥ १०.१३॥
ekāntare tvānulomyādambaṣṭhograu yathā smṛtau | kṣattṛvaidehakau tadvatprātilomye'pi janmani || 10.13||
10.13. As an Ambashtha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct order on (women) one degree lower (than their husbands) are declared (to be), even so are a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka, though they were born in the inverse order of the castes (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   13

पुत्रा येऽनन्तरस्त्रीजाः क्रमेणोक्ता द्विजन्मनाम् । ताननन्तरनाम्नस्तु मातृदोषात्प्रचक्षते ॥ १०.१४॥
putrā ye'nantarastrījāḥ krameṇoktā dvijanmanām | tānanantaranāmnastu mātṛdoṣātpracakṣate || 10.14||
10.14. Those sons of the twice-born, begotten on wives of the next lower castes, who have been enumerated in due order, they call by the name Anantaras (belonging to the next lower caste), on account of the blemish (inherent) in their mothers.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   14

ब्राह्मणादुग्रकन्यायामावृतो नाम जायते । आभीरोऽम्बष्ठकन्यायामायोगव्यां तु धिग्वणः ॥ १०.१५॥
brāhmaṇādugrakanyāyāmāvṛto nāma jāyate | ābhīro'mbaṣṭhakanyāyāmāyogavyāṃ tu dhigvaṇaḥ || 10.15||
10.15. A Brahmana begets on the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter of an Ambashtha an Abhira, but on a female of the Ayogava (caste) a Dhigvana.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   15

आयोगवश्च क्षत्ता च चण्डालश्चाधमो नृणाम् । प्रातिलोम्येन जायन्ते शूद्रादपसदास्त्रयः ॥ १०.१६॥
āyogavaśca kṣattā ca caṇḍālaścādhamo nṛṇām | prātilomyena jāyante śūdrādapasadāstrayaḥ || 10.16||
10.16. From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three base-born (sons, apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men;

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   16

वैश्यान् मागधवैदेहौ क्षत्रियात्सूत एव तु । प्रतीपमेते जायन्ते परेऽप्यपसदास्त्रयः ॥ १०.१७॥
vaiśyān māgadhavaidehau kṣatriyātsūta eva tu | pratīpamete jāyante pare'pyapasadāstrayaḥ || 10.17||
10.17. From a Vaisya are born in the inverse order of the castes a Magadha and a Vaideha, but from a Kshatriya a Suta only; these are three other base-born ones (apasada).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   17

जातो निषादात्शूद्रायां जात्या भवति पुक्कसः । शूद्राज्जातो निषाद्यां तु स वै कुक्कुटकः स्मृतः ॥ १०.१८॥
jāto niṣādātśūdrāyāṃ jātyā bhavati pukkasaḥ | śūdrājjāto niṣādyāṃ tu sa vai kukkuṭakaḥ smṛtaḥ || 10.18||
10.18. The son of a Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by caste (gati), but the son of a Sudra by a Nishada female is declared to be a Kukkutaka.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   18

क्षत्तुर्जातस्तथोग्रायां श्वपाक इति कीर्त्यते । वैदेहकेन त्वम्बष्ठ्यामुत्पन्नो वेण उच्यते ॥ १०.१९॥
kṣatturjātastathogrāyāṃ śvapāka iti kīrtyate | vaidehakena tvambaṣṭhyāmutpanno veṇa ucyate || 10.19||
10.19. Moreover, the son of by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka; but one begotten by a Vaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is named a Vena.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   19

द्विजातयः सवर्णासु जनयन्त्यव्रतांस्तु यान् । तान् सावित्रीपरिभ्रष्टान् व्रात्यानिति विनिर्दिशेत् ॥ १०.२०॥
dvijātayaḥ savarṇāsu janayantyavratāṃstu yān | tān sāvitrīparibhraṣṭān vrātyāniti vinirdiśet || 10.20||
10.20. Those (sons) whom the twice-born beget on wives of equal caste, but who, not fulfilling their sacred duties, are excluded from the Savitri, one must designate by the appellation Vratyas.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   20

व्रात्यात्तु जायते विप्रात्पापात्मा भृज्जकण्टकः । आवन्त्यवाटधानौ च पुष्पधः शैख एव च ॥ १०.२१॥
vrātyāttu jāyate viprātpāpātmā bhṛjjakaṇṭakaḥ | āvantyavāṭadhānau ca puṣpadhaḥ śaikha eva ca || 10.21||
10.21. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the wicked Bhriggakantaka, the Avantya, the Vatadhana, the Pushpadha, and the Saikha.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   21

झल्लो मल्लश्च राजन्याद्व्रात्यात्लिच्छविरेव च । नटश्च करणश्चैव खसो द्रविड एव च ॥ १०.२२॥
jhallo mallaśca rājanyādvrātyātlicchavireva ca | naṭaśca karaṇaścaiva khaso draviḍa eva ca || 10.22||
10.22. From a Vratya (of the) Kshatriya (caste), the Ghalla, the Malla, the Likkhivi, the Nata, the Karana, the Khasa, and the Dravida.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   22

वैश्यात्तु जायते व्रात्यात्सुधन्वाऽचार्य एव च । कारुषश्च विजन्मा च मैत्रः सात्वत एव च ॥ १०.२३॥
vaiśyāttu jāyate vrātyātsudhanvā'cārya eva ca | kāruṣaśca vijanmā ca maitraḥ sātvata eva ca || 10.23||
10.23. From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (caste) are born a Sudhanvan, an Akarya, a Karusha, a Viganman, a Maitra, and a Satvata.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   23

व्यभिचारेण वर्णानामवेद्यावेदनेन च । स्वकर्मणां च त्यागेन जायन्ते वर्णसङ्कराः ॥ १०.२४॥
vyabhicāreṇa varṇānāmavedyāvedanena ca | svakarmaṇāṃ ca tyāgena jāyante varṇasaṅkarāḥ || 10.24||
10.24. By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) castes, by marriages with women who ought not to be married, and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion the castes.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   24

सङ्कीर्णयोनयो ये तु प्रतिलोमानुलोमजाः । अन्योन्यव्यतिषक्ताश्च तान् प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ॥ १०.२५॥
saṅkīrṇayonayo ye tu pratilomānulomajāḥ | anyonyavyatiṣaktāśca tān pravakṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ || 10.25||
10.25. I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin, who are born of Anulomas and of Pratilomas, and (thus) are mutually connected.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   25

सूतो वैदेहकश्चैव चण्डालश्च नराधमः । मागधः तथाऽयोगव एव च क्षत्तृजातिश्च ॥ १०.२६॥
sūto vaidehakaścaiva caṇḍālaśca narādhamaḥ | māgadhaḥ tathā'yogava eva ca kṣattṛjātiśca || 10.26||
10.26. The Suta, the Vaidehaka, the Kandala, that lowest of mortals, the Magadha, he of the Kshattri caste (gati), and the Ayogava

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   26

एते षट् सदृशान् वर्णाञ्जनयन्ति स्वयोनिषु । मातृजात्याः प्रसूयन्ते प्रवारासु च योनिषु ॥ १०.२७॥
ete ṣaṭ sadṛśān varṇāñjanayanti svayoniṣu | mātṛjātyāḥ prasūyante pravārāsu ca yoniṣu || 10.27||
10.27. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna) on women of their own (caste), they (also) produce (the like) with females of their mother’s caste (gati), and with females (of) higher ones.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   27

यथा त्रयाणां वर्णानां द्वयोरात्माऽस्य जायते । आनन्तर्यात्स्वयोन्यां तु तथा बाह्येष्वपि क्रमः ॥ १०.२८॥
yathā trayāṇāṃ varṇānāṃ dvayorātmā'sya jāyate | ānantaryātsvayonyāṃ tu tathā bāhyeṣvapi kramaḥ || 10.28||
10.28. As a (Brahmana) begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice-born castes a son similar to) himself, (but inferior) on account of the lower degree (of the mother), and (one equal to himself) on a female of his own race, even so is the order in the case of the excluded (races, vahya).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   28

ते चापि बाह्यान् सुबहूंस्ततोऽप्यधिकदूषितान् । परस्परस्य दारेषु जनयन्ति विगर्हितान् ॥ १०.२९॥
te cāpi bāhyān subahūṃstato'pyadhikadūṣitān | parasparasya dāreṣu janayanti vigarhitān || 10.29||
10.29. Those (six mentioned above) also beget, the one on the females of the other, a great many (kinds of) despicable (sons), even more sinful than their (fathers), and excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   29

यथैव शूद्रो ब्राह्मण्यां बाह्यं जन्तुं प्रसूयते । तथा बाह्यतरं बाह्यश्चातुर्वर्ण्ये प्रसूयते ॥ १०.३०॥
yathaiva śūdro brāhmaṇyāṃ bāhyaṃ jantuṃ prasūyate | tathā bāhyataraṃ bāhyaścāturvarṇye prasūyate || 10.30||
10.30. Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a being excluded (from the Aryan community), even so (a person himself) excluded pro creates with (females of) the four castes (varna, sons) more (worthy of being) excluded (than he himself).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   30

प्रतिकूलं वर्तमाना बाह्या बाह्यतरान् पुनः । हीना हीनान् प्रसूयन्ते वर्णान् पञ्चदशैव तु ॥ १०.३१॥
pratikūlaṃ vartamānā bāhyā bāhyatarān punaḥ | hīnā hīnān prasūyante varṇān pañcadaśaiva tu || 10.31||
10.31. But men excluded (by the Aryans, vahya), who approach females of higher rank, beget races (varna) still more worthy to be excluded, low men (hina) still lower races, even fifteen (in number).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   31

प्रसाधनोपचारज्ञमदासं दासजीवनम् । दास्यजीविनं सैरन्ध्रं वागुरावृत्तिं सूते दस्युरयोगवे ॥ १०.३२॥
prasādhanopacārajñamadāsaṃ dāsajīvanam | dāsyajīvinaṃ sairandhraṃ vāgurāvṛttiṃ sūte dasyurayogave || 10.32||
10.32. A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a Sairandhra, who is skilled in adorning and attending (his master), who, (though) not a slave, lives like a slave, (or) subsists by snaring (animals).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   32

मैत्रेयकं तु वैदेहो माधूकं सम्प्रसूयते । नॄन् प्रशंसत्यजस्रं यो घण्टाताडोऽरुणोदये ॥ १०.३३॥
maitreyakaṃ tu vaideho mādhūkaṃ samprasūyate | nṝn praśaṃsatyajasraṃ yo ghaṇṭātāḍo'ruṇodaye || 10.33||
10.33. A Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, ringing a bell at the appearance of dawn, continually. praises (great) men.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   33

निषादो मार्गवं सूते दासं नौकर्मजीविनम् । कैवर्तमिति यं प्राहुरार्यावर्तनिवासिनः ॥ १०.३४॥
niṣādo mārgavaṃ sūte dāsaṃ naukarmajīvinam | kaivartamiti yaṃ prāhurāryāvartanivāsinaḥ || 10.34||
10.34. A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by working as a boatman, (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a Kaivarta.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   34

मृतवस्त्रभृत्स्वनार्याषु गर्हितान्नाशनासु च । भवन्त्यायोगवीष्वेते जातिहीनाः पृथक्त्रयः ॥ १०.३५॥
mṛtavastrabhṛtsvanāryāṣu garhitānnāśanāsu ca | bhavantyāyogavīṣvete jātihīnāḥ pṛthaktrayaḥ || 10.35||
10.35. Those three base-born ones are severally begot on Ayogava women, who wear the clothes of the dead, are wicked, and eat reprehensible food.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   35

कारावरो निषादात्तु चर्मकारं प्रसूयते । वैदेहिकादन्ध्रमेदौ बहिर्ग्रामप्रतिश्रयौ ॥ १०.३६॥
kārāvaro niṣādāttu carmakāraṃ prasūyate | vaidehikādandhramedau bahirgrāmapratiśrayau || 10.36||
10.36. From a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste) a Karavara, who works in leather; and from a Vaidehaka (by women of the Karavara and Nishada castes), an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the village.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   36

चण्डालात्पाण्डुसोपाकस्त्वक्सारव्यवहारवान् । आहिण्डिको निषादेन वैदेह्यामेव जायते ॥ १०.३७॥
caṇḍālātpāṇḍusopākastvaksāravyavahāravān | āhiṇḍiko niṣādena vaidehyāmeva jāyate || 10.37||
10.37. From a Kandala by a Vaideha woman is born a Pandusopaka, who deals in cane; from a Nishada (by the same) an Ahindika.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   37

चण्डालेन तु सोपाको मूलव्यसनवृत्तिमान् । पुल्कस्यां जायते पापः सदा सज्जनगर्हितः ॥ १०.३८॥
caṇḍālena tu sopāko mūlavyasanavṛttimān | pulkasyāṃ jāyate pāpaḥ sadā sajjanagarhitaḥ || 10.38||
10.38. But from a Kandala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka, who lives by the occupations of his sire, and is ever despised by good men.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   38

निषादस्त्री तु चण्डालात्पुत्रमन्त्यावसायिनम् । श्मशानगोचरं सूते बाह्यानामपि गर्हितम् ॥ १०.३९॥
niṣādastrī tu caṇḍālātputramantyāvasāyinam | śmaśānagocaraṃ sūte bāhyānāmapi garhitam || 10.39||
10.39. A Nishada woman bears to a Kandala a son (called) Antyavasayin, employed in burial-grounds, and despised even by those excluded (from the Aryan community).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   39

सङ्करे जातयस्त्वेताः पितृमातृप्रदर्शिताः । प्रच्छन्ना वा प्रकाशा वा वेदितव्याः स्वकर्मभिः ॥ १०.४०॥
saṅkare jātayastvetāḥ pitṛmātṛpradarśitāḥ | pracchannā vā prakāśā vā veditavyāḥ svakarmabhiḥ || 10.40||
10.40. These races, (which originate) in a confusion (of the castes and) have been described according to their fathers and mothers, may be known by their occupations, whether they conceal or openly show themselves.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   40

स्वजातिजानन्तरजाः षट् सुता द्विजधर्मिणः । शूद्राणां तु सधर्माणः सर्वेऽपध्वंसजाः स्मृताः ॥ १०.४१॥
svajātijānantarajāḥ ṣaṭ sutā dvijadharmiṇaḥ | śūdrāṇāṃ tu sadharmāṇaḥ sarve'padhvaṃsajāḥ smṛtāḥ || 10.41||
10.41. Six sons, begotten (by Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower castes (Anantara), have the duties of twice-born men; but all those born in consequence of a violation (of the law) are, as regards their duties, equal to Sudras.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   41

तपोबीजप्रभावैस्तु ते गच्छन्ति युगे युगे । उत्कर्षं चापकर्षं च मनुष्येष्विह जन्मतः ॥ १०.४२॥
tapobījaprabhāvaistu te gacchanti yuge yuge | utkarṣaṃ cāpakarṣaṃ ca manuṣyeṣviha janmataḥ || 10.42||
10.42. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang), these (races) obtain here among men more exalted or lower rank in successive births.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   42

शनकैस्तु क्रियालोपादिमाः क्षत्रियजातयः । वृषलत्वं गता लोके ब्राह्मणातिक्रमेण च ॥ १०.४३॥
śanakaistu kriyālopādimāḥ kṣatriyajātayaḥ | vṛṣalatvaṃ gatā loke brāhmaṇātikrameṇa ca || 10.43||
10.43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras;

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   43

पुण्ड्रकाश्चोडद्रविडाः काम्बोजा यवनाः शकाः । पारदापह्लवाश्चीनाः किराता दरदाः खशाः ॥ १०.४४॥
puṇḍrakāścoḍadraviḍāḥ kāmbojā yavanāḥ śakāḥ | pāradāpahlavāścīnāḥ kirātā daradāḥ khaśāḥ || 10.44||
10.44. (Viz.) the Paundrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   44

मुखबाहूरुपद्जानां या लोके जातयो बहिः । म्लेच्छवाचश्चार्यवाचः सर्वे ते दस्यवः स्मृताः ॥ १०.४५॥
mukhabāhūrupadjānāṃ yā loke jātayo bahiḥ | mlecchavācaścāryavācaḥ sarve te dasyavaḥ smṛtāḥ || 10.45||
10.45. All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   45

ये द्विजानामपसदा ये चापध्वंसजाः स्मृताः । ते निन्दितैर्वर्तयेयुर्द्विजानामेव कर्मभिः ॥ १०.४६॥
ye dvijānāmapasadā ye cāpadhvaṃsajāḥ smṛtāḥ | te ninditairvartayeyurdvijānāmeva karmabhiḥ || 10.46||
10.46. Those who have been mentioned as the base-born (offspring, apasada) of Aryans, or as produced in consequence of a violation (of the law, apadhvamsaga), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice- born.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   46

सूतानामश्वसारथ्यमम्बष्ठानां चिकित्सनम् । वैदेहकानां स्त्रीकार्यं मागधानां वणिक्पथः ॥ १०.४७॥
sūtānāmaśvasārathyamambaṣṭhānāṃ cikitsanam | vaidehakānāṃ strīkāryaṃ māgadhānāṃ vaṇikpathaḥ || 10.47||
10.47. To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses and of chariots; to Ambashthas, the art of healing; to Vaidehakas, the service of women; to Magadhas, trade;

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   47

मत्स्यघातो निषादानां त्वष्टिस्त्वायोगवस्य च । मेदान्ध्रचुञ्चुमद्गूनामारण्यपशुहिंसनम् ॥ १०.४८॥
matsyaghāto niṣādānāṃ tvaṣṭistvāyogavasya ca | medāndhracuñcumadgūnāmāraṇyapaśuhiṃsanam || 10.48||
10.48. Killing fish to Nishadas; carpenters’ work to the Ayogava; to Medas, Andhras, Kunkus, and Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals;

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   48

क्षत्त्र्युग्रपुक्कसानां तु बिलौकोवधबन्धनम् । धिग्वणानां चर्मकार्यं वेणानां भाण्डवादनम् ॥ १०.४९॥
kṣattryugrapukkasānāṃ tu bilaukovadhabandhanam | dhigvaṇānāṃ carmakāryaṃ veṇānāṃ bhāṇḍavādanam || 10.49||
10.49. To Kshattris, Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) living in holes; to Dhigvanas, working in leather; to Venas, playing drums.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   49

चैत्यद्रुमश्मशानेषु शैलेषूपवनेषु च । वसेयुरेते विज्ञाता वर्तयन्तः स्वकर्मभिः ॥ १०.५०॥
caityadrumaśmaśāneṣu śaileṣūpavaneṣu ca | vaseyurete vijñātā vartayantaḥ svakarmabhiḥ || 10.50||
10.50. Near well-known trees and burial-grounds, on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes) dwell, known (by certain marks), and subsisting by their peculiar occupations.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   50

चण्डालश्वपचानां तु बहिर्ग्रामात्प्रतिश्रयः । अपपात्राश्च कर्तव्या धनमेषां श्वगर्दभम् ॥ १०.५१॥
caṇḍālaśvapacānāṃ tu bahirgrāmātpratiśrayaḥ | apapātrāśca kartavyā dhanameṣāṃ śvagardabham || 10.51||
10.51. But the dwellings of Kandalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, and their wealth (shall be) dogs and donkeys.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   51

वासांसि मृतचैलानि भिन्नभाण्डेषु भोजनम् । कार्ष्णायसमलङ्कारः परिव्रज्या च नित्यशः ॥ १०.५२॥
vāsāṃsi mṛtacailāni bhinnabhāṇḍeṣu bhojanam | kārṣṇāyasamalaṅkāraḥ parivrajyā ca nityaśaḥ || 10.52||
10.52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   52

न तैः समयमन्विच्छेत्पुरुषो धर्ममाचरन् । व्यवहारो मिथस्तेषां विवाहः सदृशैः सह ॥ १०.५३॥
na taiḥ samayamanvicchetpuruṣo dharmamācaran | vyavahāro mithasteṣāṃ vivāhaḥ sadṛśaiḥ saha || 10.53||
10.53. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with their equals.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   53

अन्नमेषां पराधीनं देयं स्याद्भिन्नभाजने । रात्रौ न विचरेयुस्ते ग्रामेषु नगरेषु च ॥ १०.५४॥
annameṣāṃ parādhīnaṃ deyaṃ syādbhinnabhājane | rātrau na vicareyuste grāmeṣu nagareṣu ca || 10.54||
10.54. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   54

दिवा चरेयुः कार्यार्थं चिह्निता राजशासनैः । अबान्धवं शवं चैव निर्हरेयुरिति स्थितिः ॥ १०.५५॥
divā careyuḥ kāryārthaṃ cihnitā rājaśāsanaiḥ | abāndhavaṃ śavaṃ caiva nirhareyuriti sthitiḥ || 10.55||
10.55. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the king’s command, and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   55

वध्यांश्च हन्युः सततं यथाशास्त्रं नृपाज्ञया । वध्यवासांसि गृह्णीयुः शय्याश्चाभरणानि च ॥ १०.५६॥
vadhyāṃśca hanyuḥ satataṃ yathāśāstraṃ nṛpājñayā | vadhyavāsāṃsi gṛhṇīyuḥ śayyāścābharaṇāni ca || 10.56||
10.56. By the king’s order they shall always execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of (such) criminals.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   56

वर्णापेतमविज्ञातं नरं कलुषयोनिजम् । आर्यरूपमिवानार्यं कर्मभिः स्वैर्विभावयेत् ॥ १०.५७॥
varṇāpetamavijñātaṃ naraṃ kaluṣayonijam | āryarūpamivānāryaṃ karmabhiḥ svairvibhāvayet || 10.57||
10.57. A man of impure origin, who belongs not to any caste, (varna, but whose character is) not known, who, (though) not an Aryan, has the appearance of an Aryan, one may discover by his acts.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   57

अनार्यता निष्ठुरता क्रूरता निष्क्रियात्मता । पुरुषं व्यञ्जयन्तीह लोके कलुषयोनिजम् ॥ १०.५८॥
anāryatā niṣṭhuratā krūratā niṣkriyātmatā | puruṣaṃ vyañjayantīha loke kaluṣayonijam || 10.58||
10.58. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan, harshness, cruelty, and habitual neglect of the prescribed duties betray in this world a man of impure origin.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   58

पित्र्यं वा भजते शीलं मातुर्वोभयमेव वा । न कथं चन दुर्योनिः प्रकृतिं स्वां नियच्छति ॥ १०.५९॥
pitryaṃ vā bhajate śīlaṃ māturvobhayameva vā | na kathaṃ cana duryoniḥ prakṛtiṃ svāṃ niyacchati || 10.59||
10.59. A base-born man either resembles in character his father, or his mother, or both; he can never conceal his real nature.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   59

कुले मुख्येऽपि जातस्य यस्य स्याद्योनिसङ्करः । संश्रयत्येव तत्शीलं नरोऽल्पमपि वा बहु ॥ १०.६०॥
kule mukhye'pi jātasya yasya syādyonisaṅkaraḥ | saṃśrayatyeva tatśīlaṃ naro'lpamapi vā bahu || 10.60||
10.60. Even if a man, born in a great family, sprang from criminal intercourse, he will certainly possess the faults of his (father), be they small or great.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   60

यत्र त्वेते परिध्वंसाज्जायन्ते वर्णदूषकाः । राष्ट्रियैः सह तद्राष्ट्रं क्षिप्रमेव विनश्यति ॥ १०.६१॥
yatra tvete paridhvaṃsājjāyante varṇadūṣakāḥ | rāṣṭriyaiḥ saha tadrāṣṭraṃ kṣiprameva vinaśyati || 10.61||
10.61. But that kingdom in which such bastards, sullying (the purity of) the castes, are born, perishes quickly together with its inhabitants.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   61

ब्राह्मणार्थे गवार्थे वा देहत्यागोऽनुपस्कृतः । स्त्रीबालाभ्यवपत्तौ च बाह्यानां सिद्धिकारणम् ॥ १०.६२॥
brāhmaṇārthe gavārthe vā dehatyāgo'nupaskṛtaḥ | strībālābhyavapattau ca bāhyānāṃ siddhikāraṇam || 10.62||
10.62. Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake of Brahmanas and of cows, or in the defence of women and children, secures beatitude to those excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya.)

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   62

अहिंसा सत्यमस्तेयं शौचमिन्द्रियनिग्रहः । एतं सामासिकं धर्मं चातुर्वर्ण्येऽब्रवीन् मनुः ॥ १०.६३॥
ahiṃsā satyamasteyaṃ śaucamindriyanigrahaḥ | etaṃ sāmāsikaṃ dharmaṃ cāturvarṇye'bravīn manuḥ || 10.63||
10.63. Abstention from injuring (creatures), veracity, abstention from unlawfully appropriating (the goods of others), purity, and control of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   63

शूद्रायां ब्राह्मणाज्जातः श्रेयसा चेत्प्रजायते । अश्रेयान् श्रेयसीं जातिं गच्छत्या सप्तमाद्युगात् ॥ १०.६४॥
śūdrāyāṃ brāhmaṇājjātaḥ śreyasā cetprajāyate | aśreyān śreyasīṃ jātiṃ gacchatyā saptamādyugāt || 10.64||
10.64. If (a female of the caste), sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female, bear (children) to one of the highest caste, the inferior (tribe) attains the highest caste within the seventh generation.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   64

शूद्रो ब्राह्मणतामेति ब्राह्मणश्चैति शूद्रताम् । क्षत्रियाज्जातमेवं तु विद्याद्वैश्यात्तथैव च ॥ १०.६५॥
śūdro brāhmaṇatāmeti brāhmaṇaścaiti śūdratām | kṣatriyājjātamevaṃ tu vidyādvaiśyāttathaiva ca || 10.65||
10.65. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana, and (in a similar manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level of a Sudra; but know that it is the same with the offspring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   65

अनार्यायां समुत्पन्नो ब्राह्मणात्तु यदृच्छया । ब्राह्मण्यामप्यनार्यात्तु श्रेयस्त्वं कस्य चिद्भवेत्॥ १०.६६॥
anāryāyāṃ samutpanno brāhmaṇāttu yadṛcchayā | brāhmaṇyāmapyanāryāttu śreyastvaṃ kasya cidbhavet|| 10.66||
10.66. If (a doubt) should arise, with whom the preeminence (is, whether) with him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non-Aryan female, or (with the son) of a Brahmana woman by a non-Aryan,

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   66

जातो नार्यामनार्यायामार्यादार्यो भवेद्गुणैः । जातोऽप्यनार्यादार्यायामनार्य इति निश्चयः ॥ १०.६७॥
jāto nāryāmanāryāyāmāryādāryo bhavedguṇaiḥ | jāto'pyanāryādāryāyāmanārya iti niścayaḥ || 10.67||
10.67. The decision is as follows: ’He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father ( is and remains) unlike to an Aryan.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   67

तावुभावप्यसंस्कार्याविति धर्मो व्यवस्थितः । वैगुण्याज्जन्मतः पूर्व उत्तरः प्रतिलोमतः ॥ १०.६८॥
tāvubhāvapyasaṃskāryāviti dharmo vyavasthitaḥ | vaiguṇyājjanmataḥ pūrva uttaraḥ pratilomataḥ || 10.68||
10.68. The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the sacraments, the first (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin, the second (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the castes.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   68

सुबीजं चैव सुक्षेत्रे जातं सम्पद्यते यथा । तथाऽर्याज्जात आर्यायां सर्वं संस्कारमर्हति ॥ १०.६९॥
subījaṃ caiva sukṣetre jātaṃ sampadyate yathā | tathā'ryājjāta āryāyāṃ sarvaṃ saṃskāramarhati || 10.69||
10.69. As good seed, springing up in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   69

बीजमेके प्रशंसन्ति क्षेत्रमन्ये मनीषिणः । बीजक्षेत्रे तथैवान्ये तत्रैयं तु व्यवस्थितिः ॥ १०.७०॥
bījameke praśaṃsanti kṣetramanye manīṣiṇaḥ | bījakṣetre tathaivānye tatraiyaṃ tu vyavasthitiḥ || 10.70||
10.70. Some sages declare the seed to be more important, and others the field; again others (assert that) the seed and the field (are equally important); but the legal decision on this point is as follows:

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   70

अक्षेत्रे बीजमुत्सृष्टमन्तरैव विनश्यति । अबीजकमपि क्षेत्रं केवलं स्थण्डिलं भवेत् ॥ १०.७१॥
akṣetre bījamutsṛṣṭamantaraiva vinaśyati | abījakamapi kṣetraṃ kevalaṃ sthaṇḍilaṃ bhavet || 10.71||
10.71. Seed, sown on barren ground, perishes in it; a (fertile) field also, in which no (good) seed (is sown), will remain barren.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   71

यस्माद्बीजप्रभावेण तिर्यग्जा ऋषयोऽभवन् । पूजिताश्च प्रशस्ताश्च तस्माद्बीजं विशिष्यते॥ १०.७२॥
yasmādbījaprabhāveṇa tiryagjā ṛṣayo'bhavan | pūjitāśca praśastāśca tasmādbījaṃ viśiṣyate|| 10.72||
10.72. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals became sages who are honoured and praised, hence the seed is declared to be more important.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   72

अनार्यमार्यकर्माणमार्यं चानार्यकर्मिणम् । सम्प्रधार्याब्रवीद्धाता न समौ नासमाविति ॥ १०.७३॥
anāryamāryakarmāṇamāryaṃ cānāryakarmiṇam | sampradhāryābravīddhātā na samau nāsamāviti || 10.73||
10.73. Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts like an Aryan, and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a non-Aryan, the creator declared, ’Those two are neither equal nor unequal.’

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   73

ब्राह्मणा ब्रह्मयोनिस्था ये स्वकर्मण्यवस्थिताः । ते सम्यगुपजीवेयुः षट् कर्माणि यथाक्रमम् ॥ १०.७४॥
brāhmaṇā brahmayonisthā ye svakarmaṇyavasthitāḥ | te samyagupajīveyuḥ ṣaṭ karmāṇi yathākramam || 10.74||
10.74. Brahmanas who are intent on the means (of gaining union with) Brahman and firm in (discharging) their duties, shall live by duly performing the following six acts, (which are enumerated) in their (proper) order.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   74

अध्यापनमध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहश्चैव षट् कर्माण्यग्रजन्मनः ॥ १०.७५॥
adhyāpanamadhyayanaṃ yajanaṃ yājanaṃ tathā | dānaṃ pratigrahaścaiva ṣaṭ karmāṇyagrajanmanaḥ || 10.75||
10.75. Teaching, studying, sacrificing for himself, sacrificing for others, making gifts and receiving them are the six acts (prescribed) for a Brahmana.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   75

षण्णां तु कर्मणामस्य त्रीणि कर्माणि जीविका । याजनाध्यापने चैव विशुद्धाच्च प्रतिग्रहः ॥ १०.७६॥
ṣaṇṇāṃ tu karmaṇāmasya trīṇi karmāṇi jīvikā | yājanādhyāpane caiva viśuddhācca pratigrahaḥ || 10.76||
10.76. But among the six acts (ordained) for him three are his means of subsistence, (viz.) sacrificing for others, teaching, and accepting gifts from pure men.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   76

त्रयो धर्मा निवर्तन्ते ब्राह्मणात्क्षत्रियं प्रति । अध्यापनं याजनं च तृतीयश्च प्रतिग्रहः ॥ १०.७७॥
trayo dharmā nivartante brāhmaṇātkṣatriyaṃ prati | adhyāpanaṃ yājanaṃ ca tṛtīyaśca pratigrahaḥ || 10.77||
10.77. (Passing) from the Brahmana to the Kshatriya, three acts (incumbent on the former) are forbidden, (viz.) teaching, sacrificing for others, and, thirdly, the acceptance of gifts.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   77

वैश्यं प्रति तथैवैते निवर्तेरन्निति स्थितिः । न तौ प्रति हितान् धर्मान् मनुराह प्रजापतिः ॥ १०.७८॥
vaiśyaṃ prati tathaivaite nivarteranniti sthitiḥ | na tau prati hitān dharmān manurāha prajāpatiḥ || 10.78||
10.78. The same are likewise forbidden to a Vaisya, that is a settled rule; for Manu, the lord of creatures (Pragapati), has not prescribed them for (men of) those two (castes).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   78

शस्त्रास्त्रभृत्त्वं क्षत्रस्य वणिक्पशुकृषिर्विषः । आजीवनार्थं धर्मस्तु दानमध्ययनं यजिः ॥ १०.७९॥
śastrāstrabhṛttvaṃ kṣatrasya vaṇikpaśukṛṣirviṣaḥ | ājīvanārthaṃ dharmastu dānamadhyayanaṃ yajiḥ || 10.79||
10.79. To carry arms for striking and for throwing (is prescribed) for Kshatriyas as a means of subsistence; to trade, (to rear) cattle, and agriculture for Vaisyas; but their duties are liberality, the study of the Veda, and the performance of sacrifices.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   79

वेदाभ्यासो ब्राह्मणस्य क्षत्रियस्य च रक्षणम् । वार्ताकर्मैव वैश्यस्य विशिष्टानि स्वकर्मसु ॥ १०.८०॥
vedābhyāso brāhmaṇasya kṣatriyasya ca rakṣaṇam | vārtākarmaiva vaiśyasya viśiṣṭāni svakarmasu || 10.80||
10.80. Among the several occupations the most commendable are, teaching the Veda for a Brahmana, protecting (the people) for a Kshatriya, and trade for a Vaisya.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   80

अजीवंस्तु यथोक्तेन ब्राह्मणः स्वेन कर्मणा । जीवेत्क्षत्रियधर्मेण स ह्यस्य प्रत्यनन्तरः ॥ १०.८१॥
ajīvaṃstu yathoktena brāhmaṇaḥ svena karmaṇā | jīvetkṣatriyadharmeṇa sa hyasya pratyanantaraḥ || 10.81||
10.81. But a Brahmana, unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just mentioned, may live according to the law applicable to Kshatriyas; for the latter is next to him in rank.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   81

उभाभ्यामप्यजीवंस्तु कथं स्यादिति चेद्भवेत् । कृषिगोरक्षमास्थाय जीवेद्वैश्यस्य जीविकाम् ॥ १०.८२॥
ubhābhyāmapyajīvaṃstu kathaṃ syāditi cedbhavet | kṛṣigorakṣamāsthāya jīvedvaiśyasya jīvikām || 10.82||
10.82. If it be asked, ’How shall it be, if he cannot maintain himself by either (of these occupations?’ the answer is), he may adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life, employing himself in agriculture and rearing cattle.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   82

वैश्यवृत्त्याऽपि जीवंस्तु ब्राह्मणः क्षत्रियोऽपि वा । हिंसाप्रायां पराधीनां कृषिं यत्नेन वर्जयेत् ॥ १०.८३॥
vaiśyavṛttyā'pi jīvaṃstu brāhmaṇaḥ kṣatriyo'pi vā | hiṃsāprāyāṃ parādhīnāṃ kṛṣiṃ yatnena varjayet || 10.83||
10.83. But a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya, living by a Vaisya’s mode of subsistence, shall carefully avoid (the pursuit of) agriculture, (which causes) injury to many beings and depends on others.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   83

कृषिं साधुइति मन्यन्ते सा वृत्तिः सद्विगर्हिताः । भूमिं भूमिशयांश्चैव हन्ति काष्ठमयोमुखम् ॥ १०.८४॥
kṛṣiṃ sādhuiti manyante sā vṛttiḥ sadvigarhitāḥ | bhūmiṃ bhūmiśayāṃścaiva hanti kāṣṭhamayomukham || 10.84||
10.84. (Some) declare that agriculture is something excellent, (but) that means of subsistence is blamed by the virtuous; (for) the wooden (implement) with iron point injuries the earth and (the beings) living in the earth.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   84

इदं तु वृत्तिवैकल्यात्त्यजतो धर्मनैपुणम् । विट्पण्यमुद्धृतोद्धारं विक्रेयं वित्तवर्धनम् ॥ १०.८५॥
idaṃ tu vṛttivaikalyāttyajato dharmanaipuṇam | viṭpaṇyamuddhṛtoddhāraṃ vikreyaṃ vittavardhanam || 10.85||
10.85. But he who, through a want of means of subsistence, gives up the strictness with respect to his duties, may sell, in order to increase his wealth, the commodities sold by Vaisyas, making (however) the (following) exceptions.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   85

सर्वान् रसानपोहेत कृतान्नं च तिलैः सह । अश्मनो लवणं चैव पशवो ये च मानुषाः ॥ १०.८६॥
sarvān rasānapoheta kṛtānnaṃ ca tilaiḥ saha | aśmano lavaṇaṃ caiva paśavo ye ca mānuṣāḥ || 10.86||
10.86. He must avoid (selling) condiments of all sorts, cooked food and sesamum, stones, salt, cattle, and human (beings),

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   86

सर्वं च तान्तवं रक्तं शाणक्षौमाविकानि च । अपि चेत्स्युररक्तानि फलमूले तथौषधीः ॥ १०.८७॥
sarvaṃ ca tāntavaṃ raktaṃ śāṇakṣaumāvikāni ca | api cetsyuraraktāni phalamūle tathauṣadhīḥ || 10.87||
10.87. All dyed cloth, as well as cloth made of hemp, or flax, or wool, even though they be not dyed, fruit, roots, and (medical) herbs

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   87

अपः शस्त्रं विषं मांसं सोमं गन्धांश्च सर्वशः । क्षीरं क्षौद्रं दधि घृतं तैलं मधु गुडं कुशान् ॥ १०.८८॥
apaḥ śastraṃ viṣaṃ māṃsaṃ somaṃ gandhāṃśca sarvaśaḥ | kṣīraṃ kṣaudraṃ dadhi ghṛtaṃ tailaṃ madhu guḍaṃ kuśān || 10.88||
10.88. Water, weapons, poison, meat, Soma, and perfumes of all kinds, fresh milk, honey, sour milk, clarified butter, oil, wax, sugar, Kusa-grass;

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   88

आरण्यांश्च पशून् सर्वान् दंष्ट्रिणश्च वयांसि च । मद्यं नीलीं च लाक्षां च सर्वांश्चैकशफांस्तथा ॥ १०.८९॥
āraṇyāṃśca paśūn sarvān daṃṣṭriṇaśca vayāṃsi ca | madyaṃ nīlīṃ ca lākṣāṃ ca sarvāṃścaikaśaphāṃstathā || 10.89||
10.89. All beasts of the forest, animals with fangs or tusks, birds, spirituous liquor, indigo, lac, and all one- hoofed beasts.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   89

काममुत्पाद्य कृष्यां तु स्वयमेव कृषीवलः । विक्रीणीत तिलांशुद्धान् धर्मार्थमचिरस्थितान् ॥ १०.९०॥
kāmamutpādya kṛṣyāṃ tu svayameva kṛṣīvalaḥ | vikrīṇīta tilāṃśuddhān dharmārthamacirasthitān || 10.90||
10.90. But he who subsists by agriculture, may at pleasure sell unmixed sesamum grains for sacred purposes, provided he himself has grown them and has not kept them long.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   90

भोजनाभ्यञ्जनाद्दानाद्यदन्यत्कुरुते तिलैः । कृमिभूतः श्वविष्ठायां पितृभिः सह मज्जति ॥ १०.९१॥
bhojanābhyañjanāddānādyadanyatkurute tilaiḥ | kṛmibhūtaḥ śvaviṣṭhāyāṃ pitṛbhiḥ saha majjati || 10.91||
10.91. If he applies sesamum to any other purpose but food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born (again) as a worm and, together with his ancestors, be plunged into the ordure of dogs.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   91

सद्यः पतति मांसेन लाक्षया लवणेन च । त्र्यहेण शूद्रो भवति ब्राह्मणः क्षीरविक्रयात् ॥ १०.९२॥
sadyaḥ patati māṃsena lākṣayā lavaṇena ca | tryaheṇa śūdro bhavati brāhmaṇaḥ kṣīravikrayāt || 10.92||
10.92. By (selling) flesh, salt, and lac a Brahmana at once becomes an outcast; by selling milk he becomes (equal to) a Sudra in three days.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   92

इतरेषां तु पण्यानां विक्रयादिह कामतः । ब्राह्मणः सप्तरात्रेण वैश्यभावं नियच्छति ॥ १०.९३॥
itareṣāṃ tu paṇyānāṃ vikrayādiha kāmataḥ | brāhmaṇaḥ saptarātreṇa vaiśyabhāvaṃ niyacchati || 10.93||
10.93. But by willingly selling in this world other (forbidden) commodities, a Brahmana assumes after seven nights the character of a Vaisya.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   93

रसा रसैर्निमातव्या न त्वेव लवणं रसैः । कृतान्नं च कृतान्नेन तिला धान्येन तत्समाः ॥ १०.९४॥
rasā rasairnimātavyā na tveva lavaṇaṃ rasaiḥ | kṛtānnaṃ ca kṛtānnena tilā dhānyena tatsamāḥ || 10.94||
10.94. Condiments may be bartered for condiments, but by no means salt for (other) condiments; cooked food (may be exchanged) for (other kinds of) cooked food, and sesamum seeds for grain in equal quantities.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   94

जीवेदेतेन राजन्यः सर्वेणाप्यनयं गतः । न त्वेव ज्यायंसीं वृत्तिमभिमन्येत कर्हि चित् ॥ १०.९५॥
jīvedetena rājanyaḥ sarveṇāpyanayaṃ gataḥ | na tveva jyāyaṃsīṃ vṛttimabhimanyeta karhi cit || 10.95||
10.95. A Kshatriya who has fallen into distress, may subsist by all these (means); but he must never arrogantly adopt the mode of life (prescribed for his) betters.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   95

यो लोभादधमो जात्या जीवेदुत्कृष्टकर्मभिः । तं राजा निर्धनं कृत्वा क्षिप्रमेव प्रवासयेत् ॥ १०.९६॥
yo lobhādadhamo jātyā jīvedutkṛṣṭakarmabhiḥ | taṃ rājā nirdhanaṃ kṛtvā kṣiprameva pravāsayet || 10.96||
10.96. A man of low caste who through covetousness lives by the occupations of a higher one, the king shall deprive of his property and banish.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   96

वरं स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वधिष्ठितात् । परधर्मेण जीवन् हि सद्यः पतति जातितः ॥ १०.९७॥
varaṃ svadharmo viguṇaḥ paradharmātsvadhiṣṭhitāt | paradharmeṇa jīvan hi sadyaḥ patati jātitaḥ || 10.97||
10.97. It is better (to discharge) one’s own (appointed) duty incompletely than to perform completely that of another; for he who lives according to the law of another (caste) is instantly excluded from his own.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   97

वैश्योऽजीवन् स्वधर्मेण शूद्रवृत्त्याऽपि वर्तयेत् । अनाचरन्नकार्याणि निवर्तेत च शक्तिमान् ॥ १०.९८॥
vaiśyo'jīvan svadharmeṇa śūdravṛttyā'pi vartayet | anācarannakāryāṇi nivarteta ca śaktimān || 10.98||
10.98. A Vaisya who is unable to subsist by his own duties, may even maintain himself by a Sudra’s mode of life, avoiding (however) acts forbidden (to him), and he should give it up, when he is able (to do so).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   98

अशक्नुवंस्तु शुश्रूषां शूद्रः कर्तुं द्विजन्मनाम् । पुत्रदारात्ययं प्राप्तो जीवेत्कारुककर्मभिः ॥ १०.९९॥
aśaknuvaṃstu śuśrūṣāṃ śūdraḥ kartuṃ dvijanmanām | putradārātyayaṃ prāpto jīvetkārukakarmabhiḥ || 10.99||
10.99. But a Sudra, being unable to find service with the twice-born and threatened with the loss of his sons and wife (through hunger), may maintain himself by handicrafts.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   99

यैः कर्मभिः प्रचरितैः शुश्रूष्यन्ते द्विजातयः । तानि कारुककर्माणि शिल्पानि विविधानि च ॥ १०.१००॥
yaiḥ karmabhiḥ pracaritaiḥ śuśrūṣyante dvijātayaḥ | tāni kārukakarmāṇi śilpāni vividhāni ca || 10.100||
10.100. (Let him follow) those mechanical occupations and those various practical arts by following which the twice-born are (best) served.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   100

वैश्यवृत्तिमनातिष्ठन् ब्राह्मणः स्वे पथि स्थितः । अवृत्तिकर्षितः सीदन्निमं धर्मं समाचरेत् ॥ १०.१०१॥
vaiśyavṛttimanātiṣṭhan brāhmaṇaḥ sve pathi sthitaḥ | avṛttikarṣitaḥ sīdannimaṃ dharmaṃ samācaret || 10.101||
10.101. A Brahmana who is distressed through a want of means of subsistence and pines (with hunger), (but) unwilling to adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life and resolved to follow his own (prescribed) path, may act in the following manner.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   101

सर्वतः प्रतिगृह्णीयाद्ब्राह्मणस्त्वनयं गतः । पवित्रं दुष्यतीत्येतद्धर्मतो नोपपद्यते ॥ १०.१०२॥
sarvataḥ pratigṛhṇīyādbrāhmaṇastvanayaṃ gataḥ | pavitraṃ duṣyatītyetaddharmato nopapadyate || 10.102||
10.102. A Brahmana who has fallen into distress may accept (gifts) from anybody; for according to the law it is not possible (to assert) that anything pure can be sullied.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   102

नाध्यापनाद्याजनाद्वा गर्हिताद्वा प्रतिग्रहात् । दोषो भवति विप्राणां ज्वलनाम्बुसमा हि ते ॥ १०.१०३॥
nādhyāpanādyājanādvā garhitādvā pratigrahāt | doṣo bhavati viprāṇāṃ jvalanāmbusamā hi te || 10.103||
10.103. By teaching, by sacrificing for, and by accepting gifts from despicable (men) Brahmanas (in distress) commit not sin; for they (are as pure) as fire and water.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   103

जीवितात्ययमापन्नो योऽन्नमत्ति ततस्ततः । आकाशमिव पङ्केन न स पापेन लिप्यते ॥ १०.१०४॥
jīvitātyayamāpanno yo'nnamatti tatastataḥ | ākāśamiva paṅkena na sa pāpena lipyate || 10.104||
10.104. He who, when in danger of losing his life, accepts food from any person whatsoever, is no more tainted by sin than the sky by mud.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   104

अजीगर्तः सुतं हन्तुमुपासर्पद्बुभुक्षितः । न चालिप्यत पापेन क्षुत्प्रतीकारमाचरन् ॥ १०.१०५॥
ajīgartaḥ sutaṃ hantumupāsarpadbubhukṣitaḥ | na cālipyata pāpena kṣutpratīkāramācaran || 10.105||
10.105. Agigarta, who suffered hunger, approached in order to slay (his own) son, and was not tainted by sin, since he (only) sought a remedy against famishing.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   105

श्वमांसमिच्छनार्तोऽत्तुं धर्माधर्मविचक्षणः । प्राणानां परिरक्षार्थं वामदेवो न लिप्तवान् ॥ १०.१०६॥
śvamāṃsamicchanārto'ttuṃ dharmādharmavicakṣaṇaḥ | prāṇānāṃ parirakṣārthaṃ vāmadevo na liptavān || 10.106||
10.106. Vamadeva, who well knew right and wrong, did not sully himself when, tormented (by hunger), he desired to eat the flesh of a dog in order to save his life.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   106

भरद्वाजः क्षुधार्तस्तु सपुत्रो विजने वने । बह्वीर्गाः प्रतिजग्राह वृधोस्तक्ष्णो महातपाः ॥ १०.१०७॥
bharadvājaḥ kṣudhārtastu saputro vijane vane | bahvīrgāḥ pratijagrāha vṛdhostakṣṇo mahātapāḥ || 10.107||
10.107. Bharadvaga, a performer of great austerities, accepted many cows from the carpenter Bribu, when he was starving together with his sons in a lonely forest.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   107

क्षुधार्तश्चात्तुमभ्यागाद्विश्वामित्रः श्वजाघनीम् । चण्डालहस्तादादाय धर्माधर्मविचक्षणः ॥ १०.१०८॥
kṣudhārtaścāttumabhyāgādviśvāmitraḥ śvajāghanīm | caṇḍālahastādādāya dharmādharmavicakṣaṇaḥ || 10.108||
10.108. Visvamitra, who well knew what is right or wrong, approached, when he was tormented by hunger, (to eat) the haunch of a dog, receiving it the hands of a Kandala.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   108

प्रतिग्रहाद्याजनाद्वा तथैवाध्यापनादपि । प्रतिग्रहः प्रत्यवरः प्रेत्य विप्रस्य गर्हितः ॥ १०.१०९॥
pratigrahādyājanādvā tathaivādhyāpanādapi | pratigrahaḥ pratyavaraḥ pretya viprasya garhitaḥ || 10.109||
10.109. On (comparing) the acceptance (of gifts from low men), sacrificing (for them), and teaching (them), the acceptance of gifts is the meanest (of those acts) and (most) reprehensible for a Brahmana (on account of its results) in the next life.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   109

याजनाध्यापने नित्यं क्रियेते संस्कृतात्मनाम् । प्रतिग्रहस्तु क्रियते शूद्रादप्यन्त्यजन्मनः ॥ १०.११०॥
yājanādhyāpane nityaṃ kriyete saṃskṛtātmanām | pratigrahastu kriyate śūdrādapyantyajanmanaḥ || 10.110||
10.110. (For) assisting in sacrifices and teaching are (two acts) always performed for men who have received the sacraments; but the acceptance of gifts takes place even in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   110

जपहोमैरपेत्येनो याजनाध्यापनैः कृतम् । प्रतिग्रहनिमित्तं तु त्यागेन तपसैव च ॥ १०.१११॥
japahomairapetyeno yājanādhyāpanaiḥ kṛtam | pratigrahanimittaṃ tu tyāgena tapasaiva ca || 10.111||
10.111. The guilt incurred by offering sacrifices for teaching (unworthy men) is removed by muttering (sacred texts) and by burnt offerings, but that incurred by accepting gifts (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and by austerities.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   111

शिलौञ्छमप्याददीत विप्रोऽजीवन् यतस्ततः । प्रतिग्रहात्शिलः श्रेयांस्ततोऽप्युञ्छः प्रशस्यते ॥ १०.११२॥
śilauñchamapyādadīta vipro'jīvan yatastataḥ | pratigrahātśilaḥ śreyāṃstato'pyuñchaḥ praśasyate || 10.112||
10.112. A Brahmana who is unable to maintain himself, should (rather) glean ears or grains from (the field of) any (man); gleaning ears is better than accepting gifts, picking up single grains is declared to be still more laudable.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   112

सीदद्भिः कुप्यमिच्छद्भि धनं वा पृथिवीपतिः । याच्यः स्यात्स्नातकैर्विप्रैरदित्संस्त्यागमर्हति ॥ १०.११३॥
sīdadbhiḥ kupyamicchadbhi dhanaṃ vā pṛthivīpatiḥ | yācyaḥ syātsnātakairviprairaditsaṃstyāgamarhati || 10.113||
10.113. If Brahmanas, who are Snatakas, are pining with hunger, or in want of (utensils made of) common metals, or of other property, they may ask the king for them; if he is not disposed to be liberal, he must be left.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   113

अकृतं च कृतात्क्षेत्राद्गौरजाविकमेव च । हिरण्यं धान्यमन्नं च पूर्वं पूर्वमदोषवत् ॥ १०.११४॥
akṛtaṃ ca kṛtātkṣetrādgaurajāvikameva ca | hiraṇyaṃ dhānyamannaṃ ca pūrvaṃ pūrvamadoṣavat || 10.114||
10.114. (The acceptance on an untilled field is less blamable than (that of) a tilled one; (with respect to) cows, goats, sheep, gold, grain, and cooked food, (the acceptance of) each earlier-named (article is less blamable than of the following ones).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   114

सप्त वित्तागमा धर्म्या दायो लाभः क्रयो जयः । प्रयोगः कर्मयोगश्च सत्प्रतिग्रह एव च ॥ १०.११५॥
sapta vittāgamā dharmyā dāyo lābhaḥ krayo jayaḥ | prayogaḥ karmayogaśca satpratigraha eva ca || 10.115||
10.115. There are seven lawful modes of acquiring property, (viz.) inheritance, finding or friendly donation, purchase, conquest, lending at interest, the performance of work, and the acceptance of gifts from virtuous men.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   115

विद्या शिल्पं भृतिः सेवा गोरक्ष्यं विपणिः कृषिः । धृतिर्भैक्षं कुसीदं च दश जीवनहेतवः ॥ १०.११६॥
vidyā śilpaṃ bhṛtiḥ sevā gorakṣyaṃ vipaṇiḥ kṛṣiḥ | dhṛtirbhaikṣaṃ kusīdaṃ ca daśa jīvanahetavaḥ || 10.116||
10.116. Learning, mechanical arts, work for wages, service, rearing cattle, traffic, agriculture, contentment (with little), alms, and receiving interest on money, are the ten modes of subsistence (permitted to all men in times of distress).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   116

ब्राह्मणः क्षत्रियो वाऽपि वृद्धिं नैव प्रयोजयेत् । कामं तु खलु धर्मार्थं दद्यात्पापीयसेऽल्पिकाम् ॥ १०.११७॥
brāhmaṇaḥ kṣatriyo vā'pi vṛddhiṃ naiva prayojayet | kāmaṃ tu khalu dharmārthaṃ dadyātpāpīyase'lpikām || 10.117||
10.117. Neither a Brahmana, nor a Kshatriya must lend (money at) interest; but at his pleasure (either of them) may, in times of distress when he requires money) for sacred purposes, lend to a very sinful man at a small interest.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   117

चतुर्थमाददानोऽपि क्षत्रियो भागमापदि । प्रजा रक्षन् परं शक्त्या किल्बिषात्प्रतिमुच्यते ॥ १०.११८॥
caturthamādadāno'pi kṣatriyo bhāgamāpadi | prajā rakṣan paraṃ śaktyā kilbiṣātpratimucyate || 10.118||
10.118. A Kshatriya (king) who, in times of distress, takes even the fourth part (of the crops), is free from guilt, if he protects his subjects to the best of his ability.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   118

स्वधर्मो विजयस्तस्य नाहवे स्यात्पराङ्मुखः । शस्त्रेण वैश्याद्रक्षित्वा धर्म्यमाहारयेद्बलिम् ॥ १०.११९॥
svadharmo vijayastasya nāhave syātparāṅmukhaḥ | śastreṇa vaiśyādrakṣitvā dharmyamāhārayedbalim || 10.119||
10.119. His peculiar duty is conquest, and he must not turn back in danger; having protected the Vaisyas by his weapons, he may cause the legal tax to be collected;

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   119

धान्येऽष्टमं विशां शुल्कं विंशं कार्षापणावरम् । कर्मोपकरणाः शूद्राः कारवः शिल्पिनस्तथा ॥ १०.१२०॥
dhānye'ṣṭamaṃ viśāṃ śulkaṃ viṃśaṃ kārṣāpaṇāvaram | karmopakaraṇāḥ śūdrāḥ kāravaḥ śilpinastathā || 10.120||
10.120. (Viz.) from Vaisyas one-eighth as the tax on grain, one-twentieth (on the profits on gold and cattle), which amount at least to one Karshapana; Sudras, artisans, and mechanics (shall) benefit (the king) by (doing) work (for him).

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   120

शूद्रस्तु वृत्तिमाकाङ्क्षन् क्षत्रम आराधयेदिति । धनिनं वाऽप्युपाराध्य वैश्यं शूद्रो जिजीविषेत् ॥ १०.१२१॥
śūdrastu vṛttimākāṅkṣan kṣatrama ārādhayediti | dhaninaṃ vā'pyupārādhya vaiśyaṃ śūdro jijīviṣet || 10.121||
10.121. If a Sudra, (unable to subsist by serving Brahmanas,) seeks a livelihood, he may serve Kshatriyas, or he may also seek to maintain himself by attending on a wealthy Vaisya.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   121

स्वर्गार्थमुभयार्थं वा विप्रानाराधयेत्तु सः । जातब्राह्मणशब्दस्य सा ह्यस्य कृतकृत्यता ॥ १०.१२२॥
svargārthamubhayārthaṃ vā viprānārādhayettu saḥ | jātabrāhmaṇaśabdasya sā hyasya kṛtakṛtyatā || 10.122||
10.122. But let a (Sudra) serve Brahmanas, either for the sake of heaven, or with a view to both (this life and the next); for he who is called the servant of a Brahmana thereby gains all his ends

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   122

विप्रसेवैव शूद्रस्य विशिष्टं कर्म कीर्त्यते । यदतोऽन्यधि कुरुते तद्भवत्यस्य निष्फलम् ॥ १०.१२३॥
viprasevaiva śūdrasya viśiṣṭaṃ karma kīrtyate | yadato'nyadhi kurute tadbhavatyasya niṣphalam || 10.123||
10.123. The service of Brahmanas alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Sudra; for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   123

प्रकल्प्या तस्य तैर्वृत्तिः स्वकुटुम्बाद्यथार्हतः । शक्तिं चावेक्ष्य दाक्ष्यं च भृत्यानां च परिग्रहम् ॥ १०.१२४॥
prakalpyā tasya tairvṛttiḥ svakuṭumbādyathārhataḥ | śaktiṃ cāvekṣya dākṣyaṃ ca bhṛtyānāṃ ca parigraham || 10.124||
10.124. They must allot to him out of their own family (-property) a suitable maintenance, after considering his ability, his industry, and the number of those whom he is bound to support.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   124

उच्छिष्टमन्नं दातव्यं जीर्णानि वसनानि च । पुलाकाश्चैव धान्यानां जीर्णाश्चैव परिच्छदाः ॥ १०.१२५॥
ucchiṣṭamannaṃ dātavyaṃ jīrṇāni vasanāni ca | pulākāścaiva dhānyānāṃ jīrṇāścaiva paricchadāḥ || 10.125||
10.125. The remnants of their food must be given to him, as well as their old clothes, the refuse of their grain, and their old household furniture.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   125

न शूद्रे पातकं किं चिन्न च संस्कारमर्हति । नास्याधिकारो धर्मेऽस्ति न धर्मात्प्रतिषेधनम् ॥ १०.१२६॥
na śūdre pātakaṃ kiṃ cinna ca saṃskāramarhati | nāsyādhikāro dharme'sti na dharmātpratiṣedhanam || 10.126||
10.126. A Sudra cannot commit an offence, causing loss of caste (pataka), and he is not worthy to receive the sacraments; he has no right to (fulfil) the sacred law (of the Aryans, yet) there is no prohibition against (his fulfilling certain portions of) the law.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   126

धर्मैप्सवस्तु धर्मज्ञाः सतां वृत्तमनुष्ठिताः । सतां धर्मं मन्त्रवर्जं न दुष्यन्ति प्रशंसां प्राप्नुवन्ति च ॥ १०.१२७॥
dharmaipsavastu dharmajñāḥ satāṃ vṛttamanuṣṭhitāḥ | satāṃ dharmaṃ mantravarjaṃ na duṣyanti praśaṃsāṃ prāpnuvanti ca || 10.127||
10.127. (Sudras) who are desirous to gain merit, and know (their) duty, commit no sin, but gain praise, if they imitate the practice of virtuous men without reciting sacred texts.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   127

यथा यथा हि सद्वृत्तमातिष्ठत्यनसूयकः । तथा तथैमं चामुं च लोकं प्राप्नोत्यनिन्दितः ॥ १०.१२८॥
yathā yathā hi sadvṛttamātiṣṭhatyanasūyakaḥ | tathā tathaimaṃ cāmuṃ ca lokaṃ prāpnotyaninditaḥ || 10.128||
10.128. The more a (Sudra), keeping himself free from envy, imitates the behaviour of the virtuous, the more he gains, without being censured, (exaltation in) this world and the next.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   128

शक्तेनापि हि शूद्रेण न कार्यो धनसञ्चयः । शूद्रो हि धनमासाद्य ब्राह्मणानेव बाधते ॥ १०.१२९॥
śaktenāpi hi śūdreṇa na kāryo dhanasañcayaḥ | śūdro hi dhanamāsādya brāhmaṇāneva bādhate || 10.129||
10.129. No collection of wealth must be made by a Sudra, even though he be able (to do it); for a Sudra who has acquired wealth, gives pain to Brahmanas.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   129

एते चतुर्णां वर्णानामापद्धर्माः प्रकीर्तिताः । यान् सम्यगनुतिष्ठन्तो व्रजन्ति परमं गतिम् ॥ १०.१३०॥
ete caturṇāṃ varṇānāmāpaddharmāḥ prakīrtitāḥ | yān samyaganutiṣṭhanto vrajanti paramaṃ gatim || 10.130||
10.130. The duties of the four castes (varna) in times of distress have thus been declared, and if they perform them well, they will reach the most blessed state.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   130

एष धर्मविधिः कृत्स्नश्चातुर्वर्ण्यस्य कीर्तितः । अतः परं प्रवक्ष्यामि प्रायश्चित्तविधिं शुभम् ॥ १०.१३१॥
eṣa dharmavidhiḥ kṛtsnaścāturvarṇyasya kīrtitaḥ | ataḥ paraṃ pravakṣyāmi prāyaścittavidhiṃ śubham || 10.131||
10.131. Thus all the legal rules for the four castes have been proclaimed; I next will promulgate the auspicious rules for penances.

Adhyaya : 10

Shloka :   131

ॐ श्री परमात्मने नमः

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