Manu Smriti

Adhyaya 2

ॐ श्री परमात्मने नमः


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संस्कृत्म
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विद्वद्भिः सेवितः सद्भिर्नित्यमद्वेषरागिभिः । हृदयेनाभ्यनुज्ञातो यो धर्मस्तं निबोधत ॥ २.१॥
vidvadbhiḥ sevitaḥ sadbhirnityamadveṣarāgibhiḥ | hṛdayenābhyanujñāto yo dharmastaṃ nibodhata || 2.1||
2.1. Learn that sacred law which is followed by men learned (in the Veda) and assented to in their hearts by the virtuous, who are ever exempt from hatred and inordinate affection.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   1

कामात्मता न प्रशस्ता न चैवैहास्त्यकामता । काम्यो हि वेदाधिगमः कर्मयोगश्च वैदिकः ॥ २.२॥
kāmātmatā na praśastā na caivaihāstyakāmatā | kāmyo hi vedādhigamaḥ karmayogaśca vaidikaḥ || 2.2||
2.2. To act solely from a desire for rewards is not laudable, yet an exemption from that desire is not (to be found) in this (world): for on (that) desire is grounded the study of the Veda and the performance of the actions, prescribed by the Veda.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   2

सङ्कल्पमूलः कामो वै यज्ञाः सङ्कल्पसम्भवाः । व्रतानि यमधर्माश्च सर्वे सङ्कल्पजाः स्मृताः ॥ २.३॥
saṅkalpamūlaḥ kāmo vai yajñāḥ saṅkalpasambhavāḥ | vratāni yamadharmāśca sarve saṅkalpajāḥ smṛtāḥ || 2.3||
2.3. The desire (for rewards), indeed, has its root in the conception that an act can yield them, and in consequence of (that) conception sacrifices are performed; vows and the laws prescribing restraints are all stated to be kept through the idea that they will bear fruit.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   3

अकामस्य क्रिया का चिद्दृश्यते नैह कर्हि चित् । यद्यधि कुरुते किं चित्तत्तत्कामस्य चेष्टितम् ॥ २.४॥
akāmasya kriyā kā ciddṛśyate naiha karhi cit | yadyadhi kurute kiṃ cittattatkāmasya ceṣṭitam || 2.4||
2.4. Not a single act here (below) appears ever to be done by a man free from desire; for whatever (man) does, it is (the result of) the impulse of desire.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   4

तेषु सम्यग्वर्तमानो गच्छत्यमरलोकताम् । यथा सङ्कल्पितांश्चैह सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते ॥ २.५॥
teṣu samyagvartamāno gacchatyamaralokatām | yathā saṅkalpitāṃścaiha sarvān kāmān samaśnute || 2.5||
2.5. He who persists in discharging these (prescribed duties) in the right manner, reaches the deathless state and even in this (life) obtains (the fulfilment of) all the desires that he may have conceived.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   5

वेदोऽखिलो धर्ममूलं स्मृतिशीले च तद्विदाम् । आचारश्चैव साधूनामात्मनस्तुष्टिरेव च ॥ २.६॥
vedo'khilo dharmamūlaṃ smṛtiśīle ca tadvidām | ācāraścaiva sādhūnāmātmanastuṣṭireva ca || 2.6||
2.6. The whole Veda is the (first) source of the sacred law, next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those who know the (Veda further), also the customs of holy men, and (finally) self-satisfaction.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   6

यः कश्चित्कस्य चिद्धर्मो मनुना परिकीर्तितः । स सर्वोऽभिहितो वेदे सर्वज्ञानमयो हि सः ॥ २.७॥
yaḥ kaścitkasya ciddharmo manunā parikīrtitaḥ | sa sarvo'bhihito vede sarvajñānamayo hi saḥ || 2.7||
2.7. Whatever law has been ordained for any (person) by Manu, that has been fully declared in the Veda: for that (sage was) omniscient.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   7

सर्वं तु समवेक्ष्यैदं निखिलं ज्ञानचक्षुषा । श्रुतिप्रामाण्यतो विद्वान् स्वधर्मे निविशेत वै ॥ २.८॥
sarvaṃ tu samavekṣyaidaṃ nikhilaṃ jñānacakṣuṣā | śrutiprāmāṇyato vidvān svadharme niviśeta vai || 2.8||
2.8. But a learned man after fully scrutinising all this with the eye of knowledge, should, in accordance with the authority of the revealed texts, be intent on (the performance of) his duties.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   8

श्रुतिस्मृत्योदितं धर्ममनुतिष्ठन् हि मानवः । इह कीर्तिमवाप्नोति प्रेत्य चानुत्तमं सुखम् ॥ २.९॥
śrutismṛtyoditaṃ dharmamanutiṣṭhan hi mānavaḥ | iha kīrtimavāpnoti pretya cānuttamaṃ sukham || 2.9||
2.9. For that man who obeys the law prescribed in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition, gains fame in this (world) and after death unsurpassable bliss.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   9

श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्त्रं तु वै स्मृतिः । ते सर्वार्थेष्वमीमांस्ये ताभ्यां धर्मो हि निर्बभौ ॥ २.१०॥
śrutistu vedo vijñeyo dharmaśāstraṃ tu vai smṛtiḥ | te sarvārtheṣvamīmāṃsye tābhyāṃ dharmo hi nirbabhau || 2.10||
2.10. But by Sruti (revelation) is meant the Veda, and by Smriti (tradition) the Institutes of the sacred law: those two must not be called into question in any matter, since from those two the sacred law shone forth.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   10

योऽवमन्येत ते मूले हेतुशास्त्राश्रयाद्द्विजः । स साधुभिर्बहिष्कार्यो नास्तिको वेदनिन्दकः ॥ २.११॥
yo'vamanyeta te mūle hetuśāstrāśrayāddvijaḥ | sa sādhubhirbahiṣkāryo nāstiko vedanindakaḥ || 2.11||
2.11. Every twice-born man, who, relying on the Institutes of dialectics, treats with contempt those two sources (of the law), must be cast out by the virtuous, as an atheist and a scorner of the Veda.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   11

वेदः स्मृतिः सदाचारः स्वस्य च प्रियमात्मनः । एतच्चतुर्विधं प्राहुः साक्षाद्धर्मस्य लक्षणम् ॥ २.१२॥
vedaḥ smṛtiḥ sadācāraḥ svasya ca priyamātmanaḥ | etaccaturvidhaṃ prāhuḥ sākṣāddharmasya lakṣaṇam || 2.12||
2.12. The Veda, the sacred tradition, the customs of virtuous men, and one’s own pleasure, they declare to be visibly the fourfold means of defining the sacred law.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   12

अर्थकामेष्वसक्तानां धर्मज्ञानं विधीयते । धर्मं जिज्ञासमानानां प्रमाणं परमं श्रुतिः ॥ २.१३॥
arthakāmeṣvasaktānāṃ dharmajñānaṃ vidhīyate | dharmaṃ jijñāsamānānāṃ pramāṇaṃ paramaṃ śrutiḥ || 2.13||
2.13. The knowledge of the sacred law is prescribed for those who are not given to the acquisition of wealth and to the gratification of their desires; to those who seek the knowledge of the sacred law the supreme authority is the revelation (Sruti).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   13

श्रुतिद्वैधं तु यत्र स्यात्तत्र धर्मावुभौ स्मृतौ । उभावपि हि तौ धर्मौ सम्यगुक्तौ मनीषिभिः ॥ २.१४॥
śrutidvaidhaṃ tu yatra syāttatra dharmāvubhau smṛtau | ubhāvapi hi tau dharmau samyaguktau manīṣibhiḥ || 2.14||
2.14. But when two sacred texts (Sruti) are conflicting, both are held to be law; for both are pronounced by the wise (to be) valid law.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   14

उदितेऽनुदिते चैव समयाध्युषिते तथा । सर्वथा वर्तते यज्ञ इतीयं वैदिकी श्रुतिः ॥ २.१५॥
udite'nudite caiva samayādhyuṣite tathā | sarvathā vartate yajña itīyaṃ vaidikī śrutiḥ || 2.15||
2.15. (Thus) the (Agnihotra) sacrifice may be (optionally) performed, at any time after the sun has risen, before he has risen, or when neither sun nor stars are visible; that (is declared) by Vedic texts.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   15

निषेकादिश्मशानान्तो मन्त्रैर्यस्योदितो विधिः । तस्य शास्त्रेऽधिकारोऽस्मिन् ज्ञेयो नान्यस्य कस्य चित् ॥ २.१६॥
niṣekādiśmaśānānto mantrairyasyodito vidhiḥ | tasya śāstre'dhikāro'smin jñeyo nānyasya kasya cit || 2.16||
2.16. Know that he for whom (the performance of) the ceremonies beginning with the rite of impregnation (Garbhadhana) and ending with the funeral rite (Antyeshti) is prescribed, while sacred formulas are being recited, is entitled (to study) these Institutes, but no other man whatsoever.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   16

सरस्वतीदृशद्वत्योर्देवनद्योर्यदन्तरम् । तं देवनिर्मितं देशं ब्रह्मावर्तं प्रचक्षते ॥ २.१७॥
sarasvatīdṛśadvatyordevanadyoryadantaram | taṃ devanirmitaṃ deśaṃ brahmāvartaṃ pracakṣate || 2.17||
2.17. That land, created by the gods, which lies between the two divine rivers Sarasvati and Drishadvati, the (sages) call Brahmavarta.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   17

तस्मिन् देशे य आचारः पारम्पर्यक्रमागतः । वर्णानां सान्तरालानां स सदाचार उच्यते ॥ २.१८॥
tasmin deśe ya ācāraḥ pāramparyakramāgataḥ | varṇānāṃ sāntarālānāṃ sa sadācāra ucyate || 2.18||
2.18. The custom handed down in regular succession (since time immemorial) among the (four chief) castes (varna) and the mixed (races) of that country, is called the conduct of virtuous men.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   18

कुरुक्षेत्रं च मत्स्याश्च पञ्चालाः शूरसेनकाः । एष ब्रह्मर्षिदेशो वै ब्रह्मावर्तादनन्तरः ॥ २.१९॥
kurukṣetraṃ ca matsyāśca pañcālāḥ śūrasenakāḥ | eṣa brahmarṣideśo vai brahmāvartādanantaraḥ || 2.19||
2.19. The plain of the Kurus, the (country of the) Matsyas, Pankalas, and Surasenakas, these (form), indeed, the country of the Brahmarshis (Brahmanical sages, which ranks) immediately after Brahmavarta.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   19

एतद्देशप्रसूतस्य सकाशादग्रजन्मनः । स्वं स्वं चरित्रं शिक्षेरन् पृथिव्यां सर्वमानवाः ॥ २.२०॥
etaddeśaprasūtasya sakāśādagrajanmanaḥ | svaṃ svaṃ caritraṃ śikṣeran pṛthivyāṃ sarvamānavāḥ || 2.20||
2.20. From a Brahmana, born in that country, let all men on earth learn their several usages.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   20

हिमवद्विन्ध्ययोर्मध्यं यत्प्राग्विनशनादपि । प्रत्यगेव प्रयागाच्च मध्यदेशः प्रकीर्तितः ॥ २.२१॥
himavadvindhyayormadhyaṃ yatprāgvinaśanādapi | pratyageva prayāgācca madhyadeśaḥ prakīrtitaḥ || 2.21||
2.21. That (country) which (lies) between the Himavat and the Vindhya (mountains) to the east of Prayaga and to the west of Vinasana (the place where the river Sarasvati disappears) is called Madhyadesa (the central region).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   21

आ समुद्रात्तु वै पूर्वादा समुद्राच्च पश्चिमात् । तयोरेवान्तरं गिर्योरार्यावर्तं विदुर्बुधाः ॥ २.२२॥
ā samudrāttu vai pūrvādā samudrācca paścimāt | tayorevāntaraṃ giryorāryāvartaṃ vidurbudhāḥ || 2.22||
2.22. But (the tract) between those two mountains (just mentioned), which (extends) as far as the eastern and the western oceans, the wise call Aryavarta (the country of the Aryans).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   22

कृष्णसारस्तु चरति मृगो यत्र स्वभावतः । स ज्ञेयो यज्ञियो देशो म्लेच्छदेशस्त्वतः परः ॥ २.२३॥
kṛṣṇasārastu carati mṛgo yatra svabhāvataḥ | sa jñeyo yajñiyo deśo mlecchadeśastvataḥ paraḥ || 2.23||
2.23. That land where the black antelope naturally roams, one must know to be fit for the performance of sacrifices; (the tract) different from that (is) the country of the Mlekkhas (barbarians).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   23

एतान्द्विजातयो देशान् संश्रयेरन् प्रयत्नतः । शूद्रस्तु यस्मिंस्तस्मिन् वा निवसेद्वृत्तिकर्शितः ॥ २.२४॥
etāndvijātayo deśān saṃśrayeran prayatnataḥ | śūdrastu yasmiṃstasmin vā nivasedvṛttikarśitaḥ || 2.24||
2.24. Let twice-born men seek to dwell in those (above-mentioned countries); but a Sudra, distressed for subsistence, may reside anywhere.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   24

एषा धर्मस्य वो योनिः समासेन प्रकीर्तिता । सम्भवश्चास्य सर्वस्य वर्णधर्मान्निबोधत ॥ २.२५॥
eṣā dharmasya vo yoniḥ samāsena prakīrtitā | sambhavaścāsya sarvasya varṇadharmānnibodhata || 2.25||
2.25. Thus has the origin of the sacred law been succinctly described to you and the origin of this universe; learn (now) the duties of the castes (varna).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   25

वैदिकैः कर्मभिः पुण्यैर्निषेकादिर्द्विजन्मनाम् । कार्यः शरीरसंस्कारः पावनः प्रेत्य चैह च ॥ २.२६॥
vaidikaiḥ karmabhiḥ puṇyairniṣekādirdvijanmanām | kāryaḥ śarīrasaṃskāraḥ pāvanaḥ pretya caiha ca || 2.26||
2.26. With holy rites, prescribed by the Veda, must the ceremony on conception and other sacraments be performed for twice-born men, which sanctify the body and purify (from sin) in this (life) and after death.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   26

गार्भैर्होमैर्जातकर्मचौडमौञ्जीनिबन्धनैः । बैजिकं गार्भिकं चैनं द्विजानामपमृज्यते ॥ २.२७॥
gārbhairhomairjātakarmacauḍamauñjīnibandhanaiḥ | baijikaṃ gārbhikaṃ cainaṃ dvijānāmapamṛjyate || 2.27||
2.27. By burnt oblations during (the mother’s) pregnancy, by the Gatakarman (the ceremony after birth), the Kauda (tonsure), and the Maungibandhana (the tying of the sacred girdle of Munga grass) is the taint, derived from both parents, removed from twice-born men.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   27

स्वाध्यायेन व्रतैर्होमैस्त्रैविद्येनेज्यया सुतैः । महायज्ञैश्च यज्ञैश्च ब्राह्मीयं क्रियते तनुः ॥ २.२८॥
svādhyāyena vratairhomaistraividyenejyayā sutaiḥ | mahāyajñaiśca yajñaiśca brāhmīyaṃ kriyate tanuḥ || 2.28||
2.28. By the study of the Veda, by vows, by burnt oblations, by (the recitation of) sacred texts, by the (acquisition of the) threefold sacred science, by offering (to the gods, Rishis, and manes), by (the procreation of) sons, by the great sacrifices, and by (Srauta) rites this (human) body is made fit for (union with) Brahman.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   28

प्राङ्नाभिवर्धनात्पुंसो जातकर्म विधीयते । मन्त्रवत्प्राशनं चास्य हिरण्यमधुसर्पिषाम् ॥ २.२९॥
prāṅnābhivardhanātpuṃso jātakarma vidhīyate | mantravatprāśanaṃ cāsya hiraṇyamadhusarpiṣām || 2.29||
2.29. Before the navel-string is cut, the Gatakarman (birth-rite) must be performed for a male (child); and while sacred formulas are being recited, he must be fed with gold, honey, and butter.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   29

नामधेयं दशम्यां तु द्वादश्यां वाऽस्य कारयेत् । पुण्ये तिथौ मुहूर्ते वा नक्षत्रे वा गुणान्विते ॥ २.३०॥
nāmadheyaṃ daśamyāṃ tu dvādaśyāṃ vā'sya kārayet | puṇye tithau muhūrte vā nakṣatre vā guṇānvite || 2.30||
2.30. But let (the father perform or) cause to be performed the Namadheya (the rite of naming the child), on the tenth or twelfth (day after birth), or on a lucky lunar day, in a lucky muhurta, under an auspicious constellation.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   30

मङ्गल्यं ब्राह्मणस्य स्यात्क्षत्रियस्य बलान्वितम् । वैश्यस्य धनसंयुक्तं शूद्रस्य तु जुगुप्सितम् ॥ २.३१॥
maṅgalyaṃ brāhmaṇasya syātkṣatriyasya balānvitam | vaiśyasya dhanasaṃyuktaṃ śūdrasya tu jugupsitam || 2.31||
2.31. Let (the first part of) a Brahmana’s name (denote something) auspicious, a Kshatriya’s be connected with power, and a Vaisya’s with wealth, but a Sudra’s (express something) contemptible.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   31

शर्मवद्ब्राह्मणस्य स्याद्राज्ञो रक्षासमन्वितम् । राज्ञावैश्यस्य पुष्टिसंयुक्तं शूद्रस्य प्रेष्यसंयुतम् ॥ २.३२॥
śarmavadbrāhmaṇasya syādrājño rakṣāsamanvitam | rājñāvaiśyasya puṣṭisaṃyuktaṃ śūdrasya preṣyasaṃyutam || 2.32||
2.32. (The second part of) a Brahmana’s (name) shall be (a word) implying happiness, of a Kshatriya’s (a word) implying protection, of a Vaisya’s (a term) expressive of thriving, and of a Sudra’s (an expression) denoting service.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   32

स्त्रीणां सुखौद्यमक्रूरं विस्पष्टार्थं मनोहरम् । मङ्गल्यं दीर्घवर्णान्तमाशीर्वादाभिधानवत् ॥ २.३३॥
strīṇāṃ sukhaudyamakrūraṃ vispaṣṭārthaṃ manoharam | maṅgalyaṃ dīrghavarṇāntamāśīrvādābhidhānavat || 2.33||
2.33. The names of women should be easy to pronounce, not imply anything dreadful, possess a plain meaning, be pleasing and auspicious, end in long vowels, and contain a word of benediction.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   33

चतुर्थे मासि कर्तव्यं शिशोर्निष्क्रमणं गृहात् । षष्ठेऽन्नप्राशनं मासि यद्वैष्टं मङ्गलं कुले ॥ २.३४॥
caturthe māsi kartavyaṃ śiśorniṣkramaṇaṃ gṛhāt | ṣaṣṭhe'nnaprāśanaṃ māsi yadvaiṣṭaṃ maṅgalaṃ kule || 2.34||
2.34. In the fourth month the Nishkramana (the first leaving of the house) of the child should be performed, in the sixth month the Annaprasana (first feeding with rice), and optionally (any other) auspicious ceremony required by (the custom of) the family.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   34

चूडाकर्म द्विजातीनां सर्वेषामेव धर्मतः । प्रथमेऽब्दे तृतीये वा कर्तव्यं श्रुतिनोदनात् ॥ २.३५॥
cūḍākarma dvijātīnāṃ sarveṣāmeva dharmataḥ | prathame'bde tṛtīye vā kartavyaṃ śrutinodanāt || 2.35||
2.35. According to the teaching of the revealed texts, the Kudakarman (tonsure) must be performed, for the sake of spiritual merit, by all twice-born men in the first or third year.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   35

गर्भाष्टमेऽब्दे कुर्वीत ब्राह्मणस्यौपनायनम् । गर्भादेकादशे राज्ञो गर्भात्तु द्वादशे विशः ॥ २.३६॥
garbhāṣṭame'bde kurvīta brāhmaṇasyaupanāyanam | garbhādekādaśe rājño garbhāttu dvādaśe viśaḥ || 2.36||
2.36. In the eighth year after conception, one should perform the initiation (upanayana) of a Brahmana, in the eleventh after conception (that) of a Kshatriya, but in the twelfth that of a Vaisya.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   36

ब्रह्मवर्चसकामस्य कार्यो विप्रस्य पञ्चमे । राज्ञो बलार्थिनः षष्ठे वैश्यस्यैहार्थिनोऽष्टमे ॥ २.३७॥
brahmavarcasakāmasya kāryo viprasya pañcame | rājño balārthinaḥ ṣaṣṭhe vaiśyasyaihārthino'ṣṭame || 2.37||
2.37. (The initiation) of a Brahmana who desires proficiency in sacred learning should take place in the fifth (year after conception), (that) of a Kshatriya who wishes to become powerful in the sixth, (and that) of a Vaisya who longs for (success in his) business in the eighth.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   37

आ षोडशाद्ब्राह्मणस्य सावित्री नातिवर्तते । आ द्वाविंशात्क्षत्रबन्धोरा चतुर्विंशतेर्विशः ॥ २.३८॥
ā ṣoḍaśādbrāhmaṇasya sāvitrī nātivartate | ā dvāviṃśātkṣatrabandhorā caturviṃśaterviśaḥ || 2.38||
2.38. The (time for the) Savitri (initiation) of a Brahmana does not pass until the completion of the sixteenth year (after conception), of a Kshatriya until the completion of the twenty-second, and of a Vaisya until the completion of the twenty-fourth.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   38

अत ऊर्ध्वं त्रयोऽप्येते यथाकालमसंस्कृताः । सावित्रीपतिता व्रात्या भवन्त्यार्यविगर्हिताः ॥ २.३९॥
ata ūrdhvaṃ trayo'pyete yathākālamasaṃskṛtāḥ | sāvitrīpatitā vrātyā bhavantyāryavigarhitāḥ || 2.39||
2.39. After those (periods men of) these three (castes) who have not received the sacrament at the proper time, become Vratyas (outcasts), excluded from the Savitri (initiation) and despised by the Aryans.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   39

नैतैरपूतैर्विधिवदापद्यपि हि कर्हि चित् । ब्राह्मान् यौनांश्च सम्बन्धान्नाचरेद् ब्राह्मणैः सह ॥ २.४०॥
naitairapūtairvidhivadāpadyapi hi karhi cit | brāhmān yaunāṃśca sambandhānnācared brāhmaṇaiḥ saha || 2.40||
2.40. With such men, if they have not been purified according to the rule, let no Brahmana ever, even in times of distress, form a connexion either through the Veda or by marriage.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   40

कार्ष्णरौरवबास्तानि चर्माणि ब्रह्मचारिणः । वसीरन्नानुपूर्व्येण शाणक्षौमाविकानि च ॥ २.४१॥
kārṣṇarauravabāstāni carmāṇi brahmacāriṇaḥ | vasīrannānupūrvyeṇa śāṇakṣaumāvikāni ca || 2.41||
2.41. Let students, according to the order (of their castes), wear (as upper dresses) the skins of black antelopes, spotted deer, and he-goats, and (lower garments) made of hemp, flax or wool.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   41

मौञ्जी त्रिवृत्समा श्लक्ष्णा कार्या विप्रस्य मेखला । क्षत्रियस्य तु मौर्वी ज्या वैश्यस्य शणतान्तवी ॥ २.४२॥
mauñjī trivṛtsamā ślakṣṇā kāryā viprasya mekhalā | kṣatriyasya tu maurvī jyā vaiśyasya śaṇatāntavī || 2.42||
2.42. The girdle of a Brahmana shall consist of a of a triple cord of Munga grass, smooth and soft; (that) of a Kshatriya, of a bowstring, made of Murva fibres; (that) of a Vaisya, of hempen threads.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   42

मुञ्जालाभे तु कर्तव्याः कुशाश्मन्तकबल्वजैः । त्रिवृता ग्रन्थिनैकेन त्रिभिः पञ्चभिरेव वा ॥ २.४३॥
muñjālābhe tu kartavyāḥ kuśāśmantakabalvajaiḥ | trivṛtā granthinaikena tribhiḥ pañcabhireva vā || 2.43||
2.43. If Munga grass (and so forth) be not procurable, (the girdles) may be made of Kusa, Asmantaka, and Balbaga (fibres), with a single threefold knot, or with three or five (knots according to the custom of the family).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   43

कार्पासमुपवीतं स्याद्विप्रस्यौर्ध्ववृतं त्रिवृत् । शणसूत्रमयं राज्ञो वैश्यस्याविकसौत्रिकम् ॥ २.४४॥
kārpāsamupavītaṃ syādviprasyaurdhvavṛtaṃ trivṛt | śaṇasūtramayaṃ rājño vaiśyasyāvikasautrikam || 2.44||
2.44. The sacrificial string of a Brahmana shall be made of cotton, (shall be) twisted to the right, (and consist) of three threads, that of a Kshatriya of hempen threads, (and) that of a Vaisya of woollen threads.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   44

ब्राह्मणो बैल्वपालाशौ क्षत्रियो वाटखादिरौ । पैलवौदुम्बरौ वैश्यो दण्डानर्हन्ति धर्मतः ॥ २.४५॥
brāhmaṇo bailvapālāśau kṣatriyo vāṭakhādirau | pailavaudumbarau vaiśyo daṇḍānarhanti dharmataḥ || 2.45||
2.45. A Brahmana shall (carry), according to the sacred law, a staff of Bilva or Palasa; a Kshatriya, of Vata or Khadira; (and) a Vaisya, of Pilu or Udumbara.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   45

केशान्तिको ब्राह्मणस्य दण्डः कार्यः प्रमाणतः । ललाटसम्मितो राज्ञः स्यात्तु नासान्तिको विशः ॥ २.४६॥
keśāntiko brāhmaṇasya daṇḍaḥ kāryaḥ pramāṇataḥ | lalāṭasammito rājñaḥ syāttu nāsāntiko viśaḥ || 2.46||
2.46. The staff of a Brahmana shall be made of such length as to reach the end of his hair; that of a Kshatriya, to reach his forehead; (and) that of a Vaisya, to reach (the tip of his) nose.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   46

ऋजवस्ते तु सर्वे स्युरव्रणाः सौम्यदर्शनाः । अनुद्वेगकरा नॄणां सत्वचोऽनग्निदूषिताः ॥ २.४७॥
ṛjavaste tu sarve syuravraṇāḥ saumyadarśanāḥ | anudvegakarā nṝṇāṃ satvaco'nagnidūṣitāḥ || 2.47||
2.47. Let all the staves be straight, without a blemish, handsome to look at, not likely to terrify men, with their bark perfect, unhurt by fire.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   47

प्रतिगृह्येप्सितं दण्डमुपस्थाय च भास्करम् । प्रदक्षिणं परीत्याग्निं चरेद्भैक्षं यथाविधि ॥ २.४८॥
pratigṛhyepsitaṃ daṇḍamupasthāya ca bhāskaram | pradakṣiṇaṃ parītyāgniṃ caredbhaikṣaṃ yathāvidhi || 2.48||
2.48. Having taken a staff according to his choice, having worshipped the sun and walked round the fire, turning his right hand towards it, (the student) should beg alms according to the prescribed rule.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   48

भवत्पूर्वं चरेद्भैक्षमुपनीतो द्विजोत्तमः । भवन्मध्यं तु राजन्यो वैश्यस्तु भवदुत्तरम् ॥ २.४९॥
bhavatpūrvaṃ caredbhaikṣamupanīto dvijottamaḥ | bhavanmadhyaṃ tu rājanyo vaiśyastu bhavaduttaram || 2.49||
2.49. An initiated Brahmana should beg, beginning (his request with the word) lady (bhavati); a Kshatriya, placing (the word) lady in the middle, but a Vaisya, placing it at the end (of the formula).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   49

मातरं वा स्वसारं वा मातुर्वा भगिनीं निजाम् । भिक्षेत भिक्षां प्रथमं या चैनं नावमानयेत् ॥ २.५०॥
mātaraṃ vā svasāraṃ vā māturvā bhaginīṃ nijām | bhikṣeta bhikṣāṃ prathamaṃ yā cainaṃ nāvamānayet || 2.50||
2.50. Let him first beg food of his mother, or of his sister, or of his own maternal aunt, or of (some other) female who will not disgrace him (by a refusal).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   50

समाहृत्य तु तद्भैक्षं यावदन्नममायया । यावदर्थंनिवेद्य गुरवेऽश्नीयादाचम्य प्राङ्मुखः शुचिः ॥ २.५१॥
samāhṛtya tu tadbhaikṣaṃ yāvadannamamāyayā | yāvadarthaṃnivedya gurave'śnīyādācamya prāṅmukhaḥ śuciḥ || 2.51||
2.51. Having collected as much food as is required (from several persons), and having announced it without guile to his teacher, let him eat, turning his face towards the east, and having purified himself by sipping water.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   51

आयुष्यं प्राङ्मुखो भुङ्क्ते यशस्यं दक्षिणामुखः । श्रियं प्रत्यङ्मुखो भुङ्क्ते ऋतं भुङ्क्ते ह्युदङ्मुखः ॥ २.५२॥
āyuṣyaṃ prāṅmukho bhuṅkte yaśasyaṃ dakṣiṇāmukhaḥ | śriyaṃ pratyaṅmukho bhuṅkte ṛtaṃ bhuṅkte hyudaṅmukhaḥ || 2.52||
2.52. (His meal will procure) long life, if he eats facing the east; fame, if he turns to the south; prosperity, if he turns to the west; truthfulness, if he faces the east.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   52

उपस्पृश्य द्विजो नित्यमन्नमद्यात्समाहितः । भुक्त्वा चौपस्पृशेत्सम्यगद्भिः खानि च संस्पृशेत् ॥ २.५३॥
upaspṛśya dvijo nityamannamadyātsamāhitaḥ | bhuktvā caupaspṛśetsamyagadbhiḥ khāni ca saṃspṛśet || 2.53||
2.53. Let a twice-born man always eat his food with concentrated mind, after performing an ablution; and after he has eaten, let him duly cleanse himself with water and sprinkle the cavities (of his head).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   53

पूजयेदशनं नित्यमद्याच्चैतदकुत्सयन् । दृष्ट्वा हृष्येत्प्रसीदेच्च प्रतिनन्देच्च सर्वशः ॥ २.५४॥
pūjayedaśanaṃ nityamadyāccaitadakutsayan | dṛṣṭvā hṛṣyetprasīdecca pratinandecca sarvaśaḥ || 2.54||
2.54. Let him always worship his food, and eat it without contempt; when he sees it, let him rejoice, show a pleased face, and pray that he may always obtain it.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   54

पूजितं ह्यशनं नित्यं बलमूर्जं च यच्छति । अपूजितं तु तद्भुक्तमुभयं नाशयेदिदम् ॥ २.५५॥
pūjitaṃ hyaśanaṃ nityaṃ balamūrjaṃ ca yacchati | apūjitaṃ tu tadbhuktamubhayaṃ nāśayedidam || 2.55||
2.55. Food, that is always worshipped, gives strength and manly vigour; but eaten irreverently, it destroys them both.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   55

नौच्छिष्टं कस्य चिद्दद्यान्नाद्यादेतत्तथाऽन्तरा । न चैवात्यशनं कुर्यान्न चौच्छिष्टः क्व चिद्व्रजेत् ॥ २.५६॥
naucchiṣṭaṃ kasya ciddadyānnādyādetattathā'ntarā | na caivātyaśanaṃ kuryānna caucchiṣṭaḥ kva cidvrajet || 2.56||
2.56. Let him not give to any man what he leaves, and beware of eating between (the two meal-times); let him not over-eat himself, nor go anywhere without having purified himself (after his meal).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   56

अनारोग्यमनायुष्यमस्वर्ग्यं चातिभोजनम् । अपुण्यं लोकविद्विष्टं तस्मात्तत्परिवर्जयेत् ॥ २.५७॥
anārogyamanāyuṣyamasvargyaṃ cātibhojanam | apuṇyaṃ lokavidviṣṭaṃ tasmāttatparivarjayet || 2.57||
2.57. Excessive eating is prejudicial to health, to fame, and to (bliss in) heaven; it prevents (the acquisition of) spiritual merit, and is odious among men; one ought, for these reasons, to avoid it carefully.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   57

ब्राह्मेण विप्रस्तीर्थेन नित्यकालमुपस्पृशेत् । कायत्रैदशिकाभ्यां वा न पित्र्येण कदा चन ॥ २.५८॥
brāhmeṇa viprastīrthena nityakālamupaspṛśet | kāyatraidaśikābhyāṃ vā na pitryeṇa kadā cana || 2.58||
2.58. Let a Brahmana always sip water out of the part of the hand (tirtha) sacred to Brahman, or out of that sacred to Ka (Pragapati), or out of (that) sacred to the gods, never out of that sacred to the manes.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   58

अङ्गुष्ठमूलस्य तले ब्राह्मं तीर्थं प्रचक्षते । कायमङ्गुलिमूलेऽग्रे देवं पित्र्यं तयोरधः ॥ २.५९॥
aṅguṣṭhamūlasya tale brāhmaṃ tīrthaṃ pracakṣate | kāyamaṅgulimūle'gre devaṃ pitryaṃ tayoradhaḥ || 2.59||
2.59. They call (the part) at the root of the thumb the tirtha sacred to Brahman, that at the root of the (little) finger (the tirtha) sacred to Ka (Pragapati), (that) at the tips (of the fingers, the tirtha) sacred to the gods, and that below (between the index and the thumb, the tirtha) sacred to the manes.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   59

त्रिराचामेदपः पूर्वं द्विः प्रमृज्यात्ततो मुखम् । खानि चैव स्पृशेदद्भिरात्मानं शिर एव च ॥ २.६०॥
trirācāmedapaḥ pūrvaṃ dviḥ pramṛjyāttato mukham | khāni caiva spṛśedadbhirātmānaṃ śira eva ca || 2.60||
2.60. Let him first sip water thrice; next twice wipe his mouth; and, lastly, touch with water the cavities (of the head), (the seat of) the soul and the head.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   60

अनुष्णाभिरफेनाभिरद्भिस्तीर्थेन धर्मवित् । शौचेप्सुः सर्वदाऽचामेदेकान्ते प्रागुदङ्मुखः ॥ २.६१॥
anuṣṇābhiraphenābhiradbhistīrthena dharmavit | śaucepsuḥ sarvadā'cāmedekānte prāgudaṅmukhaḥ || 2.61||
2.61. He who knows the sacred law and seeks purity shall always perform the rite of sipping with water neither hot nor frothy, with the (prescribed) tirtha, in a lonely place, and turning to the east or to the north.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   61

हृद्गाभिः पूयते विप्रः कण्ठगाभिस्तु भूमिपः । वैश्योऽद्भिः प्राशिताभिस्तु शूद्रः स्पृष्टाभिरन्ततः ॥ २.६२॥
hṛdgābhiḥ pūyate vipraḥ kaṇṭhagābhistu bhūmipaḥ | vaiśyo'dbhiḥ prāśitābhistu śūdraḥ spṛṣṭābhirantataḥ || 2.62||
2.62. A Brahmana is purified by water that reaches his heart, a Kshatriya by water reaching his throat, a Vaisya by water taken into his mouth, (and) a Sudra by water touched with the extremity (of his lips).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   62

उद्धृते दक्षिणे पाणावुपवीत्यौच्यते द्विजः । सव्ये प्राचीनावीती निवीती कण्ठसज्जने ॥ २.६३॥
uddhṛte dakṣiṇe pāṇāvupavītyaucyate dvijaḥ | savye prācīnāvītī nivītī kaṇṭhasajjane || 2.63||
2.63. A twice-born man is called upavitin when his right arm is raised (and the sacrificial string or the dress, passed under it, rests on the left shoulder); (when his) left (arm) is raised (and the string, or the dress, passed under it, rests on the right shoulder, he is called) prakinavitin; and nivitin when it hangs down (straight) from the neck.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   63

मेखलामजिनं दण्डमुपवीतं कमण्डलुम् । अप्सु प्रास्य विनष्टानि गृह्णीतान्यानि मन्त्रवत् ॥ २.६४॥
mekhalāmajinaṃ daṇḍamupavītaṃ kamaṇḍalum | apsu prāsya vinaṣṭāni gṛhṇītānyāni mantravat || 2.64||
2.64. His girdle, the skin (which serves as his upper garment), his staff, his sacrificial thread, (and) his water-pot he must throw into water, when they have been damaged, and take others, reciting sacred formulas.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   64

केशान्तः षोडशे वर्षे ब्राह्मणस्य विधीयते । राजन्यबन्धोर्द्वाविंशे वैश्यस्य द्व्यधिके मतः ॥ २.६५॥
keśāntaḥ ṣoḍaśe varṣe brāhmaṇasya vidhīyate | rājanyabandhordvāviṃśe vaiśyasya dvyadhike mataḥ || 2.65||
2.65. (The ceremony called) Kesanta (clipping the hair) is ordained for a Brahmana in the sixteenth year (from conception); for a Kshatriya, in the twenty-second; and for a Vaisya, two (years) later than that.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   65

अमन्त्रिका तु कार्यैयं स्त्रीणामावृदशेषतः । संस्कारार्थं शरीरस्य यथाकालं यथाक्रमम् ॥ २.६६॥
amantrikā tu kāryaiyaṃ strīṇāmāvṛdaśeṣataḥ | saṃskārārthaṃ śarīrasya yathākālaṃ yathākramam || 2.66||
2.66. This whole series (of ceremonies) must be performed for females (also), in order to sanctify the body, at the proper time and in the proper order, but without (the recitation of) sacred texts.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   66

वैवाहिको विधिः स्त्रीणां संस्कारो वैदिकः स्मृतः । पतिसेवा गुरौ वासो गृहार्थोऽग्निपरिक्रिया ॥ २.६७॥
vaivāhiko vidhiḥ strīṇāṃ saṃskāro vaidikaḥ smṛtaḥ | patisevā gurau vāso gṛhārtho'gniparikriyā || 2.67||
2.67. The nuptial ceremony is stated to be the Vedic sacrament for women (and to be equal to the initiation), serving the husband (equivalent to) the residence in (the house of the) teacher, and the household duties (the same) as the (daily) worship of the sacred fire.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   67

एष प्रोक्तो द्विजातीनामौपनायनिको विधिः । उत्पत्तिव्यञ्जकः पुण्यः कर्मयोगं निबोधत ॥ २.६८॥
eṣa prokto dvijātīnāmaupanāyaniko vidhiḥ | utpattivyañjakaḥ puṇyaḥ karmayogaṃ nibodhata || 2.68||
2.68. Thus has been described the rule for the initiation of the twice-born, which indicates a (new) birth, and sanctifies; learn (now) to what duties they must afterwards apply themselves.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   68

उपनीयं गुरुः शिष्यं शिक्षयेत्शौचमादितः । आचारमग्निकार्यं च संध्यौपासनमेव च ॥ २.६९॥
upanīyaṃ guruḥ śiṣyaṃ śikṣayetśaucamāditaḥ | ācāramagnikāryaṃ ca saṃdhyaupāsanameva ca || 2.69||
2.69. Having performed the (rite of) initiation, the teacher must first instruct the (pupil) in (the rules of) personal purification, of conduct, of the fire-worship, and of the twilight devotions.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   69

अध्येष्यमाणस्त्वाचान्तो यथाशास्त्रमुदङ्मुखः । ब्रह्माञ्जलिकृतोऽध्याप्यो लघुवासा जितैन्द्रियः ॥ २.७०॥
adhyeṣyamāṇastvācānto yathāśāstramudaṅmukhaḥ | brahmāñjalikṛto'dhyāpyo laghuvāsā jitaindriyaḥ || 2.70||
2.70. But (a student) who is about to begin the Study (of the Veda), shall receive instruction, after he has sipped water in accordance with the Institutes (of the sacred law), has made the Brahmangali, (has put on) a clean dress, and has brought his organs under due control.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   70

ब्रह्मारम्भेऽवसाने च पादौ ग्राह्यौ गुरोः सदा । संहत्य हस्तावध्येयं स हि ब्रह्माञ्जलिः स्मृतः ॥ २.७१॥
brahmārambhe'vasāne ca pādau grāhyau guroḥ sadā | saṃhatya hastāvadhyeyaṃ sa hi brahmāñjaliḥ smṛtaḥ || 2.71||
2.71. At the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in the) Veda he must always clasp both the feet of his teacher, (and) he must study, joining his hands; that is called the Brahmangali (joining the palms for the sake of the Veda).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   71

व्यत्यस्तपाणिना कार्यमुपसङ्ग्रहणं गुरोः । सव्येन सव्यः स्प्रष्टव्यो दक्षिणेन च दक्षिणः ॥ २.७२॥
vyatyastapāṇinā kāryamupasaṅgrahaṇaṃ guroḥ | savyena savyaḥ spraṣṭavyo dakṣiṇena ca dakṣiṇaḥ || 2.72||
2.72. With crossed hands he must clasp (the feet) of the teacher, and touch the left (foot) with his left (hand), the right (foot) with his right (hand).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   72

अध्येष्यमाणं तु गुरुर्नित्यकालमतन्द्रितः । अधीष्व भो इति ब्रूयाद्विरामोऽस्त्विति चारमेत् ॥ २.७३॥
adhyeṣyamāṇaṃ tu gururnityakālamatandritaḥ | adhīṣva bho iti brūyādvirāmo'stviti cāramet || 2.73||
2.73. But to him who is about to begin studying, the teacher always unwearied, must say: Ho, recite! He shall leave off (when the teacher says): Let a stoppage take place!

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   73

ब्रह्मणः प्रणवं कुर्यादादावन्ते च सर्वदा । स्रवत्यनोङ्कृतं पूर्वं परस्ताच्च विशीर्यति ॥ २.७४॥
brahmaṇaḥ praṇavaṃ kuryādādāvante ca sarvadā | sravatyanoṅkṛtaṃ pūrvaṃ parastācca viśīryati || 2.74||
2.74. Let him always pronounce the syllable Om at the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in) the Veda; (for) unless the syllable Om precede (the lesson) will slip away (from him), and unless it follow it will fade away.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   74

प्राक्कूलान् पर्युपासीनः पवित्रैश्चैव पावितः । प्राणायामैस्त्रिभिः पूतस्तत ओं। कारमर्हति ॥ २.७५॥
prākkūlān paryupāsīnaḥ pavitraiścaiva pāvitaḥ | prāṇāyāmaistribhiḥ pūtastata oṃ| kāramarhati || 2.75||
2.75. Seated on (blades of Kusa grass) with their points to the east, purified by Pavitras (blades of Kusa grass), and sanctified by three suppressions of the breath (Pranayama), he is worthy (to pronounce) the syllable Om.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   75

अकारं चाप्युकारं च मकारं च प्रजापतिः । वेदत्रयान्निरदुहद्भूर्भुवः स्वरितीति च ॥ २.७६॥
akāraṃ cāpyukāraṃ ca makāraṃ ca prajāpatiḥ | vedatrayānniraduhadbhūrbhuvaḥ svaritīti ca || 2.76||
2.76. Pragapati (the lord of creatures) milked out (as it were) from the three Vedas the sounds A, U, and M, and (the Vyahritis) Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   76

त्रिभ्य एव तु वेदेभ्यः पादं पादमदूदुहत् । तदित्यर्चोऽस्याः सावित्र्याः परमेष्ठी प्रजापतिः ॥ २.७७॥
tribhya eva tu vedebhyaḥ pādaṃ pādamadūduhat | tadityarco'syāḥ sāvitryāḥ parameṣṭhī prajāpatiḥ || 2.77||
2.77. Moreover from the three Vedas Pragapati, who dwells in the highest heaven (Parameshthin), milked out (as it were) that Rik-verse, sacred to Savitri (Savitri), which begins with the word tad, one foot from each.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   77

एतदक्षरमेतां च जपन् व्याहृतिपूर्विकाम् । संध्ययोर्वेदविद्विप्रो वेदपुण्येन युज्यते ॥ २.७८॥
etadakṣarametāṃ ca japan vyāhṛtipūrvikām | saṃdhyayorvedavidvipro vedapuṇyena yujyate || 2.78||
2.78. A Brahmana, learned in the Veda, who recites during both twilights that syllable and that (verse), preceded by the Vyahritis, gains the (whole) merit which (the recitation of) the Vedas confers.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   78

सहस्रकृत्वस्त्वभ्यस्य बहिरेतत्त्रिकं द्विजः । महतोऽप्येनसो मासात्त्वचैवाहिर्विमुच्यते ॥ २.७९॥
sahasrakṛtvastvabhyasya bahiretattrikaṃ dvijaḥ | mahato'pyenaso māsāttvacaivāhirvimucyate || 2.79||
2.79. A twice-born man who (daily) repeats those three one thousand times outside (the village), will be freed after a month even from great guilt, as a snake from its slough.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   79

एतयाऋचा विसंयुक्तः काले च क्रियया स्वया । ब्रह्मक्षत्रियविद्योनिर्गर्हणां याति साधुषु ॥ २.८०॥
etayāṛcā visaṃyuktaḥ kāle ca kriyayā svayā | brahmakṣatriyavidyonirgarhaṇāṃ yāti sādhuṣu || 2.80||
2.80. The Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya who neglect (the recitation of) that Rik-verse and the timely (performance of the) rites (prescribed for) them, will be blamed among virtuous men.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   80

ओंकारपूर्विकास्तिस्रो महाव्याहृतयोऽव्ययाः । त्रिपदा चैव सावित्री विज्ञेयं ब्रह्मणो मुखम् ॥ २.८१॥
oṃkārapūrvikāstisro mahāvyāhṛtayo'vyayāḥ | tripadā caiva sāvitrī vijñeyaṃ brahmaṇo mukham || 2.81||
2.81. Know that the three imperishable Mahavyahritis, preceded by the syllable Om, and (followed) by the three-footed Savitri are the portal of the Veda and the gate leading (to union with) Brahman.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   81

योऽधीतेऽहन्यहन्येतां त्रीणि वर्षाण्यतन्द्रितः । स ब्रह्म परमभ्येति वायुभूतः खमूर्तिमान् ॥ २.८२॥
yo'dhīte'hanyahanyetāṃ trīṇi varṣāṇyatandritaḥ | sa brahma paramabhyeti vāyubhūtaḥ khamūrtimān || 2.82||
2.82. He who daily recites that (verse), untired, during three years, will enter (after death) the highest Brahman, move as free as air, and assume an ethereal form.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   82

एकाक्षरं परं ब्रह्म प्राणायामः परं तपः । सावित्र्यास्तु परं नास्ति मौनात्सत्यं विशिष्यते ॥ २.८३॥
ekākṣaraṃ paraṃ brahma prāṇāyāmaḥ paraṃ tapaḥ | sāvitryāstu paraṃ nāsti maunātsatyaṃ viśiṣyate || 2.83||
2.83. The monosyllable (Om) is the highest Brahman, (three) suppressions of the breath are the best (form of) austerity, but nothing surpasses the Savitri truthfulness is better than silence.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   83

क्षरन्ति सर्वा वैदिक्यो जुहोतियजतिक्रियाः । अक्षरं त्वक्षरं ज्ञेयं ब्रह्म चैव प्रजापतिः ॥ २.८४॥
kṣaranti sarvā vaidikyo juhotiyajatikriyāḥ | akṣaraṃ tvakṣaraṃ jñeyaṃ brahma caiva prajāpatiḥ || 2.84||
2.84. All rites ordained in the Veda, burnt oblations and (other) sacrifices, pass away; but know that the syllable (Om) is imperishable, and (it is) Brahman, (and) the Lord of creatures (Pragapati).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   84

विधियज्ञाज्जपयज्ञो विशिष्टो दशभिर्गुणैः । उपांशुः स्यात्शतगुणः साहस्रो मानसः स्मृतः ॥ २.८५॥
vidhiyajñājjapayajño viśiṣṭo daśabhirguṇaiḥ | upāṃśuḥ syātśataguṇaḥ sāhasro mānasaḥ smṛtaḥ || 2.85||
2.85. An offering, consisting of muttered prayers, is ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice performed according to the rules (of the Veda); a (prayer) which is inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred times, and the mental (recitation of sacred texts) a thousand times.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   85

ये पाकयज्ञाः चत्वारो विधियज्ञसमन्विताः । सर्वे ते जपयज्ञस्य कलां नार्हन्ति षोडशीम् ॥ २.८६॥
ye pākayajñāḥ catvāro vidhiyajñasamanvitāḥ | sarve te japayajñasya kalāṃ nārhanti ṣoḍaśīm || 2.86||
2.86. The four Pakayagnas and those sacrifices which are enjoined by the rules (of the Veda) are all together not equal in value to a sixteenth part of the sacrifice consisting of muttered prayers.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   86

जप्येनैव तु संसिध्येद्ब्राह्मणो नात्र संशयः । कुर्यादन्यन्न वा कुर्यान् मैत्रो ब्राह्मण उच्यते ॥ २.८७॥
japyenaiva tu saṃsidhyedbrāhmaṇo nātra saṃśayaḥ | kuryādanyanna vā kuryān maitro brāhmaṇa ucyate || 2.87||
2.87. But, undoubtedly, a Brahmana reaches the highest goal by muttering prayers only; (whether) he perform other (rites) or neglect them, he who befriends (all creatures) is declared (to be) a (true) Brahmana.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   87

इन्द्रियाणां विचरतां विषयेष्वपहारिषु । संयमे यत्नमातिष्ठेद्विद्वान् यन्तैव वाजिनाम् ॥ २.८८॥
indriyāṇāṃ vicaratāṃ viṣayeṣvapahāriṣu | saṃyame yatnamātiṣṭhedvidvān yantaiva vājinām || 2.88||
2.88. A wise man should strive to restrain his organs which run wild among alluring sensual objects, like a charioteer his horses.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   88

एकादशेन्द्रियाण्याहुर्यानि पूर्वे मनीषिणः । तानि सम्यक्प्रवक्ष्यामि यथावदनुपूर्वशः ॥ २.८९॥
ekādaśendriyāṇyāhuryāni pūrve manīṣiṇaḥ | tāni samyakpravakṣyāmi yathāvadanupūrvaśaḥ || 2.89||
2.89. Those eleven organs which former sages have named, I will properly (and) precisely enumerate in due order,

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   89

श्रोत्रं त्वक्चक्षुषी जिह्वा नासिका चैव पञ्चमी । पायूपस्थं हस्तपादं वाक्चैव दशमी स्मृता ॥ २.९०॥
śrotraṃ tvakcakṣuṣī jihvā nāsikā caiva pañcamī | pāyūpasthaṃ hastapādaṃ vākcaiva daśamī smṛtā || 2.90||
2.90. (Viz.) the ear, the skin, the eyes, the tongue, and the nose as the fifth, the anus, the organ of generation, hands and feet, and the (organ of) speech, named as the tenth.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   90

बुद्धीन्द्रियाणि पञ्चैषां श्रोत्रादीन्यनुपूर्वशः । कर्मेन्द्रियाणि पञ्चैषां पाय्वादीनि प्रचक्षते ॥ २.९१॥
buddhīndriyāṇi pañcaiṣāṃ śrotrādīnyanupūrvaśaḥ | karmendriyāṇi pañcaiṣāṃ pāyvādīni pracakṣate || 2.91||
2.91. Five of them, the ear and the rest according to their order, they call organs of sense, and five of them, the anus and the rest, organs of action.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   91

एकादशं मनो ज्ञेयं स्वगुणेनौभयात्मकम् । यस्मिन् जिते जितावेतौ भवतः पञ्चकौ गणौ ॥ २.९२॥
ekādaśaṃ mano jñeyaṃ svaguṇenaubhayātmakam | yasmin jite jitāvetau bhavataḥ pañcakau gaṇau || 2.92||
2.92. Know that the internal organ (manas) is the eleventh, which by its quality belongs to both (sets); when that has been subdued, both those sets of five have been conquered.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   92

इन्द्रियाणां प्रसङ्गेन दोषं ऋच्छत्यसंशयम् । संनियम्य तु तान्येव ततः सिद्धिं निगच्छति ॥ २.९३॥
indriyāṇāṃ prasaṅgena doṣaṃ ṛcchatyasaṃśayam | saṃniyamya tu tānyeva tataḥ siddhiṃ nigacchati || 2.93||
2.93. Through the attachment of his organs (to sensual pleasure) a man doubtlessly will incur guilt; but if he keep them under complete control, he will obtain success (in gaining all his aims).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   93

न जातु कामः कामानामुपभोगेन शाम्यति । हविषा कृष्णवर्त्मैव भूय एवाभिवर्धते ॥ २.९४॥
na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānāmupabhogena śāmyati | haviṣā kṛṣṇavartmaiva bhūya evābhivardhate || 2.94||
2.94. Desire is never extinguished by the enjoyment of desired objects; it only grows stronger like a fire (fed) with clarified butter.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   94

यश्चैतान् प्राप्नुयात्सर्वान् यश्चैतान् केवलांस्त्यजेत् ॥प्रापणात्सर्वकामानां परित्यागो विशिष्यते ॥ २.९५॥
yaścaitān prāpnuyātsarvān yaścaitān kevalāṃstyajet || prāpaṇātsarvakāmānāṃ parityāgo viśiṣyate || 2.95||
2.95. If one man should obtain all those (sensual enjoyments) and another should renounce them all, the renunciation of all pleasure is far better than the attainment of them.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   95

न तथैतानि शक्यन्ते संनियन्तुमसेवया ॥विषयेषु प्रजुष्टानि यथा ज्ञानेन नित्यशः ॥ २.९६॥
na tathaitāni śakyante saṃniyantumasevayā || viṣayeṣu prajuṣṭāni yathā jñānena nityaśaḥ || 2.96||
2.96. Those (organs) which are strongly attached to sensual pleasures, cannot so effectually be restrained by abstinence (from enjoyments) as by a constant (pursuit of true) knowledge.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   96

वेदास्त्यागश्च यज्ञाश्च नियमाश्च तपांसि च । न विप्रदुष्टभावस्य सिद्धिं गच्छति कर्हि चित् ॥ २.९७॥
vedāstyāgaśca yajñāśca niyamāśca tapāṃsi ca | na vipraduṣṭabhāvasya siddhiṃ gacchati karhi cit || 2.97||
2.97. Neither (the study of) the Vedas, nor liberality, nor sacrifices, nor any (self-imposed) restraint, nor austerities, ever procure the attainment (of rewards) to a man whose heart is contaminated (by sensuality).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   97

श्रुत्वा स्पृष्ट्वा च दृष्ट्वा च भुक्त्वा घ्रात्वा च यो नरः । न हृष्यति ग्लायति वा स विज्ञेयो जितैन्द्रियः ॥ २.९८॥
śrutvā spṛṣṭvā ca dṛṣṭvā ca bhuktvā ghrātvā ca yo naraḥ | na hṛṣyati glāyati vā sa vijñeyo jitaindriyaḥ || 2.98||
2.98. That man may be considered to have (really) subdued his organs, who on hearing and touching and seeing, on tasting and smelling (anything) neither rejoices nor repines.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   98

इन्द्रियाणां तु सर्वेषां यद्येकं क्षरतीन्द्रियम् । तेनास्य क्षरति प्रज्ञा दृतेः पादादिवोदकम् ॥ २.९९॥
indriyāṇāṃ tu sarveṣāṃ yadyekaṃ kṣaratīndriyam | tenāsya kṣarati prajñā dṛteḥ pādādivodakam || 2.99||
2.99. But when one among all the organs slips away (from control), thereby (man’s) wisdom slips away from him, even as the water (flows) through the one (open) foot of a (water-carrier’s) skin.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   99

वशे कृत्वेन्द्रियग्रामं संयम्य च मनस्तथा । सर्वान् संसाधयेदर्थानक्षिण्वन् योगतस्तनुम् ॥ २.१००॥
vaśe kṛtvendriyagrāmaṃ saṃyamya ca manastathā | sarvān saṃsādhayedarthānakṣiṇvan yogatastanum || 2.100||
2.100. If he keeps all the (ten) organs as well as the mind in subjection, he may gain all his aims, without reducing his body by (the practice) of Yoga.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   100

पूर्वां संध्यां जपंस्तिष्ठेत्सावित्रीमाऽर्कदर्शनात् । पश्चिमां तु सदासीत सम्यगृक्षविभावनात् ॥ २.१०१॥
pūrvāṃ saṃdhyāṃ japaṃstiṣṭhetsāvitrīmā'rkadarśanāt | paścimāṃ tu sadāsīta samyagṛkṣavibhāvanāt || 2.101||
2.101. Let him stand during the morning twilight, muttering the Savitri until the sun appears, but (let him recite it), seated, in the evening until the constellations can be seen distinctly.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   101

पूर्वां संध्यां जपंस्तिष्ठन्नैशमेनो व्यपोहति । पश्चिमां तु समासीनो मलं हन्ति दिवाकृतम् ॥ २.१०२॥
pūrvāṃ saṃdhyāṃ japaṃstiṣṭhannaiśameno vyapohati | paścimāṃ tu samāsīno malaṃ hanti divākṛtam || 2.102||
2.102. He who stands during the morning twilight muttering (the Savitri), removes the guilt contracted during the (previous) night; but he who (recites it), seated, in the evening, destroys the sin he committed during the day.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   102

न तिष्ठति तु यः पूर्वां नौपास्ते यश्च पश्चिमाम् । स शूद्रवद्बहिष्कार्यः सर्वस्माद्द्विजकर्मणः ॥ २.१०३॥
na tiṣṭhati tu yaḥ pūrvāṃ naupāste yaśca paścimām | sa śūdravadbahiṣkāryaḥ sarvasmāddvijakarmaṇaḥ || 2.103||
2.103. But he who does not (worship) standing in the morning, nor sitting in the evening, shall be excluded, just like a Sudra, from all the duties and rights of an Aryan.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   103

अपां समीपे नियतो नैत्यकं विधिमास्थितः । सावित्रीमप्यधीयीत गत्वाऽरण्यं समाहितः ॥ २.१०४॥
apāṃ samīpe niyato naityakaṃ vidhimāsthitaḥ | sāvitrīmapyadhīyīta gatvā'raṇyaṃ samāhitaḥ || 2.104||
2.104. He who (desires to) perform the ceremony (of the) daily (recitation), may even recite the Savitri near water, retiring into the forest, controlling his organs and concentrating his mind.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   104

वेदौपकरणे चैव स्वाध्याये चैव नैत्यके । नानुरोधोऽस्त्यनध्याये होममन्त्रेषु चैव हि ॥ २.१०५॥
vedaupakaraṇe caiva svādhyāye caiva naityake | nānurodho'styanadhyāye homamantreṣu caiva hi || 2.105||
2.105. Both when (one studies) the supplementary treatises of the Veda, and when (one recites) the daily portion of the Veda, no regard need be paid to forbidden days, likewise when (one repeats) the sacred texts required for a burnt oblation.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   105

नैत्यके नास्त्यनध्यायो ब्रह्मसत्रं हि तत्स्मृतम् ॥ब्रह्माहुतिहुतं पुण्यमनध्यायवषट्कृतम् ॥ २.१०६॥
naityake nāstyanadhyāyo brahmasatraṃ hi tatsmṛtam || brahmāhutihutaṃ puṇyamanadhyāyavaṣaṭkṛtam || 2.106||
2.106. There are no forbidden days for the daily recitation, since that is declared to be a Brahmasattra (an everlasting sacrifice offered to Brahman); at that the Veda takes the place of the burnt oblations, and it is meritorious (even), when (natural phenomena, requiring) a cessation of the Veda-study, take the place of the exclamation Vashat.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   106

यः स्वाध्यायमधीतेऽब्दं विधिना नियतः शुचिः । तस्य नित्यं क्षरत्येष पयो दधि घृतं मधु ॥ २.१०७॥
yaḥ svādhyāyamadhīte'bdaṃ vidhinā niyataḥ śuciḥ | tasya nityaṃ kṣaratyeṣa payo dadhi ghṛtaṃ madhu || 2.107||
2.107. For him who, being pure and controlling his organs, during a year daily recites the Veda according to the rule, that (daily recitation) will ever cause sweet and sour milk, clarified butter and honey to flow

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   107

अग्नीन्धनं भैक्षचर्यामधःशय्यां गुरोर्हितम् । आ समावर्तनात्कुर्यात्कृतोपनयनो द्विजः ॥ २.१०८॥
agnīndhanaṃ bhaikṣacaryāmadhaḥśayyāṃ gurorhitam | ā samāvartanātkuryātkṛtopanayano dvijaḥ || 2.108||
2.108. Let an Aryan who has been initiated, (daily) offer fuel in the sacred fire, beg food, sleep on the ground and do what is beneficial to this teacher, until (he performs the ceremony of) Samavartana (on returning home).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   108

आचार्यपुत्रः शुश्रूषुर्ज्ञानदो धार्मिकः शुचिः । आप्तः शक्तोऽर्थदः साधुः स्वोऽध्याप्या दश धर्मतः ॥ २.१०९॥
ācāryaputraḥ śuśrūṣurjñānado dhārmikaḥ śuciḥ | āptaḥ śakto'rthadaḥ sādhuḥ svo'dhyāpyā daśa dharmataḥ || 2.109||
2.109. According to the sacred law the (following) ten (persons, viz.) the teacher’s son, one who desires to do service, one who imparts knowledge, one who is intent on fulfilling the law, one who is pure, a person connected by marriage or friendship, one who possesses (mental) ability, one who makes presents of money, one who is honest, and a relative, may be instructed (in the Veda).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   109

नापृष्टः कस्य चिद्ब्रूयान्न चान्यायेन पृच्छतः । जानन्नपि हि मेधावी जडवल्लोक आचरेत् ॥ २.११०॥
nāpṛṣṭaḥ kasya cidbrūyānna cānyāyena pṛcchataḥ | jānannapi hi medhāvī jaḍavalloka ācaret || 2.110||
2.110. Unless one be asked, one must not explain (anything) to anybody, nor (must one answer) a person who asks improperly; let a wise man, though he knows (the answer), behave among men as (if he were) an idiot.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   110

अधर्मेण च यः प्राह यश्चाधर्मेण पृच्छति । तयोरन्यतरः प्रैति विद्वेषं वाऽधिगच्छति ॥ २.१११॥
adharmeṇa ca yaḥ prāha yaścādharmeṇa pṛcchati | tayoranyataraḥ praiti vidveṣaṃ vā'dhigacchati || 2.111||
2.111. Of the two persons, him who illegally explains (anything), and him who illegally asks (a question), one (or both) will die or incur (the other’s) enmity.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   111

धर्मार्थौ यत्र न स्यातां शुश्रूषा वाऽपि तद्विधा । तत्र विद्या न वप्तव्या शुभं बीजमिवौषरे ॥ २.११२॥
dharmārthau yatra na syātāṃ śuśrūṣā vā'pi tadvidhā | tatra vidyā na vaptavyā śubhaṃ bījamivauṣare || 2.112||
2.112. Where merit and wealth are not (obtained by teaching) nor (at least) due obedience, in such (soil) sacred knowledge must not be sown, just as good seed (must) not (be thrown) on barren land.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   112

विद्ययैव समं कामं मर्तव्यं ब्रह्मवादिना । आपद्यपि हि घोरायां न त्वेनामिरिणे वपेत् ॥ २.११३॥
vidyayaiva samaṃ kāmaṃ martavyaṃ brahmavādinā | āpadyapi hi ghorāyāṃ na tvenāmiriṇe vapet || 2.113||
2.113. Even in times of dire distress a teacher of the Veda should rather die with his knowledge than sow it in barren soil.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   113

विद्या ब्राह्मणमेत्याह शेवधिष्टेऽस्मि रक्ष माम् । असूयकाय मां मादास्तथा स्यां वीर्यवत्तमा ॥ २.११४॥
vidyā brāhmaṇametyāha śevadhiṣṭe'smi rakṣa mām | asūyakāya māṃ mādāstathā syāṃ vīryavattamā || 2.114||
2.114. Sacred Learning approached a Brahmana and said to him: ’I am thy treasure, preserve me, deliver me not to a scorner; so (preserved) I shall become supremely strong.’

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   114

यमेव तु शुचिं विद्या नियतं ब्रह्मचारिणम् । तस्मै मां ब्रूहि विप्राय निधिपायाप्रमादिने ॥ २.११५॥
yameva tu śuciṃ vidyā niyataṃ brahmacāriṇam | tasmai māṃ brūhi viprāya nidhipāyāpramādine || 2.115||
2.115. ’But deliver me, as to the keeper of thy treasure, to a Brahmana whom thou shalt know to be pure, of subdued senses, chaste and attentive.’

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   115

ब्रह्म यस्त्वननुज्ञातमधीयानादवाप्नुयात् । स ब्रह्मस्तेयसंयुक्तो नरकं प्रतिपद्यते ॥ २.११६॥
brahma yastvananujñātamadhīyānādavāpnuyāt | sa brahmasteyasaṃyukto narakaṃ pratipadyate || 2.116||
2.116. But he who acquires without permission the Veda from one who recites it, incurs the guilt of stealing the Veda, and shall sink into hell.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   116

लौकिकं वैदिकं वाऽपि तथाऽध्यात्मिकमेव वा । आददीत यतो ज्ञानं तं पूर्वमभिवादयेत् ॥ २.११७॥
laukikaṃ vaidikaṃ vā'pi tathā'dhyātmikameva vā | ādadīta yato jñānaṃ taṃ pūrvamabhivādayet || 2.117||
2.117. (A student) shall first reverentially salute that (teacher) from whom he receives (knowledge), referring to worldly affairs, to the Veda, or to the Brahman.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   117

सावित्रीमात्रसारोऽपि वरं विप्रः सुयन्त्रितः । नायन्त्रितस्त्रिवेदोऽपि सर्वाशी सर्वविक्रयी ॥ २.११८॥
sāvitrīmātrasāro'pi varaṃ vipraḥ suyantritaḥ | nāyantritastrivedo'pi sarvāśī sarvavikrayī || 2.118||
2.118. A Brahmana who completely governs himself, though he know the Savitri only, is better than he who knows the three Vedas, (but) does not control himself, eats all (sorts of) food, and sells all (sorts of goods).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   118

शय्याऽऽसनेऽध्याचरिते श्रेयसा न समाविशेत् । शय्याऽऽसनस्थश्चैवेनं प्रत्युत्थायाभिवादयेत् ॥ २.११९॥
śayyā''sane'dhyācarite śreyasā na samāviśet | śayyā''sanasthaścaivenaṃ pratyutthāyābhivādayet || 2.119||
2.119. One must not sit down on a couch or seat which a superior occupies; and he who occupies a couch or seat shall rise to meet a (superior), and (afterwards) salute him.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   119

ऊर्ध्वं प्राणा ह्युत्क्रमन्ति यूनः स्थविर आयति । प्रत्युत्थानाभिवादाभ्यां पुनस्तान् प्रतिपद्यते ॥ २.१२०॥
ūrdhvaṃ prāṇā hyutkramanti yūnaḥ sthavira āyati | pratyutthānābhivādābhyāṃ punastān pratipadyate || 2.120||
2.120. For the vital airs of a young man mount upwards to leave his body when an elder approaches; but by rising to meet him and saluting he recovers them.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   120

अभिवादनशीलस्य नित्यं वृद्धोपसेविनः । चत्वारि सम्प्रवर्धन्ते आयुर्धर्मो यशो बलम् ॥ २.१२१॥
abhivādanaśīlasya nityaṃ vṛddhopasevinaḥ | catvāri sampravardhante āyurdharmo yaśo balam || 2.121||
2.121. He who habitually salutes and constantly pays reverence to the aged obtains an increase of four (things), (viz.) length of life, knowledge, fame, (and) streng

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   121

अभिवादात्परं विप्रो ज्यायांसमभिवादयन् । असौ नामाहमस्मीति स्वं नाम परिकीर्तयेत् ॥ २.१२२॥
abhivādātparaṃ vipro jyāyāṃsamabhivādayan | asau nāmāhamasmīti svaṃ nāma parikīrtayet || 2.122||
2.122. After the (word of) salutation, a Brahmana who greets an elder must pronounce his name, saying, ’I am

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   122

नामधेयस्य ये के चिदभिवादं न जानते । तान् प्राज्ञोऽहमिति ब्रूयात्स्त्रियः सर्वास्तथैव च ॥ २.१२३॥
nāmadheyasya ye ke cidabhivādaṃ na jānate | tān prājño'hamiti brūyātstriyaḥ sarvāstathaiva ca || 2.123||
2.123. To those (persons) who, when a name is pronounced, do not understand (the meaning of) the salutation, a wise man should say, ’It is I;’ and (he should address) in the same manner all women.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   123

भोःशब्दं कीर्तयेदन्ते स्वस्य नाम्नोऽभिवादने । नाम्नां स्वरूपभावो हि भोभाव ऋषिभिः स्मृतः ॥ २.१२४॥
bhoḥśabdaṃ kīrtayedante svasya nāmno'bhivādane | nāmnāṃ svarūpabhāvo hi bhobhāva ṛṣibhiḥ smṛtaḥ || 2.124||
2.124. In saluting he should pronounce after his name the word bhoh; for the sages have declared that the nature of bhoh is the same as that of (all proper) names.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   124

आयुष्मान् भव सौम्यैति वाच्यो विप्रोऽभिवादने । अकारश्चास्य नाम्नोऽन्ते वाच्यः पूर्वाक्षरः प्लुतः ॥ २.१२५॥
āyuṣmān bhava saumyaiti vācyo vipro'bhivādane | akāraścāsya nāmno'nte vācyaḥ pūrvākṣaraḥ plutaḥ || 2.125||
2.125. A Brahmana should thus be saluted in return, ’May’st thou be long-lived, O gentle one!’ and the vowel ’a’ must be added at the end of the name (of the person addressed), the syllable preceding it being drawn out to the length of three moras.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   125

यो न वेत्त्यभिवादस्य विप्रः प्रत्यभिवादनम् । नाभिवाद्यः स विदुषा यथा शूद्रस्तथैव सः ॥ २.१२६॥
yo na vettyabhivādasya vipraḥ pratyabhivādanam | nābhivādyaḥ sa viduṣā yathā śūdrastathaiva saḥ || 2.126||
2.126. A Brahmana who does not know the form of returning a salutation, must not be saluted by a learned man; as a Sudra, even so is he.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   126

ब्राह्मणं कुशलं पृच्छेत्क्षत्रबन्धुमनामयम् । वैश्यं क्षेमं समागम्य शूद्रमारोग्यमेव च ॥ २.१२७॥
brāhmaṇaṃ kuśalaṃ pṛcchetkṣatrabandhumanāmayam | vaiśyaṃ kṣemaṃ samāgamya śūdramārogyameva ca || 2.127||
2.127. Let him ask a Brahmana, on meeting him, after (his health, with the word) kusala, a Kshatriya (with the word) anamaya, a Vaisya (with the word) kshema, and a Sudra (with the word) anarogya.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   127

अवाच्यो दीक्षितो नाम्ना यवीयानपि यो भवेत् । भोभवत्पूर्वकं त्वेनमभिभाषेत धर्मवित् ॥ २.१२८॥
avācyo dīkṣito nāmnā yavīyānapi yo bhavet | bhobhavatpūrvakaṃ tvenamabhibhāṣeta dharmavit || 2.128||
2.128. He who has been initiated (to perform a Srauta sacrifice) must not be addressed by his name, even though he be a younger man; he who knows the sacred law must use in speaking to such (a man the particle) bhoh and (the pronoun) bhavat (your worship).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   128

परपत्नी तु या स्त्री स्यादसम्बन्धा च योनितः । तां ब्रूयाद्भवतीत्येवं सुभगे भगिनीति च ॥ २.१२९॥
parapatnī tu yā strī syādasambandhā ca yonitaḥ | tāṃ brūyādbhavatītyevaṃ subhage bhaginīti ca || 2.129||
2.129. But to a female who is the wife of another man, and not a blood-relation, he must say, ’Lady’ (bhavati) or ’Beloved sister!’

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   129

मातुलांश्च पितृव्यांश्च श्वशुरान् ऋत्विजो गुरून् । असावहमिति ब्रूयात्प्रत्युत्थाय यवीयसः ॥ २.१३०॥
mātulāṃśca pitṛvyāṃśca śvaśurān ṛtvijo gurūn | asāvahamiti brūyātpratyutthāya yavīyasaḥ || 2.130||
2.130. To his maternal and paternal uncles, fathers-in-law, officiating priests, (and other) venerable persons, he must say, ’I am N. N.,’ and rise (to meet them), even though they be younger (than himself).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   130

मातृश्वसा मातुलानी श्वश्रूरथ पितृश्वसा । सम्पूज्या गुरुपत्नीवत्समास्ता गुरुभार्यया ॥ २.१३१॥
mātṛśvasā mātulānī śvaśrūratha pitṛśvasā | sampūjyā gurupatnīvatsamāstā gurubhāryayā || 2.131||
2.131. A maternal aunt, the wife of a maternal uncle, a mother-in-law, and a paternal aunt must be honoured like the wife of one’s teacher; they are equal to the wife of one’s teacher.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   131

भ्रातुर्भार्यौपसङ्ग्राह्या सवर्णाऽहन्यहन्यपि । विप्रोष्य तूपसङ्ग्राह्या ज्ञातिसम्बन्धियोषितः ॥ २.१३२॥
bhrāturbhāryaupasaṅgrāhyā savarṇā'hanyahanyapi | viproṣya tūpasaṅgrāhyā jñātisambandhiyoṣitaḥ || 2.132||
2.132. (The feet of the) wife of one’s brother, if she be of the same caste (varna), must be clasped every day; but (the feet of) wives of (other) paternal and maternal relatives need only be embraced on one’s return from a journey.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   132

पितुर्भगिन्यां मातुश्च ज्यायस्यां च स्वसर्यपि । मातृवद्वृत्तिमातिष्ठेन् माता ताभ्यो गरीयसी ॥ २.१३३॥
piturbhaginyāṃ mātuśca jyāyasyāṃ ca svasaryapi | mātṛvadvṛttimātiṣṭhen mātā tābhyo garīyasī || 2.133||
2.133. Towards a sister of one’s father and of one’s mother, and towards one’s own elder sister, one must behave as towards one’s mother; (but) the mother is more venerable than they.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   133

दशाब्दाख्यं पौरसख्यं पञ्चाब्दाख्यं कलाभृताम् । त्र्यब्दपूर्वं श्रोत्रियाणां स्वल्पेनापि स्वयोनिषु ॥ २.१३४॥
daśābdākhyaṃ paurasakhyaṃ pañcābdākhyaṃ kalābhṛtām | tryabdapūrvaṃ śrotriyāṇāṃ svalpenāpi svayoniṣu || 2.134||
2.134. Fellow-citizens are called friends (and equals though one be) ten years (older than the other), men practising (the same) fine art (though one be) five years (older than the other), Srotriyas (though) three years (intervene between their ages), but blood-relations only (if the) difference of age be very small.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   134

ब्राह्मणं दशवर्षं तु शतवर्षं तु भूमिपम् । पितापुत्रौ विजानीयाद्ब्राह्मणस्तु तयोः पिता ॥ २.१३५॥
brāhmaṇaṃ daśavarṣaṃ tu śatavarṣaṃ tu bhūmipam | pitāputrau vijānīyādbrāhmaṇastu tayoḥ pitā || 2.135||
2.135. Know that a Brahmana of ten years and Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation of father and son; but between those two the Brahmana is the father.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   135

वित्तं बन्धुर्वयः कर्म विद्या भवति पञ्चमी । एतानि मानस्थानानि गरीयो यद्यदुत्तरम् ॥ २.१३६॥
vittaṃ bandhurvayaḥ karma vidyā bhavati pañcamī | etāni mānasthānāni garīyo yadyaduttaram || 2.136||
2.136. Wealth, kindred, age, (the due performance of) rites, and, fifthly, sacred learning are titles to respect; but each later-named (cause) is more weighty (than the preceding ones).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   136

पञ्चानां त्रिषु वर्णेषु भूयांसि गुणवन्ति च । यत्र स्युः सोऽत्र मानार्हः शूद्रोऽपि दशमीं गतः ॥ २.१३७॥
pañcānāṃ triṣu varṇeṣu bhūyāṃsi guṇavanti ca | yatra syuḥ so'tra mānārhaḥ śūdro'pi daśamīṃ gataḥ || 2.137||
2.137. Whatever man of the three (highest) castes possesses most of those five, both in number and degree, that man is worthy of honour among them; and (so is) also a Sudra who has entered the tenth (decade of his life).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   137

चक्रिणो दशमीस्थस्य रोगिणो भारिणः स्त्रियाः । स्नातकस्य च राज्ञश्च पन्था देयो वरस्य च ॥ २.१३८॥
cakriṇo daśamīsthasya rogiṇo bhāriṇaḥ striyāḥ | snātakasya ca rājñaśca panthā deyo varasya ca || 2.138||
2.138. Way must be made for a man in a carriage, for one who is above ninety years old, for one diseased, for the carrier of a burden, for a woman, for a Snataka, for the king, and for a bridegroom.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   138

तेषां तु समवेतानां मान्यौ स्नातकपार्थिवौ । राजस्नातकयोश्चैव स्नातको नृपमानभाक् ॥ २.१३९॥
teṣāṃ tu samavetānāṃ mānyau snātakapārthivau | rājasnātakayoścaiva snātako nṛpamānabhāk || 2.139||
2.139. Among all those, if they meet (at one time), a Snataka and the king must be (most) honoured; and if the king and a Snataka (meet), the latter receives respect from the king.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   139

उपनीय तु यः शिष्यं वेदमध्यापयेद्द्विजः । सकल्पं सरहस्यं च तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ॥ २.१४०॥
upanīya tu yaḥ śiṣyaṃ vedamadhyāpayeddvijaḥ | sakalpaṃ sarahasyaṃ ca tamācāryaṃ pracakṣate || 2.140||
2.140. They call that Brahmana who initiates a pupil and teaches him the Veda together with the Kalpa and the Rahasyas, the teacher (akarya, of the latter).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   140

एकदेशं तु वेदस्य वेदाङ्गान्यपि वा पुनः । योऽध्यापयति वृत्त्यर्थमुपाध्यायः स उच्यते ॥ २.१४१॥
ekadeśaṃ tu vedasya vedāṅgānyapi vā punaḥ | yo'dhyāpayati vṛttyarthamupādhyāyaḥ sa ucyate || 2.141||
2.141. But he who for his livelihood teaches a portion only of the Veda, or also the Angas of the Veda, is called the sub-teacher (upadhyaya).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   141

निषेकादीनि कर्माणि यः करोति यथाविधि । सम्भावयति चान्नेन स विप्रो गुरुरुच्यते ॥ २.१४२॥
niṣekādīni karmāṇi yaḥ karoti yathāvidhi | sambhāvayati cānnena sa vipro gururucyate || 2.142||
2.142. That Brahmana, who performs in accordance with the rules (of the Veda) the rites, the Garbhadhana (conception-rite), and so forth, and gives food (to the child), is called the Guru (the venerable one).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   142

अग्न्याधेयं पाकयज्ञानग्निष्टोमादिकान् मखान् । यः करोति वृतो यस्य स तस्यर्त्विगिहोच्यते ॥ २.१४३॥
agnyādheyaṃ pākayajñānagniṣṭomādikān makhān | yaḥ karoti vṛto yasya sa tasyartvigihocyate || 2.143||
2.143. He who, being (duly) chosen (for the purpose), performs the Agnyadheya, the Pakayagnas, (and) the (Srauta) sacrifices, such as the Agnishtoma (for another man), is called (his) officiating priest.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   143

य आवृणोत्यवितथं ब्रह्मणा श्रवणावुभौ । स माता स पिता ज्ञेयस्तं न द्रुह्येत्कदा चन ॥ २.१४४॥
ya āvṛṇotyavitathaṃ brahmaṇā śravaṇāvubhau | sa mātā sa pitā jñeyastaṃ na druhyetkadā cana || 2.144||
2.144. That (man) who truthfully fills both his ears with the Veda, (the pupil) shall consider as his father and mother; he must never offend him.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   144

उपाध्यायान् दशाचार्य आचार्याणां शतं पिता । सहस्रं तु पितॄन् माता गौरवेणातिरिच्यते ॥ २.१४५॥
upādhyāyān daśācārya ācāryāṇāṃ śataṃ pitā | sahasraṃ tu pitṝn mātā gauraveṇātiricyate || 2.145||
2.145. The teacher (akarya) is ten times more venerable than a sub-teacher (upadhyaya), the father a hundred times more than the teacher, but the mother a thousand times more than the father.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   145

उत्पादकब्रह्मदात्रोर्गरीयान् ब्रह्मदः पिता । ब्रह्मजन्म हि विप्रस्य प्रेत्य चैह च शाश्वतम् ॥ २.१४६॥
utpādakabrahmadātrorgarīyān brahmadaḥ pitā | brahmajanma hi viprasya pretya caiha ca śāśvatam || 2.146||
2.146. Of him who gives natural birth and him who gives (the knowledge of) the Veda, the giver of the Veda is the more venerable father; for the birth for the sake of the Veda (ensures) eternal (rewards) both in this (life) and after death.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   146

कामान् माता पिता चैनं यदुत्पादयतो मिथः । सम्भूतिं तस्य तां विद्याद्यद्योनावभिजायते ॥ २.१४७॥
kāmān mātā pitā cainaṃ yadutpādayato mithaḥ | sambhūtiṃ tasya tāṃ vidyādyadyonāvabhijāyate || 2.147||
2.147. Let him consider that (he received) a (mere animal) existence, when his parents begat him through mutual affection, and when he was born from the womb (of his mother).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   147

आचार्यस्त्वस्य यां जातिं विधिवद्वेदपारगः । उत्पादयति सावित्र्या सा सत्या साऽजराऽमरा ॥ २.१४८॥
ācāryastvasya yāṃ jātiṃ vidhivadvedapāragaḥ | utpādayati sāvitryā sā satyā sā'jarā'marā || 2.148||
2.148. But that birth which a teacher acquainted with the whole Veda, in accordance with the law, procures for him through the Savitri, is real, exempt from age and deat

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   148

अल्पं वा बहु वा यस्य श्रुतस्यौपकरोति यः । तमपीह गुरुं विद्यात्श्रुतौपक्रियया तया ॥ २.१४९॥
alpaṃ vā bahu vā yasya śrutasyaupakaroti yaḥ | tamapīha guruṃ vidyātśrutaupakriyayā tayā || 2.149||
2.149. (The pupil) must know that that man also who benefits him by (instruction in) the Veda, be it little or much, is called in these (Institutes) his Guru, in consequence of that benefit (conferred by instruction in) the Veda.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   149

ब्राह्मस्य जन्मनः कर्ता स्वधर्मस्य च शासिता । बालोऽपि विप्रो वृद्धस्य पिता भवति धर्मतः ॥ २.१५०॥
brāhmasya janmanaḥ kartā svadharmasya ca śāsitā | bālo'pi vipro vṛddhasya pitā bhavati dharmataḥ || 2.150||
2.150. That Brahmana who is the giver of the birth for the sake of the Veda and the teacher of the prescribed duties becomes by law the father of an aged man, even though he himself be a child.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   150

अध्यापयामास पितॄन् शिशुराङ्गिरसः कविः । पुत्रका इति हौवाच ज्ञानेन परिगृह्य तान् ॥ २.१५१॥
adhyāpayāmāsa pitṝn śiśurāṅgirasaḥ kaviḥ | putrakā iti hauvāca jñānena parigṛhya tān || 2.151||
2.151. Young Kavi, the son of Angiras, taught his (relatives who were old enough to be) fathers, and, as he excelled them in (sacred) knowledge, he called them ’Little sons.’

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   151

ते तमर्थमपृच्छन्त देवानागतमन्यवः । देवाश्चैतान् समेत्यौचुर्न्याय्यं वः शिशुरुक्तवान् ॥ २.१५२॥
te tamarthamapṛcchanta devānāgatamanyavaḥ | devāścaitān sametyaucurnyāyyaṃ vaḥ śiśuruktavān || 2.152||
2.152. They, moved with resentment, asked the gods concerning that matter, and the gods, having assembled, answered, ’The child has addressed you properly.’

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   152

अज्ञो भवति वै बालः पिता भवति मन्त्रदः । अज्ञं हि बालमित्याहुः पितेत्येव तु मन्त्रदम् ॥ २.१५३॥
ajño bhavati vai bālaḥ pitā bhavati mantradaḥ | ajñaṃ hi bālamityāhuḥ pitetyeva tu mantradam || 2.153||
2.153. ’For (a man) destitute of (sacred) knowledge is indeed a child, and he who teaches him the Veda is his father; for (the sages) have always said "child" to an ignorant man, and "father" to a teacher of the Veda.’

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   153

न हायनैर्न पलितैर्न वित्तेन न बन्धुभिः । ऋषयश्चक्रिरे धर्मं योऽनूचानः स नो महान् ॥ २.१५४॥
na hāyanairna palitairna vittena na bandhubhiḥ | ṛṣayaścakrire dharmaṃ yo'nūcānaḥ sa no mahān || 2.154||
2.154. Neither through years, nor through white (hairs), nor through wealth, nor through (powerful) kinsmen (comes greatness). The sages have made this law, ’He who has learnt the Veda together with the Angas (Anukana) is (considered) great by us.’

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   154

विप्राणां ज्ञानतो ज्यैष्ठ्यं क्षत्रियाणां तु वीर्यतः । वैश्यानां धान्यधनतः शूद्राणामेव जन्मतः ॥ २.१५५॥
viprāṇāṃ jñānato jyaiṣṭhyaṃ kṣatriyāṇāṃ tu vīryataḥ | vaiśyānāṃ dhānyadhanataḥ śūdrāṇāmeva janmataḥ || 2.155||
2.155. The seniority of Brahmanas is from (sacred) knowledge, that of Kshatriyas from valour, that of Vaisyas from wealth in grain (and other goods), but that of Sudras alone from age.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   155

न तेन वृद्धो भवति येनास्य पलितं शिरः । यो वै युवाऽप्यधीयानस्तं देवाः स्थविरं विदुः ॥ २.१५६॥
na tena vṛddho bhavati yenāsya palitaṃ śiraḥ | yo vai yuvā'pyadhīyānastaṃ devāḥ sthaviraṃ viduḥ || 2.156||
2.156. A man is not therefore (considered) venerable because his head is gray; him who, though young, has learned the Veda, the gods consider to be venerable.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   156

यथा काष्ठमयो हस्ती यथा चर्ममयो मृगः । यश्च विप्रोऽनधीयानस्त्रयस्ते नाम बिभ्रति ॥ २.१५७॥
yathā kāṣṭhamayo hastī yathā carmamayo mṛgaḥ | yaśca vipro'nadhīyānastrayaste nāma bibhrati || 2.157||
2.157. As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope made of leather, such is an unlearned Brahmana; those three have nothing but the names (of their kind).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   157

यथा षण्ढोऽफलः स्त्रीषु यथा गौर्गवि चाफला । यथा चाज्ञेऽफलं दानं तथा विप्रोऽनृचोऽफलः ॥ २.१५८॥
yathā ṣaṇḍho'phalaḥ strīṣu yathā gaurgavi cāphalā | yathā cājñe'phalaṃ dānaṃ tathā vipro'nṛco'phalaḥ || 2.158||
2.158. As a eunuch is unproductive with women, as a cow with a cow is unprolific, and as a gift made to an ignorant man yields no reward, even so is a Brahmana useless, who (does) not (know) the Rikas.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   158

अहिंसयैव भूतानां कार्यं श्रेयोऽनुशासनम् । वाक्चैव मधुरा श्लक्ष्णा प्रयोज्या धर्ममिच्छता ॥ २.१५९॥
ahiṃsayaiva bhūtānāṃ kāryaṃ śreyo'nuśāsanam | vākcaiva madhurā ślakṣṇā prayojyā dharmamicchatā || 2.159||
2.159. Created beings must be instructed in (what concerns) their welfare without giving them pain, and sweet and gentle speech must be used by (a teacher) who desires (to abide by) the sacred law.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   159

यस्य वाङ्मनसी शुद्धे सम्यग्गुप्ते च सर्वदा । स वै सर्वमवाप्नोति वेदान्तोपगतं फलम् ॥ २.१६०॥
yasya vāṅmanasī śuddhe samyaggupte ca sarvadā | sa vai sarvamavāpnoti vedāntopagataṃ phalam || 2.160||
2.160. He, forsooth, whose speech and thoughts are pure and ever perfectly guarded, gains the whole reward which is conferred by the Vedanta.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   160

नारुंतुदः स्यादार्तोऽपि न परद्रोहकर्मधीः । ययाऽस्योद्विजते वाचा नालोक्यां तामुदीरयेत् ॥ २.१६१॥
nāruṃtudaḥ syādārto'pi na paradrohakarmadhīḥ | yayā'syodvijate vācā nālokyāṃ tāmudīrayet || 2.161||
2.161. Let him not, even though in pain, (speak words) cutting (others) to the quick; let him not injure others in thought or deed; let him not utter speeches which make (others) afraid of him, since that will prevent him from gaining heaven.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   161

सम्मानाद्ब्राह्मणो नित्यमुद्विजेत विषादिव । अमृतस्येव चाकाङ्क्षेदवमानस्य सर्वदा ॥ २.१६२॥
sammānādbrāhmaṇo nityamudvijeta viṣādiva | amṛtasyeva cākāṅkṣedavamānasya sarvadā || 2.162||
2.162. A Brahmana should always fear homage as if it were poison; and constantly desire (to suffer) scorn as (he would long for) nectar.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   162

सुखं ह्यवमतः शेते सुखं च प्रतिबुध्यते ॥सुखं चरति लोकेऽस्मिन्नवमन्ता विनश्यति ॥ २.१६३॥
sukhaṃ hyavamataḥ śete sukhaṃ ca pratibudhyate || sukhaṃ carati loke'sminnavamantā vinaśyati || 2.163||
2.163. For he who is scorned (nevertheless may) sleep with an easy mind, awake with an easy mind, and with an easy mind walk here among men; but the scorner utterly perishes.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   163

अनेन क्रमयोगेन संस्कृतात्मा द्विजः शनैः । गुरौ वसन् सञ्चिनुयाद्ब्रह्माधिगमिकं तपः ॥ २.१६४॥
anena kramayogena saṃskṛtātmā dvijaḥ śanaiḥ | gurau vasan sañcinuyādbrahmādhigamikaṃ tapaḥ || 2.164||
2.164. A twice-born man who has been sanctified by the (employment of) the means, (described above) in due order, shall gradually and cumulatively perform the various austerities prescribed for (those who) study the Veda.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   164

तपोविशेषैर्विविधैर्व्रतैश्च विधिचोदितैः । वेदः कृत्स्नोऽधिगन्तव्यः सरहस्यो द्विजन्मना ॥ २.१६५॥
tapoviśeṣairvividhairvrataiśca vidhicoditaiḥ | vedaḥ kṛtsno'dhigantavyaḥ sarahasyo dvijanmanā || 2.165||
2.165. An Aryan must study the whole Veda together with the Rahasyas, performing at the same time various kinds of austerities and the vows prescribed by the rules (of the Veda).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   165

वेदमेव सदाऽभ्यस्येत्तपस्तप्यन् द्विजोत्तमः । वेदाभ्यासो हि विप्रस्य तपः परमिहौच्यते ॥ २.१६६॥
vedameva sadā'bhyasyettapastapyan dvijottamaḥ | vedābhyāso hi viprasya tapaḥ paramihaucyate || 2.166||
2.166. Let a Brahmana who desires to perform austerities, constantly repeat the Veda; for the study of the Veda is declared (to be) in this world the highest austerity for a Brahmana.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   166

आ हैव स नखाग्रेभ्यः परमं तप्यते तपः । यः स्रग्व्यपि द्विजोऽधीते स्वाध्यायं शक्तितोऽन्वहम् ॥ २.१६७॥
ā haiva sa nakhāgrebhyaḥ paramaṃ tapyate tapaḥ | yaḥ sragvyapi dvijo'dhīte svādhyāyaṃ śaktito'nvaham || 2.167||
2.167. Verily, that twice-born man performs the highest austerity up to the extremities of his nails, who, though wearing a garland, daily recites the Veda in private to the utmost of his ability.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   167

योऽनधीत्य द्विजो वेदमन्यत्र कुरुते श्रमम् । स जीवन्नेव शूद्रत्वमाशु गच्छति सान्वयः ॥ २.१६८॥
yo'nadhītya dvijo vedamanyatra kurute śramam | sa jīvanneva śūdratvamāśu gacchati sānvayaḥ || 2.168||
2.168. A twice-born man who, not having studied the Veda, applies himself to other (and worldly study), soon falls, even while living, to the condition of a Sudra and his descendants (after him).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   168

मातुरग्रेऽधिजननं द्वितीयं मौञ्जिबन्धने । तृतीयं यज्ञदीक्षायां द्विजस्य श्रुतिचोदनात् ॥ २.१६९॥
māturagre'dhijananaṃ dvitīyaṃ mauñjibandhane | tṛtīyaṃ yajñadīkṣāyāṃ dvijasya śruticodanāt || 2.169||
2.169. According to the injunction of the revealed texts the first birth of an Aryan is from (his natural) mother, the second (happens) on the tying of the girdle of Munga grass, and the third on the initiation to (the performance of) a (Srauta) sacrifice.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   169

तत्र यद्ब्रह्मजन्मास्य मौञ्जीबन्धनचिह्नितम् । तत्रास्य माता सावित्री पिता त्वाचार्य उच्यते ॥ २.१७०॥
tatra yadbrahmajanmāsya mauñjībandhanacihnitam | tatrāsya mātā sāvitrī pitā tvācārya ucyate || 2.170||
2.170. Among those (three) the birth which is symbolised by the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass, is his birth for the sake of the Veda; they declare that in that (birth) the Sivitri (verse) is his mother and the teacher his father.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   170

वेदप्रदानादाचार्यं पितरं परिचक्षते । न ह्यस्मिन् युज्यते कर्म किञ्चिदा मौञ्जिबन्धनात् ॥ २.१७१॥
vedapradānādācāryaṃ pitaraṃ paricakṣate | na hyasmin yujyate karma kiñcidā mauñjibandhanāt || 2.171||
2.171. They call the teacher (the pupil’s) father because he gives the Veda; for nobody can perform a (sacred) rite before the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   171

नाभिव्याहारयेद्ब्रह्म स्वधानिनयनादृते । शूद्रेण हि समस्तावद्यावद्वेदे न जायते ॥ २.१७२॥
nābhivyāhārayedbrahma svadhāninayanādṛte | śūdreṇa hi samastāvadyāvadvede na jāyate || 2.172||
2.172. (He who has not been initiated) should not pronounce (any) Vedic text excepting (those required for) the performance of funeral rites, since he is on a level with a Sudra before his birth from the Veda.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   172

कृतौपनयनस्यास्य व्रतादेशनमिष्यते । ब्रह्मणो ग्रहणं चैव क्रमेण विधिपूर्वकम् ॥ २.१७३॥
kṛtaupanayanasyāsya vratādeśanamiṣyate | brahmaṇo grahaṇaṃ caiva krameṇa vidhipūrvakam || 2.173||
2.173. The (student) who has been initiated must be instructed in the performance of the vows, and gradually learn the Veda, observing the prescribed rules.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   173

यद्यस्य विहितं चर्म यत्सूत्रं या च मेखला । यो दण्डो यत्च वसनं तत्तदस्य व्रतेष्वपि ॥ २.१७४॥
yadyasya vihitaṃ carma yatsūtraṃ yā ca mekhalā | yo daṇḍo yatca vasanaṃ tattadasya vrateṣvapi || 2.174||
2.174. Whatever dress of skin, sacred thread, girdle, staff, and lower garment are prescribed for a (student at the initiation), the like (must again be used) at the (performance of the) vows.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   174

सेवेतैमांस्तु नियमान् ब्रह्मचारी गुरौ वसन् । सन्नियम्यैन्द्रियग्रामं तपोवृद्ध्यर्थमात्मनः ॥ २.१७५॥
sevetaimāṃstu niyamān brahmacārī gurau vasan | sanniyamyaindriyagrāmaṃ tapovṛddhyarthamātmanaḥ || 2.175||
2.175. But a student who resides with his teacher must observe the following restrictive rules, duly controlling all his organs, in order to increase his spiritual merit.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   175

नित्यं स्नात्वा शुचिः कुर्याद्देवर्षिपितृतर्पणम् । देवताभ्यर्चनं चैव समिदाधानमेव च ॥ २.१७६॥
nityaṃ snātvā śuciḥ kuryāddevarṣipitṛtarpaṇam | devatābhyarcanaṃ caiva samidādhānameva ca || 2.176||
2.176. Every day, having bathed, and being purified, he must offer libations of water to the gods, sages and manes, worship (the images of) the gods, and place fuel on (the sacred fire).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   176

वर्जयेन् मधु मांसं च गन्धं माल्यं रसान् स्त्रियः । शुक्तानि यानि सर्वाणि प्राणिनां चैव हिंसनम् ॥ २.१७७॥
varjayen madhu māṃsaṃ ca gandhaṃ mālyaṃ rasān striyaḥ | śuktāni yāni sarvāṇi prāṇināṃ caiva hiṃsanam || 2.177||
2.177. Let him abstain from honey, meat, perfumes, garlands, substances (used for) flavouring (food), women, all substances turned acid, and from doing injury to living creatures.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   177

अभ्यङ्गमञ्जनं चाक्ष्णोरुपानच्छत्रधारणम् । कामं क्रोधं च लोभं च नर्तनं गीतवादनम् ॥ २.१७८॥
abhyaṅgamañjanaṃ cākṣṇorupānacchatradhāraṇam | kāmaṃ krodhaṃ ca lobhaṃ ca nartanaṃ gītavādanam || 2.178||
2.178. From anointing (his body), applying collyrium to his eyes, from the use of shoes and of an umbrella (or parasol), from (sensual) desire, anger, covetousness, dancing, singing, and playing (musical instruments),

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   178

द्यूतं च जनवादं च परिवादं तथाऽनृतम् । स्त्रीणां च प्रेक्षण आलम्भाऽवघातं परस्य च ॥ २.१७९॥
dyūtaṃ ca janavādaṃ ca parivādaṃ tathā'nṛtam | strīṇāṃ ca prekṣaṇa ālambhā'vaghātaṃ parasya ca || 2.179||
2.179. From gambling, idle disputes, backbiting, and lying, from looking at and touching women, and from hurting others.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   179

एकः शयीत सर्वत्र न रेतः स्कन्दयेत्क्व चित् । कामाधि स्कन्दयन् रेतो हिनस्ति व्रतमात्मनः ॥ २.१८०॥
ekaḥ śayīta sarvatra na retaḥ skandayetkva cit | kāmādhi skandayan reto hinasti vratamātmanaḥ || 2.180||
2.180. Let him always sleep alone, let him never waste his manhood; for he who voluntarily wastes his manhood, breaks his vow.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   180

स्वप्ने सिक्त्वा ब्रह्मचारी द्विजः शुक्रमकामतः । स्नात्वाऽर्कमर्चयित्वा त्रिः पुनर्मामित्यृचं जपेत् ॥ २.१८१॥
svapne siktvā brahmacārī dvijaḥ śukramakāmataḥ | snātvā'rkamarcayitvā triḥ punarmāmityṛcaṃ japet || 2.181||
2.181. A twice-born student, who has involuntarily wasted his manly strength during sleep, must bathe, worship the sun, and afterwards thrice mutter the Rik-verse (which begins), ’Again let my strength return to me.’

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   181

उदकुम्भं सुमनसो गोशकृत्मृत्तिकाकुशान् । आहरेद्यावदर्थानि भैक्षं चाहरहश्चरेत् ॥ २.१८२॥
udakumbhaṃ sumanaso gośakṛtmṛttikākuśān | āharedyāvadarthāni bhaikṣaṃ cāharahaścaret || 2.182||
2.182. Let him fetch a pot full of water, flowers, cowdung, earth, and Kusa grass, as much as may be required (by his teacher), and daily go to beg food.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   182

वेदयज्ञैरहीनानां प्रशस्तानां स्वकर्मसु । ब्रह्मचार्याहरेद्भैक्षं गृहेभ्यः प्रयतोऽन्वहम् ॥ २.१८३॥
vedayajñairahīnānāṃ praśastānāṃ svakarmasu | brahmacāryāharedbhaikṣaṃ gṛhebhyaḥ prayato'nvaham || 2.183||
2.183. A student, being pure, shall daily bring food from the houses of men who are not deficient in (the knowledge of) the Veda and in (performing) sacrifices, and who are famous for (following their lawful) occupations.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   183

गुरोः कुले न भिक्षेत न ज्ञातिकुलबन्धुषु । अलाभे त्वन्यगेहानां पूर्वं पूर्वं विवर्जयेत् ॥ २.१८४॥
guroḥ kule na bhikṣeta na jñātikulabandhuṣu | alābhe tvanyagehānāṃ pūrvaṃ pūrvaṃ vivarjayet || 2.184||
2.184. Let him not beg from the relatives of his teacher, nor from his own or his mother’s blood-relations; but if there are no houses belonging to strangers, let him go to one of those named above, taking the last-named first;

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   184

सर्वं वापि चरेद्ग्रामं पूर्वौक्तानामसम्भवे । नियम्य प्रयतो वाचमभिशस्तांस्तु वर्जयेत् ॥ २.१८५॥
sarvaṃ vāpi caredgrāmaṃ pūrvauktānāmasambhave | niyamya prayato vācamabhiśastāṃstu varjayet || 2.185||
2.185. Or, if there are no (virtuous men of the kind) mentioned above, he may go to each (house in the) village, being pure and remaining silent; but let him avoid Abhisastas (those accused of mortal sin).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   185

दूरादाहृत्य समिधः सन्निदध्याद्विहायसि । सायं। प्रातश्च जुहुयात्ताभिरग्निमतन्द्रितः ॥ २.१८६॥
dūrādāhṛtya samidhaḥ sannidadhyādvihāyasi | sāyaṃ| prātaśca juhuyāttābhiragnimatandritaḥ || 2.186||
2.186. Having brought sacred fuel from a distance, let him place it anywhere but on the ground, and let him, unwearied, make with it burnt oblations to the sacred fire, both evening and morning.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   186

अकृत्वा भैक्षचरणमसमिध्य च पावकम् । अनातुरः सप्तरात्रमवकीर्णिव्रतं चरेत् ॥ २.१८७॥
akṛtvā bhaikṣacaraṇamasamidhya ca pāvakam | anāturaḥ saptarātramavakīrṇivrataṃ caret || 2.187||
2.187. He who, without being sick, neglects during seven (successive) days to go out begging, and to offer fuel in the sacred fire, shall perform the penance of an Avakirnin (one who has broken his vow).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   187

भैक्षेण वर्तयेन्नित्यं नैकान्नादी भवेद्व्रती । भैक्षेण व्रतिनो वृत्तिरुपवाससमा स्मृता ॥ २.१८८॥
bhaikṣeṇa vartayennityaṃ naikānnādī bhavedvratī | bhaikṣeṇa vratino vṛttirupavāsasamā smṛtā || 2.188||
2.188. He who performs the vow (of studentship) shall constantly subsist on alms, (but) not eat the food of one (person only); the subsistence of a student on begged food is declared to be equal (in merit) to fasting.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   188

व्रतवद्देवदैवत्ये पित्र्ये कर्मण्यथर्षिवत् । काममभ्यर्थितोऽश्नीयाद्व्रतमस्य न लुप्यते ॥ २.१८९॥
vratavaddevadaivatye pitrye karmaṇyatharṣivat | kāmamabhyarthito'śnīyādvratamasya na lupyate || 2.189||
2.189. At his pleasure he may eat, when invited, the food of one man at (a rite) in honour of the gods, observing (however the conditions on his vow, or at a (funeral meal) in honor of the manes, behaving (however) like a hermit.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   189

ब्राह्मणस्यैव कर्मैतदुपदिष्टं मनीषिभिः । राजन्यवैश्ययोस्त्वेवं नैतत्कर्म विधीयते ॥ २.१९०॥
brāhmaṇasyaiva karmaitadupadiṣṭaṃ manīṣibhiḥ | rājanyavaiśyayostvevaṃ naitatkarma vidhīyate || 2.190||
2.190. This duty is prescribed by the wise for a Brahmana only; but no such duty is ordained for a Kshatriya and a Vaisya.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   190

चोदितो गुरुणा नित्यमप्रचोदित एव वा । अध्ययने योगम् यत्नमाचार्यस्य हितेषु च ॥ २.१९१॥
codito guruṇā nityamapracodita eva vā | adhyayane yogam yatnamācāryasya hiteṣu ca || 2.191||
2.191. Both when ordered by his teacher, and without a (special) command, (a student) shall always exert himself in studying (the Veda), and in doing what is serviceable to his teacher.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   191

शरीरं चैव वाचं च बुद्धीन्द्रियमनांसि च । नियम्य प्राञ्जलिस्तिष्ठेद्वीक्षमाणो गुरोर्मुखम् ॥ २.१९२॥
śarīraṃ caiva vācaṃ ca buddhīndriyamanāṃsi ca | niyamya prāñjalistiṣṭhedvīkṣamāṇo gurormukham || 2.192||
2.192. Controlling his body, his speech, his organs (of sense), and his mind, let him stand with joined hands, looking at the face of his teacher.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   192

नित्यमुद्धृतपाणिः स्यात्साध्वाचारः सुसंवृतः । आस्यतामिति चौक्तः सन्नासीताभिमुखं गुरोः ॥ २.१९३॥
nityamuddhṛtapāṇiḥ syātsādhvācāraḥ susaṃvṛtaḥ | āsyatāmiti cauktaḥ sannāsītābhimukhaṃ guroḥ || 2.193||
2.193. Let him always keep his right arm uncovered, behave decently and keep his body well covered, and when he is addressed (with the words), ’Be seated,’ he shall sit down, facing his teacher.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   193

हीनान्नवस्त्रवेषः स्यात्सर्वदा गुरुसन्निधौ । उत्तिष्ठेत्प्रथमं चास्य चरमं चैव संविशेत् ॥ २.१९४॥
hīnānnavastraveṣaḥ syātsarvadā gurusannidhau | uttiṣṭhetprathamaṃ cāsya caramaṃ caiva saṃviśet || 2.194||
2.194. In the presence of his teacher let him always eat less, wear a less valuable dress and ornaments (than the former), and let him rise earlier (from his bed), and go to rest later.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   194

प्रतिश्रावणसम्भाषे शयानो न समाचरेत् । नासीनो न च भुञ्जानो न तिष्ठन्न पराङ्मुखः ॥ २.१९५॥
pratiśrāvaṇasambhāṣe śayāno na samācaret | nāsīno na ca bhuñjāno na tiṣṭhanna parāṅmukhaḥ || 2.195||
2.195. Let him not answer or converse with (his teacher), reclining on a bed, nor sitting, nor eating, nor standing, nor with an averted face.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   195

आसीनस्य स्थितः कुर्यादभिगच्छंस्तु तिष्ठतः । प्रत्युद्गम्य त्वाव्रजतः पश्चाद्धावंस्तु धावतः ॥ २.१९६॥
āsīnasya sthitaḥ kuryādabhigacchaṃstu tiṣṭhataḥ | pratyudgamya tvāvrajataḥ paścāddhāvaṃstu dhāvataḥ || 2.196||
2.196. Let him do (that), standing up, if (his teacher) is seated, advancing towards him when he stands, going to meet him if he advances, and running after him when he runs;

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   196

पराङ्मुखस्याभिमुखो दूरस्थस्येत्य चान्तिकम् । प्रणम्य तु शयानस्य निदेशे चैव तिष्ठतः ॥ २.१९७॥
parāṅmukhasyābhimukho dūrasthasyetya cāntikam | praṇamya tu śayānasya nideśe caiva tiṣṭhataḥ || 2.197||
2.197. Going (round) to face (the teacher), if his face is averted, approaching him if he stands at a distance, but bending towards him if he lies on a bed, and if he stands in a lower place.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   197

नीचं शय्याऽऽसनं चास्य नित्यं स्याद्गुरुसन्निधौ । गुरोस्तु चक्षुर्विषये न यथेष्टासनो भवेत् ॥ २.१९८॥
nīcaṃ śayyā''sanaṃ cāsya nityaṃ syādgurusannidhau | gurostu cakṣurviṣaye na yatheṣṭāsano bhavet || 2.198||
2.198. When his teacher is nigh, let his bed or seat be low; but within sight of his teacher he shall not sit carelessly at ease.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   198

नौदाहरेदस्य नाम परोक्षमपि केवलम् । न चैवास्यानुकुर्वीत गतिभाषितचेष्टितम् ॥ २.१९९॥
naudāharedasya nāma parokṣamapi kevalam | na caivāsyānukurvīta gatibhāṣitaceṣṭitam || 2.199||
2.199. Let him not pronounce the mere name of his teacher (without adding an honorific title) behind his back even, and let him not mimic his gait, speech, and deportment.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   199

गुरोर्यत्र परिवादो निन्दा वाऽपि प्रवर्तते । कर्णौ तत्र पिधातव्यौ गन्तव्यं वा ततोऽन्यतः ॥ २.२००॥
guroryatra parivādo nindā vā'pi pravartate | karṇau tatra pidhātavyau gantavyaṃ vā tato'nyataḥ || 2.200||
2.200. Wherever (people) justly censure or falsely defame his teacher, there he must cover his ears or depart thence to another place.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   200

परीवादात्खरो भवति श्वा वै भवति निन्दकः । परिभोक्ता कृमिर्भवति कीटो भवति मत्सरी ॥ २.२०१॥
parīvādātkharo bhavati śvā vai bhavati nindakaḥ | paribhoktā kṛmirbhavati kīṭo bhavati matsarī || 2.201||
2.201. By censuring (his teacher), though justly, he will become (in his next birth) an ass, by falsely defaming him, a dog; he who lives on his teacher’s substance, will become a worm, and he who is envious (of his merit), a (larger) insect.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   201

दूरस्थो नार्चयेदेनं न क्रुद्धो नान्तिके स्त्रियाः । यानासनस्थश्चैवैनमवरुह्याभिवादयेत् ॥ २.२०२॥
dūrastho nārcayedenaṃ na kruddho nāntike striyāḥ | yānāsanasthaścaivainamavaruhyābhivādayet || 2.202||
2.202. He must not serve the (teacher by the intervention of another) while he himself stands aloof, nor when he (himself) is angry, nor when a woman is near; if he is seated in a carriage or on a (raised) seat, he must descend and afterwards salute his (teacher).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   202

प्रतिवातानुवाते च नासीत गुरुणा सह । असंश्रवे चैव गुरोर्न किं चिदपि कीर्तयेत् ॥ २.२०३॥
prativātānuvāte ca nāsīta guruṇā saha | asaṃśrave caiva gurorna kiṃ cidapi kīrtayet || 2.203||
2.203. Let him not sit with his teacher, to the leeward or to the windward (of him); nor let him say anything which his teacher cannot hear.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   203

गोऽश्वौष्ट्रयानप्रासादप्रस्तरेषु कटेषु च । आसीत गुरुणा सार्धं शिलाफलकनौषु च ॥ २.२०४॥
go'śvauṣṭrayānaprāsādaprastareṣu kaṭeṣu ca | āsīta guruṇā sārdhaṃ śilāphalakanauṣu ca || 2.204||
2.204. He may sit with his teacher in a carriage drawn by oxen, horses, or camels, on a terrace, on a bed of grass or leaves, on a mat, on a rock, on a wooden bench, or in a boat.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   204

गुरोर्गुरौ सन्निहिते गुरुवद्वृत्तिमाचरेत् । न चानिसृष्टो गुरुणा स्वान् गुरूनभिवादयेत् ॥ २.२०५॥
gurorgurau sannihite guruvadvṛttimācaret | na cānisṛṣṭo guruṇā svān gurūnabhivādayet || 2.205||
2.205. If his teacher’s teacher is near, let him behave (towards him) as towards his own teacher; but let him, unless he has received permission from his teacher, not salute venerable persons of his own (family).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   205

विद्यागुरुष्वेवमेव नित्या वृत्तिः स्वयोनिषु । प्रतिषेधत्सु चाधर्माधितं चोपदिशत्स्वपि ॥ २.२०६॥
vidyāguruṣvevameva nityā vṛttiḥ svayoniṣu | pratiṣedhatsu cādharmādhitaṃ copadiśatsvapi || 2.206||
2.206. This is likewise (ordained as) his constant behaviour towards (other) instructors in science, towards his relatives (to whom honour is due), towards all who may restrain him from sin, or may give him salutary advice.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   206

श्रेयःसु गुरुवद्वृत्तिं नित्यमेव समाचरेत् । गुरुपुत्रे तथाचार्ये गुरोश्चैव स्वबन्धुषु ॥ २.२०७॥
śreyaḥsu guruvadvṛttiṃ nityameva samācaret | guruputre tathācārye guroścaiva svabandhuṣu || 2.207||
2.207. Towards his betters let him always behave as towards his teacher, likewise towards sons of his teacher, born by wives of equal caste, and towards the teacher’s relatives both on the side of the father and of the mother.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   207

बालः समानजन्मा वा शिष्यो वा यज्ञकर्मणि । अध्यापयन् गुरुसुतो गुरुवत्मानमर्हति ॥ २.२०८॥
bālaḥ samānajanmā vā śiṣyo vā yajñakarmaṇi | adhyāpayan gurusuto guruvatmānamarhati || 2.208||
2.208. The son of the teacher who imparts instruction (in his father’s stead), whether younger or of equal age, or a student of (the science of) sacrifices (or of other Angas), deserves the same honour as the teacher.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   208

उत्सादनं च गात्राणां स्नापनौच्छिष्टभोजने । न कुर्याद्गुरुपुत्रस्य पादयोश्चावनेजनम् ॥ २.२०९॥
utsādanaṃ ca gātrāṇāṃ snāpanaucchiṣṭabhojane | na kuryādguruputrasya pādayoścāvanejanam || 2.209||
2.209. (A student) must not shampoo the limbs of his teacher’s son, nor assist him in bathing, nor eat the fragments of his food, nor wash his feet.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   209

गुरुवत्प्रतिपूज्याः स्युः सवर्णा गुरुयोषितः । असवर्णास्तु सम्पूज्याः प्रत्युत्थानाभिवादनैः ॥ २.२१०॥
guruvatpratipūjyāḥ syuḥ savarṇā guruyoṣitaḥ | asavarṇāstu sampūjyāḥ pratyutthānābhivādanaiḥ || 2.210||
2.210. The wives of the teacher, who belong to the same caste, must be treated as respectfully as the teacher; but those who belong to a different caste, must be honoured by rising and salutation.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   210

अभ्यञ्जनं स्नापनं च गात्रोत्सादनमेव च । गुरुपत्न्या न कार्याणि केशानां च प्रसाधनम् ॥ २.२११॥
abhyañjanaṃ snāpanaṃ ca gātrotsādanameva ca | gurupatnyā na kāryāṇi keśānāṃ ca prasādhanam || 2.211||
2.211. Let him not perform for a wife of his teacher (the offices of) anointing her, assisting her in the bath, shampooing her limbs, or arranging her hair.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   211

गुरुपत्नी तु युवतिर्नाभिवाद्यैह पादयोः । पूर्णविंशतिवर्षेण गुणदोषौ विजानता ॥ २.२१२॥
gurupatnī tu yuvatirnābhivādyaiha pādayoḥ | pūrṇaviṃśativarṣeṇa guṇadoṣau vijānatā || 2.212||
2.212. (A pupil) who is full twenty years old, and knows what is becoming and unbecoming, shall not salute a young wife of his teacher (by clasping) her feet.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   212

स्वभाव एष नारीणां नराणामिह दूषणम् । अतोऽर्थान्न प्रमाद्यन्ति प्रमदासु विपश्चितः ॥ २.२१३॥
svabhāva eṣa nārīṇāṃ narāṇāmiha dūṣaṇam | ato'rthānna pramādyanti pramadāsu vipaścitaḥ || 2.213||
2.213. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); for that reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   213

अविद्वांसमलं लोके विद्वांसमपि वा पुनः । प्रमदा ह्युत्पथं नेतुं कामक्रोधवशानुगम् ॥ २.२१४॥
avidvāṃsamalaṃ loke vidvāṃsamapi vā punaḥ | pramadā hyutpathaṃ netuṃ kāmakrodhavaśānugam || 2.214||
2.214. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and (to make) him a slave of desire and anger.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   214

मात्रा स्वस्रा दुहित्रा वा न विविक्तासनो भवेत् । बलवानिन्द्रियग्रामो विद्वांसमपि कर्षति ॥ २.२१५॥
mātrā svasrā duhitrā vā na viviktāsano bhavet | balavānindriyagrāmo vidvāṃsamapi karṣati || 2.215||
2.215. One should not sit in a lonely place with one’s mother, sister, or daughter; for the senses are powerful, and master even a learned man.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   215

कामं तु गुरुपत्नीनां युवतीनां युवा भुवि । विधिवद्वन्दनं कुर्यादसावहमिति ब्रुवन् ॥ २.२१६॥
kāmaṃ tu gurupatnīnāṃ yuvatīnāṃ yuvā bhuvi | vidhivadvandanaṃ kuryādasāvahamiti bruvan || 2.216||
2.216. But at his pleasure a young student may prostrate himself on the ground before the young wife of a teacher, in accordance with the rule, and say, ’I (worship thee, O lady).’

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   216

विप्रोष्य पादग्रहणमन्वहं चाभिवादनम् । गुरुदारेषु कुर्वीत सतां धर्ममनुस्मरन् ॥ २.२१७॥
viproṣya pādagrahaṇamanvahaṃ cābhivādanam | gurudāreṣu kurvīta satāṃ dharmamanusmaran || 2.217||
2.217. On returning from a journey he must clasp the feet of his teacher’s wife and daily salute her (in the manner just mentioned), remembering the duty of the virtuous.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   217

यथा खनन् खनित्रेण नरो वार्यधिगच्छति । तथा गुरुगतां विद्यां शुश्रूषुरधिगच्छति ॥ २.२१८॥
yathā khanan khanitreṇa naro vāryadhigacchati | tathā gurugatāṃ vidyāṃ śuśrūṣuradhigacchati || 2.218||
2.218. As the man who digs with a spade (into the ground) obtains water, even so an obedient (pupil) obtains the knowledge which lies (hidden) in his teacher.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   218

मुण्डो वा जटिलो वा स्यादथ वा स्यात्शिखाजटः । नैनं ग्रामेऽभिनिम्लोचेत्सूर्यो नाभ्युदियात्क्व चित् ॥ २.२१९॥
muṇḍo vā jaṭilo vā syādatha vā syātśikhājaṭaḥ | nainaṃ grāme'bhinimlocetsūryo nābhyudiyātkva cit || 2.219||
2.219. A (student) may either shave his head, or wear his hair in braids, or braid one lock on the crown of his head; the sun must never set or rise while he (lies asleep) in the village.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   219

तं चेदभ्युदियात्सूर्यः शयानं कामचारतः । निम्लोचेद्वाऽप्यविज्ञानाज्जपन्नुपवसेद्दिनम् ॥ २.२२०॥
taṃ cedabhyudiyātsūryaḥ śayānaṃ kāmacārataḥ | nimlocedvā'pyavijñānājjapannupavaseddinam || 2.220||
2.220. If the sun should rise or set while he is sleeping, be it (that he offended) intentionally or unintentionally, he shall fast during the (next) day, muttering (the Savitri).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   220

सूर्येण अभिनिम्लुक्तः शयानोऽभ्युदितश्च यः । प्रायश्चित्तमकुर्वाणो युक्तः स्यान् महतेनसा ॥ २.२२१॥
sūryeṇa abhinimluktaḥ śayāno'bhyuditaśca yaḥ | prāyaścittamakurvāṇo yuktaḥ syān mahatenasā || 2.221||
2.221. For he who lies (sleeping), while the sun sets or rises, and does not perform (that) penance, is tainted by great guilt.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   221

आचम्य प्रयतो नित्यमुभे संध्ये समाहितः । शुचौ देशे जपञ्जप्यमुपासीत यथाविधि ॥ २.२२२॥
ācamya prayato nityamubhe saṃdhye samāhitaḥ | śucau deśe japañjapyamupāsīta yathāvidhi || 2.222||
2.222. Purified by sipping water, he shall daily worship during both twilights with a concentrated mind in a pure place, muttering the prescribed text according to the rule.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   222

यदि स्त्री यद्यवरजः श्रेयः किं चित्समाचरेत् । तत्सर्वमाचरेद्युक्तो यत्र चास्य रमेन् मनः ॥ २.२२३॥
yadi strī yadyavarajaḥ śreyaḥ kiṃ citsamācaret | tatsarvamācaredyukto yatra cāsya ramen manaḥ || 2.223||
2.223. If a woman or a man of low caste perform anything (leading to) happiness, let him diligently practise it, as well as (any other permitted act) in which his heart finds pleasure.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   223

धर्मार्थावुच्यते श्रेयः कामार्थौ धर्म एव च । अर्थ एवैह वा श्रेयस्त्रिवर्ग इति तु स्थितिः ॥ २.२२४॥
dharmārthāvucyate śreyaḥ kāmārthau dharma eva ca | artha evaiha vā śreyastrivarga iti tu sthitiḥ || 2.224||
2.224. (Some declare that) the chief good consists in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, (others place it) in (the gratification of) desire and (the acquisition of) wealth, (others) in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit alone, and (others say that the acquisition of) wealth alone is the chief good here (below); but the (correct) decision is that it consists of the aggregate of (those) three.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   224

आचार्यश्च पिता चैव माता भ्राता च पूर्वजः । नार्तेनाप्यवमन्तव्या ब्राह्मणेन विशेषतः ॥ २.२२५॥
ācāryaśca pitā caiva mātā bhrātā ca pūrvajaḥ | nārtenāpyavamantavyā brāhmaṇena viśeṣataḥ || 2.225||
2.225. The teacher, the father, the mother, and an elder brother must not be treated with disrespect, especially by a Brahmana, though one be grievously offended (by them).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   225

आचार्यो ब्रह्मणो मूर्तिः पिता मूर्तिः प्रजापतेः । माता पृथिव्या मूर्तिस्तु भ्राता स्वो मूर्तिरात्मनः ॥ २.२२६॥
ācāryo brahmaṇo mūrtiḥ pitā mūrtiḥ prajāpateḥ | mātā pṛthivyā mūrtistu bhrātā svo mūrtirātmanaḥ || 2.226||
2.226. The teacher is the image of Brahman, the father the image of Pragipati (the lord of created beings), the mother the image of the earth, and an (elder) full brother the image of oneself.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   226

यं मातापितरौ क्लेशं सहेते सम्भवे नृणाम् । न तस्य निष्कृतिः शक्या कर्तुं वर्षशतैरपि ॥ २.२२७॥
yaṃ mātāpitarau kleśaṃ sahete sambhave nṛṇām | na tasya niṣkṛtiḥ śakyā kartuṃ varṣaśatairapi || 2.227||
2.227. That trouble (and pain) which the parents undergo on the birth of (their) children, cannot be compensated even in a hundred years.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   227

तयोर्नित्यं प्रियं कुर्यादाचार्यस्य च सर्वदा । तेष्वेव त्रिषु तुष्टेषु तपः सर्वं समाप्यते ॥ २.२२८॥
tayornityaṃ priyaṃ kuryādācāryasya ca sarvadā | teṣveva triṣu tuṣṭeṣu tapaḥ sarvaṃ samāpyate || 2.228||
2.228. Let him always do what is agreeable to those (two) and always (what may please) his teacher; when those three are pleased, he obtains all (those rewards which) austerities (yield)

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   228

तेषां त्रयाणां शुश्रूषा परमं तप उच्यते । न तैरनभ्यनुज्ञातो धर्ममन्यं समाचरेत् ॥ २.२२९॥
teṣāṃ trayāṇāṃ śuśrūṣā paramaṃ tapa ucyate | na tairanabhyanujñāto dharmamanyaṃ samācaret || 2.229||
2.229. Obedience towards those three is declared to be the best (form of) austerity; let him not perform other meritorious acts without their permission.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   229

त एव हि त्रयो लोकास्त एव त्रय आश्रमाः । त एव हि त्रयो वेदास्त एवौक्तास्त्रयोऽग्नयः ॥ २.२३०॥
ta eva hi trayo lokāsta eva traya āśramāḥ | ta eva hi trayo vedāsta evauktāstrayo'gnayaḥ || 2.230||
2.230. For they are declared to be the three worlds, they the three (principal) orders, they the three Vedas, and they the three sacred fires.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   230

पिता वै गार्हपत्योऽग्निर्माताऽग्निर्दक्षिणः स्मृतः । गुरुराहवनीयस्तु साऽग्नित्रेता गरीयसी ॥ २.२३१॥
pitā vai gārhapatyo'gnirmātā'gnirdakṣiṇaḥ smṛtaḥ | gururāhavanīyastu sā'gnitretā garīyasī || 2.231||
2.231. The father, forsooth, is stated to be the Garhapatya fire, the mother the Dakshinagni, but the teacher the Ahavaniya fire; this triad of fires is most venerable.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   231

त्रिष्वप्रमाद्यन्नेतेषु त्रीन् लोकान् विजयेद्गृही । दीप्यमानः स्ववपुषा देववद्दिवि मोदते ॥ २.२३२॥
triṣvapramādyanneteṣu trīn lokān vijayedgṛhī | dīpyamānaḥ svavapuṣā devavaddivi modate || 2.232||
2.232. He who neglects not those three, (even after he has become) a householder, will conquer the three worlds and, radiant in body like a god, he will enjoy bliss in heaven.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   232

इमं लोकं मातृभक्त्या पितृभक्त्या तु मध्यमम् । गुरुशुश्रूषया त्वेवं ब्रह्मलोकं समश्नुते ॥ २.२३३॥
imaṃ lokaṃ mātṛbhaktyā pitṛbhaktyā tu madhyamam | guruśuśrūṣayā tvevaṃ brahmalokaṃ samaśnute || 2.233||
2.233. By honouring his mother he gains this (nether) world, by honouring his father the middle sphere, but by obedience to his teacher the world of Brahman.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   233

सर्वे तस्यादृता धर्मा यस्यैते त्रय आदृताः । अनादृतास्तु यस्यैते सर्वास्तस्याफलाः क्रियाः ॥ २.२३४॥
sarve tasyādṛtā dharmā yasyaite traya ādṛtāḥ | anādṛtāstu yasyaite sarvāstasyāphalāḥ kriyāḥ || 2.234||
2.234. All duties have been fulfilled by him who honours those three; but to him who honours them not, all rites remain fruitless.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   234

यावत्त्रयस्ते जीवेयुस्तावत्नान्यं समाचरेत् । तेष्वेव नित्यं शुश्रूषां कुर्यात्प्रियहिते रतः ॥ २.२३५॥
yāvattrayaste jīveyustāvatnānyaṃ samācaret | teṣveva nityaṃ śuśrūṣāṃ kuryātpriyahite rataḥ || 2.235||
2.235. As long as those three live, so long let him not (independently) perform any other (meritorious acts); let him always serve them, rejoicing (to do what is) agreeable and beneficial (to them).

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   235

तेषामनुपरोधेन पारत्र्यं यद्यदाचरेत् । तत्तन्निवेदयेत्तेभ्यो मनोवचनकर्मभिः ॥ २.२३६॥
teṣāmanuparodhena pāratryaṃ yadyadācaret | tattannivedayettebhyo manovacanakarmabhiḥ || 2.236||
2.236. He shall inform them of everything that with their consent he may perform in thought, word, or deed for the sake of the next world.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   236

त्रिष्वेतेष्वितिकृत्यं हि पुरुषस्य समाप्यते । एष धर्मः परः साक्षादुपधर्मोऽन्य उच्यते ॥ २.२३७॥
triṣveteṣvitikṛtyaṃ hi puruṣasya samāpyate | eṣa dharmaḥ paraḥ sākṣādupadharmo'nya ucyate || 2.237||
2.237. By (honouring) these three all that ought to be done by man, is accomplished; that is clearly the highest duty, every other (act) is a subordinate duty.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   237

श्रद्दधानः शुभां विद्यामाददीतावरादपि । अन्यादपि परं धर्मं स्त्रीरत्नं दुष्कुलादपि ॥ २.२३८॥
śraddadhānaḥ śubhāṃ vidyāmādadītāvarādapi | anyādapi paraṃ dharmaṃ strīratnaṃ duṣkulādapi || 2.238||
2.238. He who possesses faith may receive pure learning even from a man of lower caste, the highest law even from the lowest, and an excellent wife even from a base family.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   238

विषादप्यमृतं ग्राह्यं बालादपि सुभाषितम् । अमित्रादपि सद्वृत्तममेध्यादपि काञ्चनम् ॥ २.२३९॥
viṣādapyamṛtaṃ grāhyaṃ bālādapi subhāṣitam | amitrādapi sadvṛttamamedhyādapi kāñcanam || 2.239||
2.239. Even from poison nectar may be taken, even from a child good advice, even from a foe (a lesson in) good conduct, and even from an impure (substance) gold.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   239

स्त्रियो रत्नान्यथो विद्या धर्मः शौचं सुभाषितम् । विविधानि च शिल्पानि समादेयानि सर्वतः ॥ २.२४०॥
striyo ratnānyatho vidyā dharmaḥ śaucaṃ subhāṣitam | vividhāni ca śilpāni samādeyāni sarvataḥ || 2.240||
2.240. Excellent wives, learning, (the knowledge of) the law, (the rules of) purity, good advice, and various arts may be acquired from anybody.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   240

अब्राह्मणादध्यायनमापत्काले विधीयते । अनुव्रज्या च शुश्रूषा यावदध्यायनं गुरोः ॥ २.२४१॥
abrāhmaṇādadhyāyanamāpatkāle vidhīyate | anuvrajyā ca śuśrūṣā yāvadadhyāyanaṃ guroḥ || 2.241||
2.241. It is prescribed that in times of distress (a student) may learn (the Veda) from one who is not a Brahmana; and that he shall walk behind and serve (such a) teacher, as long as the instruction lasts.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   241

नाब्राह्मणे गुरौ शिष्यो वासमात्यन्तिकं वसेत् । ब्राह्मणे वाऽननूचाने काङ्क्षन् गतिमनुत्तमाम् ॥ २.२४२॥
nābrāhmaṇe gurau śiṣyo vāsamātyantikaṃ vaset | brāhmaṇe vā'nanūcāne kāṅkṣan gatimanuttamām || 2.242||
2.242. He who desires incomparable bliss (in heaven) shall not dwell during his whole life in (the house of) a non-Brahmanical teacher, nor with a Brahmana who does not know the whole Veda and the Angas.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   242

यदि त्वात्यन्तिकं वासं रोचयेत गुरोः कुले । युक्तः परिचरेदेनमा शरीरविमोक्षणात् ॥ २.२४३॥
yadi tvātyantikaṃ vāsaṃ rocayeta guroḥ kule | yuktaḥ paricaredenamā śarīravimokṣaṇāt || 2.243||
2.243. But if (a student) desires to pass his whole life in the teacher’s house, he must diligently serve him, until he is freed from this body.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   243

आ समाप्तेः शरीरस्य यस्तु शुश्रूषते गुरुम् । स गच्छत्यञ्जसा विप्रो ब्रह्मणः सद्म शाश्वतम् ॥ २.२४४॥
ā samāpteḥ śarīrasya yastu śuśrūṣate gurum | sa gacchatyañjasā vipro brahmaṇaḥ sadma śāśvatam || 2.244||
2.244. A Brahmana who serves his teacher till the dissolution of his body, reaches forthwith the eternal mansion of Brahman.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   244

न पूर्वं गुरवे किं चिदुपकुर्वीत धर्मवित् । स्नास्यंस्तु गुरुणाऽज्ञप्तः शक्त्या गुर्व्र्थमाहरेत् ॥ २.२४५॥
na pūrvaṃ gurave kiṃ cidupakurvīta dharmavit | snāsyaṃstu guruṇā'jñaptaḥ śaktyā gurvrthamāharet || 2.245||
2.245. He who knows the sacred law must not present any gift to his teacher before (the Samavartana); but when, with the permission of his teacher, he is about to take the (final) bath, let him procure (a present) for the venerable man according to his ability,

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   245

क्षेत्रं हिरण्यं गामश्वं छत्रोपानहमन्ततः। धान्यं शाकं च वासांसि गुरवे प्रीतिमावहेत् ॥ २.२४६॥
kṣetraṃ hiraṇyaṃ gāmaśvaṃ chatropānahamantataḥ| dhānyaṃ śākaṃ ca vāsāṃsi gurave prītimāvahet || 2.246||
2.246. (Viz.) a field, gold, a cow, a horse, a parasol and shoes, a seat, grain, (even) vegetables, (and thus) give pleasure to his teacher.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   246

आचार्ये तु खलु प्रेते गुरुपुत्रे गुणान्विते । गुरुदारे सपिण्डे वा गुरुवद्वृत्तिमाचरेत् ॥ २.२४७॥
ācārye tu khalu prete guruputre guṇānvite | gurudāre sapiṇḍe vā guruvadvṛttimācaret || 2.247||
2.247. (A perpetual student) must, if his teacher dies, serve his son (provided he be) endowed with good qualities, or his widow, or his Sapinda, in the same manner as the teacher.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   247

एतेष्वविद्यमानेषु स्थानासनविहारवान् । प्रयुञ्जानोऽग्निशुश्रूषां साधयेद्देहमात्मनः ॥ २.२४८॥
eteṣvavidyamāneṣu sthānāsanavihāravān | prayuñjāno'gniśuśrūṣāṃ sādhayeddehamātmanaḥ || 2.248||
2.248. Should none of these be alive, he must serve the sacred fire, standing (by day) and sitting (during the night), and thus finish his life.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   248

एवं चरति यो विप्रो ब्रह्मचर्यमविप्लुतः । स गच्छत्युत्तमस्थानं न चैह जायते पुनः ॥ २.२४९॥
evaṃ carati yo vipro brahmacaryamaviplutaḥ | sa gacchatyuttamasthānaṃ na caiha jāyate punaḥ || 2.249||
2.249. A Brahmana who thus passes his life as a student without breaking his vow, reaches (after death) the highest abode and will not be born again in this world.

Adhyaya : 2

Shloka :   249

ॐ श्री परमात्मने नमः

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