Manu Smriti

Adhyaya 3

ॐ श्री परमात्मने नमः


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संस्कृत्म
A English
षट्त्रिंशदाब्दिकं चर्यं गुरौ त्रैवेदिकं व्रतम् । तदर्धिकं पादिकं वा ग्रहणान्तिकमेव वा ॥ ३.१॥
ṣaṭtriṃśadābdikaṃ caryaṃ gurau traivedikaṃ vratam | tadardhikaṃ pādikaṃ vā grahaṇāntikameva vā || 3.1||
3.1. The vow (of studying) the three Vedas under a teacher must be kept for thirty-six years, or for half that time, or for a quarter, or until the (student) has perfectly learnt them.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   1

वेदानधीत्य वेदौ वा वेदं वाऽपि यथाक्रमम् । अविप्लुतब्रह्मचर्यो गृहस्थाश्रममावसेत् ॥ ३.२॥
vedānadhītya vedau vā vedaṃ vā'pi yathākramam | aviplutabrahmacaryo gṛhasthāśramamāvaset || 3.2||
3.2. (A student) who has studied in due order the three Vedas, or two, or even one only, without breaking the (rules of) studentship, shall enter the order of householders.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   2

तं प्रतीतं स्वधर्मेण ब्रह्मदायहरं पितुः । स्रग्विणं तल्प आसीनमर्हयेत्प्रथमं गवा ॥ ३.३॥
taṃ pratītaṃ svadharmeṇa brahmadāyaharaṃ pituḥ | sragviṇaṃ talpa āsīnamarhayetprathamaṃ gavā || 3.3||
3.3. He who is famous for (the strict performance of) his duties and has received his heritage, the Veda, from his father, shall be honoured, sitting on a couch and adorned with a garland, with (the present of) a cow (and the honey-mixture).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   3

गुरुणानुमतः स्नात्वा समावृत्तो यथाविधि । उद्वहेत द्विजो भार्यां सवर्णां लक्षणान्विताम् ॥ ३.४॥
guruṇānumataḥ snātvā samāvṛtto yathāvidhi | udvaheta dvijo bhāryāṃ savarṇāṃ lakṣaṇānvitām || 3.4||
3.4. Having bathed, with the permission of his teacher, and performed according to the rule the Samavartana (the rite on returning home), a twice-born man shall marry a wife of equal caste who is endowed with auspicious (bodily) marks.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   4

असपिण्डा च या मातुरसगोत्रा च या पितुः । सा प्रशस्ता द्विजातीनां दारकर्मणि अमैथिनी ॥ ३.५॥
asapiṇḍā ca yā māturasagotrā ca yā pituḥ | sā praśastā dvijātīnāṃ dārakarmaṇi amaithinī || 3.5||
3.5. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda on the mother’s side, nor belongs to the same family on the father’s side, is recommended to twice-born men for wedlock and conjugal union.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   5

महान्त्यपि समृद्धानि गोऽजाविधनधान्यतः । स्त्रीसम्बन्धे दशैतानि कुलानि परिवर्जयेत् ॥ ३.६॥
mahāntyapi samṛddhāni go'jāvidhanadhānyataḥ | strīsambandhe daśaitāni kulāni parivarjayet || 3.6||
3.6. In connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten following families, be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses, sheep, grain, or (other) property,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   6

हीनक्रियं निश्पुरुषं निश्छन्दो रोमशार्शसम् । क्षय्यामयाव्य्ऽपस्मारिश्वित्रिकुष्ठिकुलानि च ॥ ३.७॥
hīnakriyaṃ niśpuruṣaṃ niśchando romaśārśasam | kṣayyāmayāvy'pasmāriśvitrikuṣṭhikulāni ca || 3.7||
3.7. (Viz.) one which neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children (are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the members of) which have thick hair on the body, those which are subject to hemorrhoids, phthisis, weakness of digestion, epilepsy, or white or black leprosy.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   7

नोद्वहेत्कपिलां कन्यां नाधिकाङ्गीं न रोगिणीम् । नालोमिकां नातिलोमां न वाचालां न पिङ्गलाम् ॥ ३.८॥
nodvahetkapilāṃ kanyāṃ nādhikāṅgīṃ na rogiṇīm | nālomikāṃ nātilomāṃ na vācālāṃ na piṅgalām || 3.8||
3.8. Let him not marry a maiden (with) reddish (hair), nor one who has a redundant member, nor one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair (on the body) or too much, nor one who is garrulous or has red (eyes),

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   8

नऋक्षवृक्षनदीनाम्नीं नान्त्यपर्वतनामिकाम् । न पक्ष्यहिप्रेष्यनाम्नीं न च भीषणनामिकाम् ॥ ३.९॥
naṛkṣavṛkṣanadīnāmnīṃ nāntyaparvatanāmikām | na pakṣyahipreṣyanāmnīṃ na ca bhīṣaṇanāmikām || 3.9||
3.9. Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires terror.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   9

अव्यङ्गाङ्गीं सौम्यनाम्नीं हंसवारणगामिनीम् । तनुलोमकेशदशनां मृद्वङ्गीमुद्वहेत्स्त्रियम् ॥ ३.१०॥
avyaṅgāṅgīṃ saumyanāmnīṃ haṃsavāraṇagāminīm | tanulomakeśadaśanāṃ mṛdvaṅgīmudvahetstriyam || 3.10||
3.10. Let him wed a female free from bodily defects, who has an agreeable name, the (graceful) gait of a Hamsa or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity of) hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   10

यस्यास्तु न भवेद्भ्राता न विज्ञायेत वा पिता । नौपयच्छेत तां प्राज्ञः पुत्रिकाऽधर्मशङ्कया ॥ ३.११॥
yasyāstu na bhavedbhrātā na vijñāyeta vā pitā | naupayaccheta tāṃ prājñaḥ putrikā'dharmaśaṅkayā || 3.11||
3.11. But a prudent man should not marry (a maiden) who has no brother, nor one whose father is not known, through fear lest (in the former case she be made) an appointed daughter (and in the latter) lest (he should commit) sin.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   11

सवर्णाऽग्रे द्विजातीनां प्रशस्ता दारकर्मणि । कामतस्तु प्रवृत्तानामिमाः स्युः क्रमशोऽवराः ॥ ३.१२॥
savarṇā'gre dvijātīnāṃ praśastā dārakarmaṇi | kāmatastu pravṛttānāmimāḥ syuḥ kramaśo'varāḥ || 3.12||
3.12. For the first marriage of twice-born men (wives) of equal caste are recommended; but for those who through desire proceed (to marry again) the following females, (chosen) according to the (direct) order (of the castes), are most approved.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   12

शूद्रैव भार्या शूद्रस्य सा च स्वा च विशः स्मृते । ते च स्वा चैव राज्ञश्च ताश्च स्वा चाग्रजन्मनः ॥ ३.१३॥
śūdraiva bhāryā śūdrasya sā ca svā ca viśaḥ smṛte | te ca svā caiva rājñaśca tāśca svā cāgrajanmanaḥ || 3.13||
3.13. It is declared that a Sudra woman alone (can be) the wife of a Sudra, she and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Vaisya, those two and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Kshatriya, those three and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Brahmana.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   13

न ब्राह्मणक्षत्रिययोरापद्यपि हि तिष्ठतोः । कस्मिंश्चिदपि वृत्तान्ते शूद्रा भार्यौपदिश्यते ॥ ३.१४॥
na brāhmaṇakṣatriyayorāpadyapi hi tiṣṭhatoḥ | kasmiṃścidapi vṛttānte śūdrā bhāryaupadiśyate || 3.14||
3.14. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any (ancient) story as the (first) wife of a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the (greatest) distress.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   14

हीनजातिस्त्रियं मोहादुद्वहन्तो द्विजातयः । कुलान्येव नयन्त्याशु ससन्तानानि शूद्रताम् ॥ ३.१५॥
hīnajātistriyaṃ mohādudvahanto dvijātayaḥ | kulānyeva nayantyāśu sasantānāni śūdratām || 3.15||
3.15. Twice-born men who, in their folly, wed wives of the low (Sudra) caste, soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Sudras.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   15

शूद्रावेदी पतत्यत्रेरुतथ्यतनयस्य च । शौनकस्य सुतोत्पत्त्या तदपत्यतया भृगोः ॥ ३.१६॥
śūdrāvedī patatyatrerutathyatanayasya ca | śaunakasya sutotpattyā tadapatyatayā bhṛgoḥ || 3.16||
3.16. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya, he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an outcast, according to Saunaka on the birth of a son, and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra female, alone).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   16

शूद्रां शयनमारोप्य ब्राह्मणो यात्यधोगतिम् । जनयित्वा सुतं तस्यां ब्राह्मण्यादेव हीयते ॥ ३.१७॥
śūdrāṃ śayanamāropya brāhmaṇo yātyadhogatim | janayitvā sutaṃ tasyāṃ brāhmaṇyādeva hīyate || 3.17||
3.17. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will (after death) sink into hell; if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmana.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   17

दैवपित्र्यातिथेयानि तत्प्रधानानि यस्य तु । नाश्नन्ति पितृदेवास्तन्न च स्वर्गं स गच्छति ॥ ३.१८॥
daivapitryātitheyāni tatpradhānāni yasya tu | nāśnanti pitṛdevāstanna ca svargaṃ sa gacchati || 3.18||
3.18. The manes and the gods will not eat the (offerings) of that man who performs the rites in honour of the gods, of the manes, and of guests chiefly with a (Sudra wife’s) assistance, and such (a man) will not go to heaven.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   18

वृषलीफेनपीतस्य निःश्वासोपहतस्य च । तस्यां चैव प्रसूतस्य निष्कृतिर्न विधीयते ॥ ३.१९॥
vṛṣalīphenapītasya niḥśvāsopahatasya ca | tasyāṃ caiva prasūtasya niṣkṛtirna vidhīyate || 3.19||
3.19. For him who drinks the moisture of a Sudra’s lips, who is tainted by her breath, and who begets a son on her, no expiation is prescribed.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   19

चतुर्णामपि वर्णानं प्रेत्य चैह हिताहितान् । अष्टाविमान् समासेन स्त्रीविवाहान्निबोधत ॥ ३.२०॥
caturṇāmapi varṇānaṃ pretya caiha hitāhitān | aṣṭāvimān samāsena strīvivāhānnibodhata || 3.20||
3.20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   20

ब्राह्मो दैवस्तथैवार्षः प्राजापत्यस्तथाऽसुरः । गान्धर्वो राक्षसश्चैव पैशाचश्चाष्टमोऽधमः ॥ ३.२१॥
brāhmo daivastathaivārṣaḥ prājāpatyastathā'suraḥ | gāndharvo rākṣasaścaiva paiśācaścāṣṭamo'dhamaḥ || 3.21||
3.21. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   21

यो यस्य धर्म्यो वर्णस्य गुणदोषौ च यस्य यौ । तद्वः सर्वं प्रवक्ष्यामि प्रसवे च गुणागुणान् ॥ ३.२२॥
yo yasya dharmyo varṇasya guṇadoṣau ca yasya yau | tadvaḥ sarvaṃ pravakṣyāmi prasave ca guṇāguṇān || 3.22||
3.22. Which is lawful for each caste (varna) and which are the virtues or faults of each (rite), all this I will declare to you, as well as their good and evil results with respect to the offspring.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   22

षडानुपूर्व्या विप्रस्य क्षत्रस्य चतुरोऽवरान् । विश्। शूद्रयोस्तु तानेव विद्याद् धर्म्यान्न राक्षसान् ॥ ३.२३॥
ṣaḍānupūrvyā viprasya kṣatrasya caturo'varān | viś| śūdrayostu tāneva vidyād dharmyānna rākṣasān || 3.23||
3.23. One may know that the first six according to the order (followed above) are lawful for a Brahmana, the four last for a Kshatriya, and the same four, excepting the Rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   23

चतुरो ब्राह्मणस्याद्यान् प्रशस्तान् कवयो विदुः । राक्षसं क्षत्रियस्यैकमासुरं वैश्यशूद्रयोः ॥ ३.२४॥
caturo brāhmaṇasyādyān praśastān kavayo viduḥ | rākṣasaṃ kṣatriyasyaikamāsuraṃ vaiśyaśūdrayoḥ || 3.24||
3.24. The sages state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a Brahmana, one, the Rakshasa (rite in the case) of a Kshatriya, and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and of a Sudra.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   24

पञ्चानां तु त्रयो धर्म्या द्वावधर्म्यौ स्मृताविह । पैशाचश्चासुरश्चैव न कर्तव्यौ कदा चन ॥ ३.२५॥
pañcānāṃ tu trayo dharmyā dvāvadharmyau smṛtāviha | paiśācaścāsuraścaiva na kartavyau kadā cana || 3.25||
3.25. But in these (Institutes of the sacred law) three of the five (last) are declared to be lawful and two unlawful; the Paisaka and the Asura (rites) must never be used.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   25

पृथक्पृथग्वा मिश्रौ वा विवाहौ पूर्वचोदितौ । गान्धर्वो राक्षसश्चैव धर्म्यौ क्षत्रस्य तौ स्मृतौ ॥ ३.२६॥
pṛthakpṛthagvā miśrau vā vivāhau pūrvacoditau | gāndharvo rākṣasaścaiva dharmyau kṣatrasya tau smṛtau || 3.26||
3.26. For Kshatriyas those before-mentioned two rites, the Gandharva and the Rakshasa, whether separate or mixed, are permitted by the sacred tradition.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   26

आच्छाद्य चार्चयित्वा च श्रुतशीलवते स्वयम् । आहूय दानं कन्याया ब्राह्मो धर्मः प्रकीर्तितः ॥ ३.२७॥
ācchādya cārcayitvā ca śrutaśīlavate svayam | āhūya dānaṃ kanyāyā brāhmo dharmaḥ prakīrtitaḥ || 3.27||
3.27. The gift of a daughter, after decking her (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents of jewels), to a man learned in the Veda and of good conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the Brahma rite.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   27

यज्ञे तु वितते सम्यगृत्विजे कर्म कुर्वते । अलङ्कृत्य सुतादानं दैवं धर्मं प्रचक्षते ॥ ३.२८॥
yajñe tu vitate samyagṛtvije karma kurvate | alaṅkṛtya sutādānaṃ daivaṃ dharmaṃ pracakṣate || 3.28||
3.28. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice, during the course of its performance, they call the Daiva rite.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   28

एकं गोमिथुनं द्वे वा वरादादाय धर्मतः । कन्याप्रदानं विधिवदार्षो धर्मः स उच्यते ॥ ३.२९॥
ekaṃ gomithunaṃ dve vā varādādāya dharmataḥ | kanyāpradānaṃ vidhivadārṣo dharmaḥ sa ucyate || 3.29||
3.29. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule, after receiving from the bridegroom, for (the fulfilment of) the sacred law, a cow and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   29

सहौभौ चरतां धर्ममिति वाचाऽनुभाष्य च । कन्याप्रदानमभ्यर्च्य प्राजापत्यो विधिः स्मृतः ॥ ३.३०॥
sahaubhau caratāṃ dharmamiti vācā'nubhāṣya ca | kanyāpradānamabhyarcya prājāpatyo vidhiḥ smṛtaḥ || 3.30||
3.30. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the couple) with the text, ’May both of you perform together your duties,’ and has shown honour (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya rite.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   30

ज्ञातिभ्यो द्रविणं दत्त्वा कन्यायै चैव शक्तितः । कन्याप्रदानं स्वाच्छन्द्यादासुरो धर्म उच्यते ॥ ३.३१॥
jñātibhyo draviṇaṃ dattvā kanyāyai caiva śaktitaḥ | kanyāpradānaṃ svācchandyādāsuro dharma ucyate || 3.31||
3.31. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after having given as much wealth as he can afford, to the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his own will, that is called the Asura rite.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   31

इच्छयाऽन्योन्यसंयोगः कन्यायाश्च वरस्य च । गान्धर्वः स तु विज्ञेयो मैथुन्यः कामसम्भवः ॥ ३.३२॥
icchayā'nyonyasaṃyogaḥ kanyāyāśca varasya ca | gāndharvaḥ sa tu vijñeyo maithunyaḥ kāmasambhavaḥ || 3.32||
3.32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   32

हत्वा छित्त्वा च भित्त्वा च क्रोशन्तीं रुदतीं गृहात् । प्रसह्य कन्याहरणं राक्षसो विधिरुच्यते ॥ ३.३३॥
hatvā chittvā ca bhittvā ca krośantīṃ rudatīṃ gṛhāt | prasahya kanyāharaṇaṃ rākṣaso vidhirucyate || 3.33||
3.33. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   33

सुप्तां मत्तां प्रमत्तां वा रहो यत्रोपगच्छति । स पापिष्ठो विवाहानां पैशाचः प्रथितोऽधमः ॥ ३.३४॥
suptāṃ mattāṃ pramattāṃ vā raho yatropagacchati | sa pāpiṣṭho vivāhānāṃ paiśācaḥ prathito'dhamaḥ || 3.34||
3.34. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in intellect, that is the eighth, the most base and sinful rite of the Pisakas.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   34

अद्भिरेव द्विजाग्र्याणां कन्यादानं विशिष्यते । इतरेषां तु वर्णानामितरेतरकाम्यया ॥ ३.३५॥
adbhireva dvijāgryāṇāṃ kanyādānaṃ viśiṣyate | itareṣāṃ tu varṇānāmitaretarakāmyayā || 3.35||
3.35. ”The gift of daughters among Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by (a libation of) water; but in the case of other castes (it may be performed) by (the expression of) mutual consent.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   35

यो यस्यैषां विवाहानां मनुना कीर्तितो गुणः । सर्वं श‍ृणुत तं विप्राः सम्यक्कीर्तयतो ॥ ३.३६॥
yo yasyaiṣāṃ vivāhānāṃ manunā kīrtito guṇaḥ | sarvaṃ śa‍्ṛṇuta taṃ viprāḥ samyakkīrtayato || 3.36||
3.36. Listen now to me, ye Brahmanas, while I fully declare what quality has been ascribed by Manu to each of these marriage-rites.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   36

दश पूर्वान् परान् वंश्यानात्मानं चैकविंशकम् । ब्राह्मीपुत्रः सुकृतकृत्मोचयत्येनसः पितॄन् ॥ ३.३७॥
daśa pūrvān parān vaṃśyānātmānaṃ caikaviṃśakam | brāhmīputraḥ sukṛtakṛtmocayatyenasaḥ pitṝn || 3.37||
3.37. The son of a wife wedded according to the Brahma rite, if he performs meritorious acts, liberates from sin ten ancestors, ten descendants and himself as the twenty-first.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   37

दैवौढाजः सुतश्चैव सप्त सप्त परावरान् । आर्षौढाजः सुतस्त्रींस्त्रीन् षट्षट्कायौढजः सुतः ॥ ३.३८॥
daivauḍhājaḥ sutaścaiva sapta sapta parāvarān | ārṣauḍhājaḥ sutastrīṃstrīn ṣaṭṣaṭkāyauḍhajaḥ sutaḥ || 3.38||
3.38. The son born of a wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise (saves) seven ancestors and seven descendants, the son of a wife married by the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and descending lines), and the son of a wife married by the rite of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   38

ब्राह्मादिषु विवाहेषु चतुर्ष्वेवानुपूर्वशः । ब्रह्मवर्चसिनः पुत्रा जायन्ते शिष्टसम्मताः ॥ ३.३९॥
brāhmādiṣu vivāheṣu caturṣvevānupūrvaśaḥ | brahmavarcasinaḥ putrā jāyante śiṣṭasammatāḥ || 3.39||
3.39. From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with the Brahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   39

रूपसत्त्वगुणोपेता धनवन्तो यशस्विनः । पर्याप्तभोगा धर्मिष्ठा जीवन्ति च शतं समाः ॥ ३.४०॥
rūpasattvaguṇopetā dhanavanto yaśasvinaḥ | paryāptabhogā dharmiṣṭhā jīvanti ca śataṃ samāḥ || 3.40||
3.40. Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness, possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being most righteous, they will live a hundred years.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   40

इतरेषु तु शिष्टेषु नृशंसाऽनृतवादिनः । जायन्ते दुर्विवाहेषु ब्रह्मधर्मद्विषः सुताः ॥ ३.४१॥
itareṣu tu śiṣṭeṣu nṛśaṃsā'nṛtavādinaḥ | jāyante durvivāheṣu brahmadharmadviṣaḥ sutāḥ || 3.41||
3.41. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred law.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   41

अनिन्दितैः स्त्रीविवाहैरनिन्द्या भवति प्रजा । निन्दितैर्निन्दिता नॄणां तस्मान्निन्द्यान् विवर्जयेत् ॥ ३.४२॥
aninditaiḥ strīvivāhairanindyā bhavati prajā | ninditairninditā nṝṇāṃ tasmānnindyān vivarjayet || 3.42||
3.42. In the blameless marriages blameless children are born to men, in blamable (marriages) blamable (offspring); one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms of marriage).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   42

पाणिग्रहणसंस्कारः सवर्णासूपदिश्यते । असवर्णास्वयं ज्ञेयो विधिरुद्वाहकर्मणि ॥ ३.४३॥
pāṇigrahaṇasaṃskāraḥ savarṇāsūpadiśyate | asavarṇāsvayaṃ jñeyo vidhirudvāhakarmaṇi || 3.43||
3.43. The ceremony of joining the hands is prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal caste (varna); know that the following rule (applies) to weddings with females of a different caste (varna).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   43

शरः क्षत्रियया ग्राह्यः प्रतोदो वैश्यकन्यया । वसनस्य दशा ग्राह्या शूद्रयोत्कृष्टवेदने ॥ ३.४४॥
śaraḥ kṣatriyayā grāhyaḥ pratodo vaiśyakanyayā | vasanasya daśā grāhyā śūdrayotkṛṣṭavedane || 3.44||
3.44. On marrying a man of a higher caste a Kshatriya bride must take hold of an arrow, a Vaisya bride of a goad, and a Sudra female of the hem of the (bridegroom’s) garment.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   44

ऋतुकालाभिगामी स्यात्स्वदारनिरतः सदा । पर्ववर्जं व्रजेच्चैनां तद्व्रतो रतिकाम्यया ॥ ३.४५॥
ṛtukālābhigāmī syātsvadāranirataḥ sadā | parvavarjaṃ vrajeccaināṃ tadvrato ratikāmyayā || 3.45||
3.45. Let (the husband) approach his wife in due season, being constantly satisfied with her (alone); he may also, being intent on pleasing her, approach her with a desire for conjugal union (on any day) excepting the Parvans.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   45

ऋतुः स्वाभाविकः स्त्रीणां रात्रयः षोडश स्मृताः । चतुर्भिरितरैः सार्धमहोभिः सद्विगर्हितैः ॥ ३.४६॥
ṛtuḥ svābhāvikaḥ strīṇāṃ rātrayaḥ ṣoḍaśa smṛtāḥ | caturbhiritaraiḥ sārdhamahobhiḥ sadvigarhitaiḥ || 3.46||
3.46. Sixteen (days and) nights (in each month), including four days which differ from the rest and are censured by the virtuous, (are called) the natural season of women.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   46

तासामाद्याश्चतस्रस्तु निन्दितैकादशी च या । त्रयोदशी च शेषास्तु प्रशस्ता दशरात्रयः ॥ ३.४७॥
tāsāmādyāścatasrastu ninditaikādaśī ca yā | trayodaśī ca śeṣāstu praśastā daśarātrayaḥ || 3.47||
3.47. But among these the first four, the eleventh and the thirteenth are (declared to be) forbidden; the remaining nights are recommended.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   47

युग्मासु पुत्रा जायन्ते स्त्रियोऽयुग्मासु रात्रिषु । तस्माद्युग्मासु पुत्रार्थी संविशेदार्तवे स्त्रियम् ॥ ३.४८॥
yugmāsu putrā jāyante striyo'yugmāsu rātriṣu | tasmādyugmāsu putrārthī saṃviśedārtave striyam || 3.48||
3.48. On the even nights sons are conceived and daughters on the uneven ones; hence a man who desires to have sons should approach his wife in due season on the even (nights).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   48

पुमान् पुंसोऽधिके शुक्रे स्त्री भवत्यधिके स्त्रियाः । समेऽपुमान् पुं। स्त्रियौ वा क्षीणेऽल्पे च विपर्ययः ॥ ३.४९॥
pumān puṃso'dhike śukre strī bhavatyadhike striyāḥ | same'pumān puṃ| striyau vā kṣīṇe'lpe ca viparyayaḥ || 3.49||
3.49. A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male seed, a female child by the prevalence of the female; if (both are) equal, a hermaphrodite or a boy and a girl; if (both are) weak or deficient in quantity, a failure of conception (results).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   49

निन्द्यास्वष्टासु चान्यासु स्त्रियो रात्रिषु वर्जयन् । ब्रह्मचार्येव भवति यत्र तत्राश्रमे वसन् ॥ ३.५०॥
nindyāsvaṣṭāsu cānyāsu striyo rātriṣu varjayan | brahmacāryeva bhavati yatra tatrāśrame vasan || 3.50||
3.50. He who avoids women on the six forbidden nights and on eight others, is (equal in chastity to) a student, in whichever order he may live.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   50

न कन्यायाः पिता विद्वान् गृह्णीयात्शुल्कमण्वपि । गृह्णंश्छुल्कं हि लोभेन स्यान्नरोऽपत्यविक्रयी ॥ ३.५१॥
na kanyāyāḥ pitā vidvān gṛhṇīyātśulkamaṇvapi | gṛhṇaṃśchulkaṃ hi lobhena syānnaro'patyavikrayī || 3.51||
3.51. No father who knows (the law) must take even the smallest gratuity for his daughter; for a man who, through avarice, takes a gratuity, is a seller of his offspring.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   51

स्त्रीधनानि तु ये मोहादुपजीवन्ति बान्धवाः । नारीयानानि वस्त्रं वा ते पापा यान्त्यधोगतिम् ॥ ३.५२॥
strīdhanāni tu ye mohādupajīvanti bāndhavāḥ | nārīyānāni vastraṃ vā te pāpā yāntyadhogatim || 3.52||
3.52. But those (male) relations who, in their folly, live on the separate property of women, (e.g. appropriate) the beasts of burden, carriages, and clothes of women, commit sin and will sink into hell.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   52

आर्षे गोमिथुनं शुल्कं के चिदाहुर्मृषैव तत् । तावानेव स विक्रयः स्तावदेव सः ॥ ३.५३॥
ārṣe gomithunaṃ śulkaṃ ke cidāhurmṛṣaiva tat | tāvāneva sa vikrayaḥ stāvadeva saḥ || 3.53||
3.53. Some call the cow and the bull (given) at an Arsha wedding ’a gratuity;’ (but) that is wrong, since (the acceptance of) a fee, be it small or great, is a sale (of the daughter).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   53

यासां नाददते शुल्कं ज्ञातयो न स विक्रयः । अर्हणं तत्कुमारीणामानृशंस्यं न केवलम् ॥ ३.५४॥
yāsāṃ nādadate śulkaṃ jñātayo na sa vikrayaḥ | arhaṇaṃ tatkumārīṇāmānṛśaṃsyaṃ na kevalam || 3.54||
3.54. When the relatives do not appropriate (for their use) the gratuity (given), it is not a sale; (in that case) the (gift) is only a token of respect and of kindness towards the maidens.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   54

पितृभिर्भ्रातृभिश्चैताः पतिभिर्देवरैस्तथा । पूज्या भूषयितव्याश्च बहुकल्याणमीप्सुभिः ॥ ३.५५॥
pitṛbhirbhrātṛbhiścaitāḥ patibhirdevaraistathā | pūjyā bhūṣayitavyāśca bahukalyāṇamīpsubhiḥ || 3.55||
3.55. Women must be honoured and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers-in-law, who desire (their own) welfare.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   55

यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवताः । यत्रैतास्तु न पूज्यन्ते सर्वास्तत्राफलाः क्रियाः ॥ ३.५६॥
yatra nāryastu pūjyante ramante tatra devatāḥ | yatraitāstu na pūjyante sarvāstatrāphalāḥ kriyāḥ || 3.56||
3.56. Where women are honoured, there the gods are pleased; but where they are not honoured, no sacred rite yields rewards.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   56

शोचन्ति जामयो यत्र विनश्यत्याशु तत्कुलम् । न शोचन्ति तु यत्रैता वर्धते तधि सर्वदा ॥ ३.५७॥
śocanti jāmayo yatra vinaśyatyāśu tatkulam | na śocanti tu yatraitā vardhate tadhi sarvadā || 3.57||
3.57. Where the female relations live in grief, the family soon wholly perishes; but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   57

जामयो यानि गेहानि शपन्त्यप्रतिपूजिताः ॥तानि कृत्याहतानीव विनश्यन्ति समन्ततः ॥ ३.५८॥
jāmayo yāni gehāni śapantyapratipūjitāḥ || tāni kṛtyāhatānīva vinaśyanti samantataḥ || 3.58||
3.58. The houses on which female relations, not being duly honoured, pronounce a curse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   58

तस्मादेताः सदा पूज्या भूषणाच्छादनाशनैः । भूतिकामैर्नरैर्नित्यं सत्कारेषूत्सवेषु च ॥ ३.५९॥
tasmādetāḥ sadā pūjyā bhūṣaṇācchādanāśanaiḥ | bhūtikāmairnarairnityaṃ satkāreṣūtsaveṣu ca || 3.59||
3.59. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honour women on holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes, and (dainty) food.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   59

संतुष्टो भार्यया भर्ता भर्त्रा भार्या तथैव च । यस्मिन्नेव कुले नित्यं कल्याणं तत्र वै ध्रुवम् ॥ ३.६०॥
saṃtuṣṭo bhāryayā bhartā bhartrā bhāryā tathaiva ca | yasminneva kule nityaṃ kalyāṇaṃ tatra vai dhruvam || 3.60||
3.60. In that family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife with her husband, happiness will assuredly be lasting.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   60

यदि हि स्त्री न रोचेत पुमांसं न प्रमोदयेत् । अप्रमोदात्पुनः पुंसः प्रजनं न प्रवर्तते ॥ ३.६१॥
yadi hi strī na roceta pumāṃsaṃ na pramodayet | apramodātpunaḥ puṃsaḥ prajanaṃ na pravartate || 3.61||
3.61. For if the wife is not radiant with beauty, she will not attract her husband; but if she has no attractions for him, no children will be born.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   61

स्त्रियां तु रोचमानायां सर्वं तद्रोचते कुलम् । तस्यां त्वरोचमानायां सर्वमेव न रोचते ॥ ३.६२॥
striyāṃ tu rocamānāyāṃ sarvaṃ tadrocate kulam | tasyāṃ tvarocamānāyāṃ sarvameva na rocate || 3.62||
3.62. If the wife is radiant with beauty, the whole house is bright; but if she is destitute of beauty, all will appear dismal.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   62

कुविवाहैः क्रियालोपैर्वेदानध्ययनेन च । कुलान्यकुलतां यान्ति ब्राह्मणातिक्रमेण च ॥ ३.६३॥
kuvivāhaiḥ kriyālopairvedānadhyayanena ca | kulānyakulatāṃ yānti brāhmaṇātikrameṇa ca || 3.63||
3.63. By low marriages, by omitting (the performance of) sacred rites, by neglecting the study of the Veda, and by irreverence towards Brahmanas, (great) families sink low.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   63

शिल्पेन व्यवहारेण शूद्रापत्यैश्च केवलैः । गोभिरश्वैश्च यानैश्च कृष्या राजोपसेवया ॥ ३.६४॥
śilpena vyavahāreṇa śūdrāpatyaiśca kevalaiḥ | gobhiraśvaiśca yānaiśca kṛṣyā rājopasevayā || 3.64||
3.64. By (practising) handicrafts, by pecuniary transactions, by (begetting) children on Sudra females only, by (trading in) cows, horses, and carriages, by (the pursuit of) agriculture and by taking service under a king,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   64

अयाज्ययाजनैश्चैव नास्तिक्येन च कर्मणाम् । कुलान्याशु विनश्यन्ति यानि हीनानि मन्त्रतः ॥ ३.६५॥
ayājyayājanaiścaiva nāstikyena ca karmaṇām | kulānyāśu vinaśyanti yāni hīnāni mantrataḥ || 3.65||
3.65. By sacrificing for men unworthy to offer sacrifices and by denying (the future rewards for good) works, families, deficient in the (knowledge of the) Veda, quickly perish.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   65

मन्त्रतस्तु समृद्धानि कुलान्यल्पधनान्यपि । कुलसङ्ख्यां च गच्छन्ति कर्षन्ति च महद्यशः ॥ ३.६६॥
mantratastu samṛddhāni kulānyalpadhanānyapi | kulasaṅkhyāṃ ca gacchanti karṣanti ca mahadyaśaḥ || 3.66||
3.66. But families that are rich in the knowledge of the Veda, though possessing little wealth, are numbered among the great, and acquire great fame.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   66

वैवाहिकेऽग्नौ कुर्वीत गृह्यं कर्म यथाविधि । पञ्चयज्ञविधानं च पक्तिं चान्वाहिकीं गृही ॥ ३.६७॥
vaivāhike'gnau kurvīta gṛhyaṃ karma yathāvidhi | pañcayajñavidhānaṃ ca paktiṃ cānvāhikīṃ gṛhī || 3.67||
3.67. With the sacred fire, kindled at the wedding, a householder shall perform according to the law the domestic ceremonies and the five (great) sacrifices, and (with that) he shall daily cook his food.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   67

पञ्च सूना गृहस्थस्य चुल्ली पेषण्युपस्करः । कण्डनी चौदकुम्भश्च वध्यते यास्तु वाहयन् ॥ ३.६८॥
pañca sūnā gṛhasthasya cullī peṣaṇyupaskaraḥ | kaṇḍanī caudakumbhaśca vadhyate yāstu vāhayan || 3.68||
3.68. A householder has five slaughter-houses (as it were, viz.) the hearth, the grinding-stone, the broom, the pestle and mortar, the water-vessel, by using which he is bound (with the fetters of sin).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   68

तासां क्रमेण सर्वासां निष्कृत्यर्थं महर्षिभिः । पञ्च कॢप्ता महायज्ञाः प्रत्यहं गृहमेधिनाम् ॥ ३.६९॥
tāsāṃ krameṇa sarvāsāṃ niṣkṛtyarthaṃ maharṣibhiḥ | pañca kḷptā mahāyajñāḥ pratyahaṃ gṛhamedhinām || 3.69||
3.69. In order to successively expiate (the offences committed by means) of all these (five) the great sages have prescribed for householders the daily (performance of the five) great sacrifices.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   69

अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः पितृयज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् । होमो दैवो बलिर्भौतो नृयज्ञोऽतिथिपूजनम् ॥ ३.७०॥
adhyāpanaṃ brahmayajñaḥ pitṛyajñastu tarpaṇam | homo daivo balirbhauto nṛyajño'tithipūjanam || 3.70||
3.70. Teaching (and studying) is the sacrifice (offered) to Brahman, the (offerings of water and food called) Tarpana the sacrifice to the manes, the burnt oblation the sacrifice offered to the gods, the Bali offering that offered to the Bhutas, and the hospitable reception of guests the offering to men.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   70

पञ्चैतान् यो महाऽयज्ञान्न हापयति शक्तितः । स गृहेऽपि वसन्नित्यं सूनादोषैर्न लिप्यते ॥ ३.७१॥
pañcaitān yo mahā'yajñānna hāpayati śaktitaḥ | sa gṛhe'pi vasannityaṃ sūnādoṣairna lipyate || 3.71||
3.71. He who neglects not these five great sacrifices, while he is able (to perform them), is not tainted by the sins (committed) in the five places of slaughter, though he constantly lives in the (order of) house (-holders).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   71

देवताऽतिथिभृत्यानां पितॄणामात्मनश्च यः । न निर्वपति पञ्चानामुच्छ्वसन्न स जीवति ॥ ३.७२॥
devatā'tithibhṛtyānāṃ pitṝṇāmātmanaśca yaḥ | na nirvapati pañcānāmucchvasanna sa jīvati || 3.72||
3.72. But he who does not feed these five, the gods, his guests, those whom he is bound to maintain, the manes, and himself, lives not, though he breathes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   72

अहुतं च हुतं चैव तथा प्रहुतमेव च । ब्राह्म्यं हुतं प्राशितं च पञ्चयज्ञान् प्रचक्षते ॥ ३.७३॥
ahutaṃ ca hutaṃ caiva tathā prahutameva ca | brāhmyaṃ hutaṃ prāśitaṃ ca pañcayajñān pracakṣate || 3.73||
3.73. They call (these) five sacrifices also, Ahuta, Huta, Prahuta, Brahmya-huta, and Prasita.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   73

जपोऽहुतो हुतो होमः प्रहुतो भौतिको बलिः । ब्राह्म्यं हुतं द्विजाग्र्यार्चा प्राशितं पितृतर्पणम् ॥ ३.७४॥
japo'huto huto homaḥ prahuto bhautiko baliḥ | brāhmyaṃ hutaṃ dvijāgryārcā prāśitaṃ pitṛtarpaṇam || 3.74||
3.74. Ahuta (not offered in the fire) is the muttering (of Vedic texts), Huta the burnt oblation (offered to the gods), Prahuta (offered by scattering it on the ground) the Bali offering given to the Bhutas, Brahmya-huta (offered in the digestive fire of Brahmanas), the respectful reception of Brahmana (guests), and Prasita (eaten) the (daily oblation to the manes, called) Tarpana.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   74

स्वाध्याये नित्ययुक्तः स्याद्दैवे चैवैह कर्मणि । दैवकर्मणि युक्तो हि बिभर्तीदं चराचरम् ॥ ३.७५॥
svādhyāye nityayuktaḥ syāddaive caivaiha karmaṇi | daivakarmaṇi yukto hi bibhartīdaṃ carācaram || 3.75||
3.75. Let (every man) in this (second order, at least) daily apply himself to the private recitation of the Veda, and also to the performance of the offering to the gods; for he who is diligent in the performance of sacrifices, supports both the movable and the immovable creation.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   75

अग्नौ प्रास्ताऽहुतिः सम्यगादित्यमुपतिष्ठते । आदित्याज्जायते वृष्तिर्वृष्टेरन्नं ततः प्रजाः ॥ ३.७६॥
agnau prāstā'hutiḥ samyagādityamupatiṣṭhate | ādityājjāyate vṛṣtirvṛṣṭerannaṃ tataḥ prajāḥ || 3.76||
3.76. An oblation duly thrown into the fire, reaches the sun; from the sun comes rain, from rain food, therefrom the living creatures (derive their subsistence).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   76

यथा वायुं समाश्रित्य वर्तन्ते सर्वे जीवन्ति जन्तवः । तथा गृहस्थमाश्रित्य वर्तन्त इतराश्रमः ॥ ३.७७॥
yathā vāyuṃ samāśritya vartante sarve jīvanti jantavaḥ | tathā gṛhasthamāśritya vartanta itarāśramaḥ || 3.77||
3.77. As all living creatures subsist by receiving support from air, even so (the members of) all orders subsist by receiving support from the householder.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   77

यस्मात्त्रयोऽप्याश्रमिणो ज्ञानेनान्नेन चान्वहम् । गृहस्थेनैव धार्यन्ते तस्माज्ज्येष्ठाश्रमो गृहं ॥ ३.७८॥
yasmāttrayo'pyāśramiṇo jñānenānnena cānvaham | gṛhasthenaiva dhāryante tasmājjyeṣṭhāśramo gṛhaṃ || 3.78||
3.78. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the householder with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food, therefore (the order of) householders is the most excellent order.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   78

स संधार्यः प्रयत्नेन स्वर्गमक्षयमिच्छता । सुखं चेहेच्छताऽत्यन्तं योऽधार्यो दुर्बलेन्द्रियैः ॥ ३.७९॥
sa saṃdhāryaḥ prayatnena svargamakṣayamicchatā | sukhaṃ cehecchatā'tyantaṃ yo'dhāryo durbalendriyaiḥ || 3.79||
3.79. (The duties of) this order, which cannot be practised by men with weak organs, must be carefully observed by him who desires imperishable (bliss in) heaven, and constant happiness in this (life).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   79

ऋषयः पितरो देवा भूतान्यतिथयस्तथा । आशासते कुटुम्बिभ्यस्तेभ्यः कार्यं विजानता ॥ ३.८०॥
ṛṣayaḥ pitaro devā bhūtānyatithayastathā | āśāsate kuṭumbibhyastebhyaḥ kāryaṃ vijānatā || 3.80||
3.80. The sages, the manes, the gods, the Bhutas, and guests ask the householders (for offerings and gifts); hence he who knows (the law), must give to them (what is due to each).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   80

स्वाध्यायेनार्चयेतऋषीन् होमैर्देवान् यथाविधि । पितॄंश्राद्धैश्च नॄनन्नैर्भूतानि बलिकर्मणा ॥ ३.८१॥
svādhyāyenārcayetaṛṣīn homairdevān yathāvidhi | pitṝṃśrāddhaiśca nṝnannairbhūtāni balikarmaṇā || 3.81||
3.81. Let him worship, according to the rule, the sages by the private recitation of the Veda, the gods by burnt oblations, the manes by funeral offerings (Sraddha), men by (gifts of) food, and the Bhutas by the Bali offering.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   81

दद्यादहरहः श्राद्धमन्नाद्येनोदकेन वा । पयोमूलफलैर्वाऽपि पितृभ्यः प्रीतिमावहन् ॥ ३.८२॥
dadyādaharahaḥ śrāddhamannādyenodakena vā | payomūlaphalairvā'pi pitṛbhyaḥ prītimāvahan || 3.82||
3.82. Let him daily perform a funeral sacrifice with food, or with water, or also with milk, roots, and fruits, and (thus) please the manes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   82

एकमप्याशयेद्विप्रं पित्र्यर्थे पाञ्चयज्ञिके । पित्र्यर्थंन चैवात्राशयेत्किं चिद्वैश्वदेवं प्रति द्विजम् ॥ ३.८३॥
ekamapyāśayedvipraṃ pitryarthe pāñcayajñike | pitryarthaṃna caivātrāśayetkiṃ cidvaiśvadevaṃ prati dvijam || 3.83||
3.83. Let him feed even one Brahmana in honour of the manes at (the Sraddha), which belongs to the five great sacrifices; but let him not feed on that (occasion) any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva offering.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   83

वैश्वदेवस्य सिद्धस्य गृह्येऽग्नौ विधिपूर्वकम् । आभ्यः कुर्याद्देवताभ्यो ब्राह्मणो होममन्वहम् ॥ ३.८४॥
vaiśvadevasya siddhasya gṛhye'gnau vidhipūrvakam | ābhyaḥ kuryāddevatābhyo brāhmaṇo homamanvaham || 3.84||
3.84. A Brahmana shall offer according to the rule (of his Grihya-sutra a portion) of the cooked food destined for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic fire to the following deities:

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   84

अग्नेः सोमस्य चैवादौ तयोश्चैव समस्तयोः । विश्वेभ्यश्चैव देवेभ्यो धन्वन्तरय एव च ॥ ३.८५॥
agneḥ somasya caivādau tayoścaiva samastayoḥ | viśvebhyaścaiva devebhyo dhanvantaraya eva ca || 3.85||
3.85. First to Agni, and (next) to Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, further to all the gods (Visve Devah), and (then) to Dhanvantari,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   85

कुह्वै चैवानुमत्यै च प्रजापतय एव च । सह द्यावापृथिव्योश्च तथा स्विष्टकृतेऽन्ततः ॥ ३.८६॥
kuhvai caivānumatyai ca prajāpataya eva ca | saha dyāvāpṛthivyośca tathā sviṣṭakṛte'ntataḥ || 3.86||
3.86. Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to Anumati (the goddess of the full-moon day), to Pragapati (the lord of creatures), to heaven and earth conjointly, and finally to Agni Svishtakrit (the fire which performs the sacrifice well).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   86

एवं सम्यघविर्हुत्वा सर्वदिक्षु प्रदक्षिणम् । इन्द्रान्तकाप्पतीन्दुभ्यः सानुगेभ्यो बलिं हरेत् ॥ ३.८७॥
evaṃ samyaghavirhutvā sarvadikṣu pradakṣiṇam | indrāntakāppatīndubhyaḥ sānugebhyo baliṃ haret || 3.87||
3.87. After having thus duly offered the sacrificial food, let him throw Bali offerings in all directions of the compass, proceeding (from the east) to the south, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, as well as to the servants (of these deities).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   87

मरुद्भ्य इति तु द्वारि क्षिपेदप्स्वद्भ्य इत्यपि । वनस्पतिभ्य इत्येवं मुसलोलूखले हरेत् ॥ ३.८८॥
marudbhya iti tu dvāri kṣipedapsvadbhya ityapi | vanaspatibhya ityevaṃ musalolūkhale haret || 3.88||
3.88. Saying, ’(Adoration) to the Maruts,’ he shall scatter (some food) near the door, and (some) in water, saying, ’(Adoration to the waters;’ he shall throw (some) on the pestle and the mortar, speaking thus, ’(Adoration) to the trees.’

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   88

उच्छीर्षके श्रियै कुर्याद्भद्रकाल्यै च पादतः । ब्रह्मवास्तोष्पतिभ्यां तु वास्तुमध्ये बलिं हरेत् ॥ ३.८९॥
ucchīrṣake śriyai kuryādbhadrakālyai ca pādataḥ | brahmavāstoṣpatibhyāṃ tu vāstumadhye baliṃ haret || 3.89||
3.89. Near the head (of the bed) he shall make an offering to Sri (fortune), and near the foot (of his bed) to Bhadrakali; in the centre of the house let him place a Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the dwelling) conjointly.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   89

विश्वेभ्यश्चैव देवेभ्यो बलिमाकाश उत्क्षिपेत् । दिवाचरेभ्यो भूतेभ्यो नक्तञ्चारिभ्य एव च ॥ ३.९०॥
viśvebhyaścaiva devebhyo balimākāśa utkṣipet | divācarebhyo bhūtebhyo naktañcāribhya eva ca || 3.90||
3.90. Let him throw up into the air a Bali for all the gods, and (in the day-time one) for the goblins roaming about by day, (and in the evening one) for the goblins that walk at night.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   90

पृष्ठवास्तुनि कुर्वीत बलिं सर्वान्नभूतये । पितृभ्यो बलिशेषं तु सर्वं दक्षिणतो हरेत् ॥ ३.९१॥
pṛṣṭhavāstuni kurvīta baliṃ sarvānnabhūtaye | pitṛbhyo baliśeṣaṃ tu sarvaṃ dakṣiṇato haret || 3.91||
3.91. In the upper story let him offer a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti; but let him throw what remains (from these offerings) in a southerly direction for the manes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   91

शूनां च पतितानां च श्वपचां पापरोगिणाम् । वयसां च कृमीणां च शनकैर्निर्वपेद्भुवि ॥ ३.९२॥
śūnāṃ ca patitānāṃ ca śvapacāṃ pāparogiṇām | vayasāṃ ca kṛmīṇāṃ ca śanakairnirvapedbhuvi || 3.92||
3.92. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Kandalas (Svapak), those afflicted with diseases that are punishments of former sins, crows, and insects.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   92

एवं यः सर्वभूतानि ब्राह्मणो नित्यमर्चति । स गच्छति परं स्थानं तेजोमूर्तिः पथार्जुना ॥ ३.९३॥
evaṃ yaḥ sarvabhūtāni brāhmaṇo nityamarcati | sa gacchati paraṃ sthānaṃ tejomūrtiḥ pathārjunā || 3.93||
3.93. That Brahmana who thus daily honours all beings, goes, endowed with a resplendent body, by a straight road to the highest dwelling-place (i.e. Brahman).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   93

कृत्वैतद्बलिकर्मैवमतिथिं पूर्वमाशयेत् । भिक्षां च भिक्षवे दद्याद्विधिवद्ब्रह्मचारिणे ॥ ३.९४॥
kṛtvaitadbalikarmaivamatithiṃ pūrvamāśayet | bhikṣāṃ ca bhikṣave dadyādvidhivadbrahmacāriṇe || 3.94||
3.94. Having performed this Bali offering, he shall first feed his guest and, according to the rule, give alms to an ascetic (and) to a student.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   94

यत्पुण्यफलमाप्नोति गां दत्त्वा विधिवद्गुरोः । तत्पुण्यफलमाप्नोति भिक्षां दत्त्वा द्विजो गृही ॥ ३.९५॥
yatpuṇyaphalamāpnoti gāṃ dattvā vidhivadguroḥ | tatpuṇyaphalamāpnoti bhikṣāṃ dattvā dvijo gṛhī || 3.95||
3.95. A twice-born householder gains, by giving alms, the same reward for his meritorious act which (a student) obtains for presenting, in accordance with the rule, a cow to his teacher.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   95

भिक्षामप्युदपात्रं वा सत्कृत्य विधिपूर्वकम् । वेदतत्त्वार्थविदुषे ब्राह्मणायोपपादयेत् ॥ ३.९६॥
bhikṣāmapyudapātraṃ vā satkṛtya vidhipūrvakam | vedatattvārthaviduṣe brāhmaṇāyopapādayet || 3.96||
3.96. Let him give, in accordance with the rule, to a Brahmana who knows the true meaning of the Veda, even (a small portion of food as) alms, or a pot full of water, having garnished (the food with seasoning, or the pot with flowers and fruit).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   96

नश्यन्ति हव्यकव्यानि नराणामविजानताम् । भस्मभूतेषु विप्रेषु मोहाद्दत्तानि दातृभिः ॥ ३.९७॥
naśyanti havyakavyāni narāṇāmavijānatām | bhasmabhūteṣu vipreṣu mohāddattāni dātṛbhiḥ || 3.97||
3.97. The oblations to gods and manes, made by men ignorant (of the law of gifts), are lost, if the givers in their folly present (shares of them) to Brahmanas who are mere ashes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   97

विद्यातपस्समृद्धेषु हुतं विप्रमुखाग्निषु । निस्तारयति दुर्गाच्च महतश्चैव किल्बिषात् ॥ ३.९८॥
vidyātapassamṛddheṣu hutaṃ vipramukhāgniṣu | nistārayati durgācca mahataścaiva kilbiṣāt || 3.98||
3.98. An offering made in the mouth-fire of Brahmanas rich in sacred learning and austerities, saves from misfortune and from great guilt.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   98

सम्प्राप्ताय त्वतिथये प्रदद्यादासनौदके । अन्नं चैव यथाशक्ति संस्कृत्य विधिपूर्वकम् ॥ ३.९९॥
samprāptāya tvatithaye pradadyādāsanaudake | annaṃ caiva yathāśakti saṃskṛtya vidhipūrvakam || 3.99||
3.99. But let him offer, in accordance with the rule, to a guest who has come (of his own accord) a seat and water, as well as food, garnished (with seasoning), according to his ability.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   99

शिलानप्युञ्छतो नित्यं पञ्चाग्नीनपि जुह्वतः । सर्वं सुकृतमादत्ते ब्राह्मणोऽनर्चितो वसन् ॥ ३.१००॥
śilānapyuñchato nityaṃ pañcāgnīnapi juhvataḥ | sarvaṃ sukṛtamādatte brāhmaṇo'narcito vasan || 3.100||
3.100. A Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house), takes away (with him) all the spiritual merit even of a man who subsists by gleaning ears of corn, or offers oblations in five fires.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   100

तृणानि भूमिरुदकं वाक्चतुर्थी च सूनृता । एतान्यपि सतां गेहे नोच्छिद्यन्ते कदा चन ॥ ३.१०१॥
tṛṇāni bhūmirudakaṃ vākcaturthī ca sūnṛtā | etānyapi satāṃ gehe nocchidyante kadā cana || 3.101||
3.101. Grass, room (for resting), water, and fourthly a kind word; these (things) never fail in the houses of good men.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   101

एकरात्रं तु निवसन्नतिथिर्ब्राह्मणः स्मृतः । अनित्यं हि स्थितो यस्मात्तस्मादतिथिरुच्यते ॥ ३.१०२॥
ekarātraṃ tu nivasannatithirbrāhmaṇaḥ smṛtaḥ | anityaṃ hi sthito yasmāttasmādatithirucyate || 3.102||
3.102. But a Brahmana who stays one night only is declared to be a guest (atithi); for because he stays (sthita) not long (anityam), he is called atithi (a guest).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   102

नैकग्रामीणमतिथिं विप्रं साङ्गतिकं तथा । उपस्थितं गृहे विद्याद्भार्या यत्राग्नयोऽपि वा ॥ ३.१०३॥
naikagrāmīṇamatithiṃ vipraṃ sāṅgatikaṃ tathā | upasthitaṃ gṛhe vidyādbhāryā yatrāgnayo'pi vā || 3.103||
3.103. One must not consider as a guest a Brahmana who dwells in the same village, nor one who seeks his livelihood by social intercourse, even though he has come to a house where (there is) a wife, and where sacred fires (are kept).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   103

उपासते ये गृहस्थाः परपाकमबुद्धयः । तेन ते प्रेत्य पशुतां व्रजन्त्यन्नादिदायिनः ॥ ३.१०४॥
upāsate ye gṛhasthāḥ parapākamabuddhayaḥ | tena te pretya paśutāṃ vrajantyannādidāyinaḥ || 3.104||
3.104. Those foolish householders who constantly seek (to live on) the food of others, become, in consequence of that (baseness), after death the cattle of those who give them food

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   104

अप्रणोद्योऽतिथिः सायं सूर्यौढो गृहमेधिना । काले प्राप्तस्त्वकाले वा नास्यानश्नन् गृहे वसेत् ॥ ३.१०५॥
apraṇodyo'tithiḥ sāyaṃ sūryauḍho gṛhamedhinā | kāle prāptastvakāle vā nāsyānaśnan gṛhe vaset || 3.105||
3.105. A guest who is sent by the (setting) sun in the evening, must not be driven away by a householder; whether he have come at (supper-) time or at an inopportune moment, he must not stay in the house without entertainment.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   105

न वै स्वयं तदश्नीयादतिथिं यन्न भोजयेत् । धन्यं यशस्यमायुष्यं स्वर्ग्यं वाऽतिथिपूजनम् ॥ ३.१०६॥
na vai svayaṃ tadaśnīyādatithiṃ yanna bhojayet | dhanyaṃ yaśasyamāyuṣyaṃ svargyaṃ vā'tithipūjanam || 3.106||
3.106. Let him not eat any (dainty) food which he does not offer to his guest; the hospitable reception of guests procures wealth, fame, long life, and heavenly bliss.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   106

आसनावसथौ शय्यामनुव्रज्यामुपासनाम् । उत्तमेषूत्तमं कुर्याधीने हीनं समे समम् ॥ ३.१०७॥
āsanāvasathau śayyāmanuvrajyāmupāsanām | uttameṣūttamaṃ kuryādhīne hīnaṃ same samam || 3.107||
3.107. Let him offer (to his guests) seats, rooms, beds, attendance on departure and honour (while they stay), to the most distinguished in the best form, to the lower ones in a lower form, to equals in an equal manner.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   107

वैश्वदेवे तु निर्वृत्ते यद्यन्योऽतिथिराव्रजेत् । तस्याप्यन्नं यथाशक्ति प्रदद्यान्न बलिं हरेत् ॥ ३.१०८॥
vaiśvadeve tu nirvṛtte yadyanyo'tithirāvrajet | tasyāpyannaṃ yathāśakti pradadyānna baliṃ haret || 3.108||
3.108. But if another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished, (the householder) must give him food according to his ability, (but) not repeat the Bali offering.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   108

न भोजनार्थं स्वे विप्रः कुलगोत्रे निवेदयेत् । भोजनार्थं हि ते शंसन् वान्ताशीत्युच्यते बुधैः ॥ ३.१०९॥
na bhojanārthaṃ sve vipraḥ kulagotre nivedayet | bhojanārthaṃ hi te śaṃsan vāntāśītyucyate budhaiḥ || 3.109||
3.109. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to obtain a meal; for he who boasts of them for the sake of a meal, is called by the wise a foul feeder (vantasin).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   109

न ब्राह्मणस्य त्वतिथिर्गृहे राजन्य उच्यते । वैश्यशूद्रौ सखा चैव ज्ञातयो गुरुरेव च ॥ ३.११०॥
na brāhmaṇasya tvatithirgṛhe rājanya ucyate | vaiśyaśūdrau sakhā caiva jñātayo gurureva ca || 3.110||
3.110. But a Kshatriya (who comes) to the house of a Brahmana is not called a guest (atithi), nor a Vaisya, nor a Sudra, nor a personal friend, nor a relative, nor the teacher.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   110

यदि त्वतिथिधर्मेण क्षत्रियो गृहमाव्रजेत् । भुक्तवत्सु च विप्रेषु कामं तमपि भोजयेत् ॥ ३.१११॥
yadi tvatithidharmeṇa kṣatriyo gṛhamāvrajet | bhuktavatsu ca vipreṣu kāmaṃ tamapi bhojayet || 3.111||
3.111. But if a Kshatriya comes to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a guest, (the house-holder) may feed him according to his desire, after the above-mentioned Brahmanas have eaten.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   111

वैश्यशूद्रावपि प्राप्तौ कुटुम्बेऽतिथिधर्मिणौ । भोजयेत्सह भृत्यैस्तावानृशंस्यं प्रयोजयन् ॥ ३.११२॥
vaiśyaśūdrāvapi prāptau kuṭumbe'tithidharmiṇau | bhojayetsaha bhṛtyaistāvānṛśaṃsyaṃ prayojayan || 3.112||
3.112. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached his house in the manner of guests, he may allow to eat with his servants, showing (thereby) his compassionate disposition.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   112

इतरानपि सख्यादीन् सम्प्रीत्या गृहमागतान् । प्रकृत्यान्नं यथाशक्ति भोजयेत्सह भार्यया ॥ ३.११३॥
itarānapi sakhyādīn samprītyā gṛhamāgatān | prakṛtyānnaṃ yathāśakti bhojayetsaha bhāryayā || 3.113||
3.113. Even to others, personal friends and so forth, who have come to his house out of affection, he may give food, garnished (with seasoning) according to his ability, (at the same time) with his wife.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   113

सुवासिनीः कुमारीश्च रोगिणो गर्भिणीः स्त्रियः । अतिथिभ्योऽन्वगेवैतान् भोजयेदविचारयन् ॥ ३.११४॥
suvāsinīḥ kumārīśca rogiṇo garbhiṇīḥ striyaḥ | atithibhyo'nvagevaitān bhojayedavicārayan || 3.114||
3.114. Without hesitation he may give food, even before his guests, to the following persons, (viz.) to newly- married women, to infants, to the sick, and to pregnant women.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   114

अदत्त्वा तु य एतेभ्यः पूर्वं भुङ्क्तेऽविचक्षणः । स भुञ्जानो न जानाति श्वगृध्रैर्जग्धिमात्मनः ॥ ३.११५॥
adattvā tu ya etebhyaḥ pūrvaṃ bhuṅkte'vicakṣaṇaḥ | sa bhuñjāno na jānāti śvagṛdhrairjagdhimātmanaḥ || 3.115||
3.115. But the foolish man who eats first without having given food to these (persons) does, while he crams, not know that (after death) he himself will be devoured by dogs and vultures.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   115

भुक्तवत्स्वथ विप्रेषु स्वेषु भृत्येषु चैव हि । भुञ्जीयातां ततः पश्चादवशिष्टं तु दम्पती ॥ ३.११६॥
bhuktavatsvatha vipreṣu sveṣu bhṛtyeṣu caiva hi | bhuñjīyātāṃ tataḥ paścādavaśiṣṭaṃ tu dampatī || 3.116||
3.116. After the Brahmanas, the kinsmen, and the servants have dined, the householder and his wife may afterwards eat what remains.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   116

देवान् ऋषीन् मनुष्यांश्च पितॄन् गृह्याश्च देवताः । पूजयित्वा ततः पश्चाद्गृहस्थः शेषभुग्भवेत् ॥ ३.११७॥
devān ṛṣīn manuṣyāṃśca pitṝn gṛhyāśca devatāḥ | pūjayitvā tataḥ paścādgṛhasthaḥ śeṣabhugbhavet || 3.117||
3.117. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian deities of the house, the householder shall eat afterwards what remains.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   117

अघं स केवलं भुङ्क्ते यः पचत्यात्मकारणात् । यज्ञशिष्टाशनं ह्येतत्सतामन्नं विधीयते ॥ ३.११८॥
aghaṃ sa kevalaṃ bhuṅkte yaḥ pacatyātmakāraṇāt | yajñaśiṣṭāśanaṃ hyetatsatāmannaṃ vidhīyate || 3.118||
3.118. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   118

राजर्त्विग्स्नातकगुरून् प्रियश्वशुरमातुलान् । अर्हयेन् मधुपर्केण परिसंवत्सरात्पुनः ॥ ३.११९॥
rājartvigsnātakagurūn priyaśvaśuramātulān | arhayen madhuparkeṇa parisaṃvatsarātpunaḥ || 3.119||
3.119. Let him honour with the honey-mixture a king, an officiating priest, a Snataka, the teacher, a son-in-law, a father-in-law, and a maternal uncle, (if they come) again after a full year (has elapsed since their last visit).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   119

राजा च श्रोत्रियश्चैव यज्ञकर्मण्युपस्थिते । मधुपर्केण सम्पूज्यौ न त्वयज्ञ इति स्थितिः ॥ ३.१२०॥
rājā ca śrotriyaścaiva yajñakarmaṇyupasthite | madhuparkeṇa sampūjyau na tvayajña iti sthitiḥ || 3.120||
3.120. A king and a Srotriya, who come on the performance of a sacrifice, must be honoured with the honey- mixture, but not if no sacrifice is being performed; that is a settled rule.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   120

सायं त्वन्नस्य सिद्धस्य पत्न्यमन्त्रं बलिं हरेत् । वैश्वदेवं हि नामैतत्सायं प्रातर्विधीयते ॥ ३.१२१॥
sāyaṃ tvannasya siddhasya patnyamantraṃ baliṃ haret | vaiśvadevaṃ hi nāmaitatsāyaṃ prātarvidhīyate || 3.121||
3.121. But the wife shall offer in the evening (a portion) of the dressed food as a Bali-oblation, without (the recitation of) sacred formulas; for that (rite which is called the) Vaisvadeva is prescribed both for the morning and the evening.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   121

पितृयज्ञं तु निर्वर्त्य विप्रश् चैन्दुक्षयेऽग्निमान् । पिण्डान्वाहार्यकं श्राद्धं कुर्यान् मासानुमासिकम् ॥ ३.१२२॥
pitṛyajñaṃ tu nirvartya vipraś caindukṣaye'gnimān | piṇḍānvāhāryakaṃ śrāddhaṃ kuryān māsānumāsikam || 3.122||
3.122. After performing the Pitriyagna, a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire shall offer, month by month, on the new-moon day, the funeral sacrifice (Sraddha, called) Pindanvaharyaka.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   122

पितॄणां मासिकं श्राद्धमन्वाहार्यं विदुर्बुधाः । तच्चामिषेणा कर्तव्यं प्रशस्तेन समन्तत ॥ ३.१२३॥
pitṝṇāṃ māsikaṃ śrāddhamanvāhāryaṃ vidurbudhāḥ | taccāmiṣeṇā kartavyaṃ praśastena samantata || 3.123||
3.123. The wise call the monthly funeral offering to the manes Anvaharya (to be offered after the cakes), and that must be carefully performed with the approved (sorts of) flesh (mentioned below).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   123

तत्र ये भोजनीयाः स्युर्ये च वर्ज्या द्विजोत्तमाः । यावन्तश्चैव यैश्चान्नैस्तान् प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ॥ ३.१२४॥
tatra ye bhojanīyāḥ syurye ca varjyā dvijottamāḥ | yāvantaścaiva yaiścānnaistān pravakṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ || 3.124||
3.124. I will fully declare what and how many (Brahmanas) must be fed on that (occasion), who must be avoided, and on what kinds of food (they shall dine).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   124

द्वौ दैवे पितृकार्ये त्रीनेकैकमुभयत्र वा । पितृकृत्येभोजयेत्सुसमृद्धोऽपि न प्रवर्तेत विस्तरे ॥ ३.१२५॥
dvau daive pitṛkārye trīnekaikamubhayatra vā | pitṛkṛtyebhojayetsusamṛddho'pi na pravarteta vistare || 3.125||
3.125. One must feed two (Brahmanas) at the offering to the gods, and three at the offering to the manes, or one only on either occasion; even a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a large company.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   125

सत्क्रियां देशकालौ च शौचं ब्राह्मणसम्पदः । पञ्चैतान् विस्तरो हन्ति तस्मान्नैहेत विस्तरम् ॥ ३.१२६॥
satkriyāṃ deśakālau ca śaucaṃ brāhmaṇasampadaḥ | pañcaitān vistaro hanti tasmānnaiheta vistaram || 3.126||
3.126. A large company destroys these five (advantages) the respectful treatment (of the invited, the propriety of) place and time, purity and (the selection of) virtuous Brahmana (guests); he therefore shall not seek (to entertain) a large company.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   126

प्रथिता प्रेतकृत्यैषा पित्र्यं नाम विधुक्षये । तस्मिन् युक्तस्यैति नित्यं प्रेतकृत्यैव लौकिकी ॥ ३.१२७॥
prathitā pretakṛtyaiṣā pitryaṃ nāma vidhukṣaye | tasmin yuktasyaiti nityaṃ pretakṛtyaiva laukikī || 3.127||
3.127. Famed is this rite for the dead, called (the sacrifice sacred to the manes (and performed) on the new- moon day; if a man is diligent in (performing) that, (the reward of) the rite for the dead, which is performed according to Smarta rules, reaches him constantly.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   127

श्रोत्रियायैव देयानि हव्यकव्यानि दातृभिः । अर्हत्तमाय विप्राय तस्मै दत्तं महाफलम् ॥ ३.१२८॥
śrotriyāyaiva deyāni havyakavyāni dātṛbhiḥ | arhattamāya viprāya tasmai dattaṃ mahāphalam || 3.128||
3.128. Oblations to the gods and manes must be presented by the givers to a Srotriya alone; what is given to such a most worthy Brahmana yields great reward.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   128

एकैकमपि विद्वांसं दैवे पित्र्ये च भोजयेत् । भोजयन्पुष्कलं फलमाप्नोति नामन्त्रज्ञान् बहूनपि ॥ ३.१२९॥
ekaikamapi vidvāṃsaṃ daive pitrye ca bhojayet | bhojayanpuṣkalaṃ phalamāpnoti nāmantrajñān bahūnapi || 3.129||
3.129. Let him feed even one learned man at (the sacrifice) to the gods, and one at (the sacrifice) to the manes; (thus) he will gain a rich reward, not (if he entertains) many who are unacquainted with the Veda.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   129

दूरादेव परीक्षेत ब्राह्मणं वेदपारगम् । तीर्थं तधव्यकव्यानां प्रदाने सोऽतिथिः स्मृतः ॥ ३.१३०॥
dūrādeva parīkṣeta brāhmaṇaṃ vedapāragam | tīrthaṃ tadhavyakavyānāṃ pradāne so'tithiḥ smṛtaḥ || 3.130||
3.130. Let him make inquiries even regarding the remote (ancestors of) a Brahmana who has studied an entire (recension of the) Veda; (if descended from a virtuous race) such a man is a worthy recipient of gifts (consisting) of food offered to the gods or to the manes, he is declared (to procure as great rewards as) a guest (atithi).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   130

सहस्रं हि सहस्राणामनृचां यत्र भुञ्जते । एकस्तान् मन्त्रवित्प्रीतः सर्वानर्हति धर्मतः ॥ ३.१३१॥
sahasraṃ hi sahasrāṇāmanṛcāṃ yatra bhuñjate | ekastān mantravitprītaḥ sarvānarhati dharmataḥ || 3.131||
3.131. Though a million of men, unaquainted with the Rikas, were to dine at a (funeral sacrifice), yet a single man, learned in the Veda, who is satisfied (with his entertainment), is worth them all as far as the (production of) spiritual merit (is concerned).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   131

ज्ञानोत्कृष्टाय देयानि कव्यानि च हवींषि च । न हि हस्तावसृग्दिग्धौ रुधिरेणैव शुध्यतः ॥ ३.१३२॥
jñānotkṛṣṭāya deyāni kavyāni ca havīṃṣi ca | na hi hastāvasṛgdigdhau rudhireṇaiva śudhyataḥ || 3.132||
3.132. Food sacred to the manes or to the gods must be given to a man distinguished by sacred knowledge; for hands, smeared with blood, cannot be cleansed with blood.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   132

यावतो ग्रसते ग्रासान् हव्यकव्येष्वमन्त्रवित् । तावतो ग्रसते प्रेतो दीप्तशूलर्ष्ट्ययोगुडान् ॥ ३.१३३॥
yāvato grasate grāsān havyakavyeṣvamantravit | tāvato grasate preto dīptaśūlarṣṭyayoguḍān || 3.133||
3.133. As many mouthfuls as an ignorant man swallows at a sacrifice to the gods or to the manes, so many red- hot spikes, spears, and iron balls must (the giver of the repast) swallow after death.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   133

ज्ञाननिष्ठा द्विजाः के चित्तपोनिष्ठास्तथाऽपरे । तपःस्वाध्यायनिष्ठाश्च कर्मनिष्ठास्तथाऽपरे ॥ ३.१३४॥
jñānaniṣṭhā dvijāḥ ke cittaponiṣṭhāstathā'pare | tapaḥsvādhyāyaniṣṭhāśca karmaniṣṭhāstathā'pare || 3.134||
3.134. Some Brahmanas are devoted to (the pursuit of) knowledge, and others to (the performance of) austerities; some to austerities and to the recitation of the Veda, and others to (the performance of) sacred rites.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   134

ज्ञाननिष्ठेषु कव्यानि प्रतिष्ठाप्यानि यत्नतः । हव्यानि तु यथान्यायं सर्वेष्वेव चतुर्ष्वपि ॥ ३.१३५॥
jñānaniṣṭheṣu kavyāni pratiṣṭhāpyāni yatnataḥ | havyāni tu yathānyāyaṃ sarveṣveva caturṣvapi || 3.135||
3.135. Oblations to the manes ought to be carefully presented to those devoted to knowledge, but offerings to the gods, in accordance with the reason (of the sacred law), to (men of) all the four (above-mentioned classes).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   135

अश्रोत्रियः पिता यस्य पुत्रः स्याद्वेदपारगः । अश्रोत्रियो वा पुत्रः स्यात्पिता स्याद्वेदपारगः ॥ ३.१३६॥
aśrotriyaḥ pitā yasya putraḥ syādvedapāragaḥ | aśrotriyo vā putraḥ syātpitā syādvedapāragaḥ || 3.136||
3.136. If there is a father ignorant of the sacred texts whose son has learned one whole recension of the Veda and the Angas, and a son ignorant of the sacred texts whose father knows an entire recension of the Veda and the Angas,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   136

ज्यायांसमनयोर्विद्याद्यस्य स्यात्श्रोत्रियः पिता । मन्त्रसम्पूजनार्थं तु सत्कारमितरोऽर्हति ॥ ३.१३७॥
jyāyāṃsamanayorvidyādyasya syātśrotriyaḥ pitā | mantrasampūjanārthaṃ tu satkāramitaro'rhati || 3.137||
3.137. Know that he whose father knows the Veda, is the more venerable one (of the two); yet the other one is worthy of honour, because respect is due to the Veda (which he has learned).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   137

न श्राद्धे भोजयेन् मित्रं धनैः कार्योऽस्य सङ्ग्रहः । नारिं न मित्रं यं विद्यात्तं श्राद्धे भोजयेद्द्विजम् ॥ ३.१३८॥
na śrāddhe bhojayen mitraṃ dhanaiḥ kāryo'sya saṅgrahaḥ | nāriṃ na mitraṃ yaṃ vidyāttaṃ śrāddhe bhojayeddvijam || 3.138||
3.138. Let him not entertain a personal friend at a funeral sacrifice; he may gain his affection by (other) valuable gifts; let him feed at a Sraddha a Brahmana whom he considers neither as a foe nor as a friend.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   138

यस्य मित्रप्रधानानि श्राद्धानि च हवींषि च । तस्य प्रेत्य फलं नास्ति श्राद्धेषु च हविःषु च ॥ ३.१३९॥
yasya mitrapradhānāni śrāddhāni ca havīṃṣi ca | tasya pretya phalaṃ nāsti śrāddheṣu ca haviḥṣu ca || 3.139||
3.139. He who performs funeral sacrifices and offerings to the gods chiefly for the sake of (gaining) friends, reaps after death no reward for Sraddhas and sacrifices.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   139

यः सङ्गतानि कुरुते मोहात्श्राद्धेन मानवः । स स्वर्गाच्च्यवते लोकात्श्राद्धमित्रो द्विजाधमः ॥ ३.१४०॥
yaḥ saṅgatāni kurute mohātśrāddhena mānavaḥ | sa svargāccyavate lokātśrāddhamitro dvijādhamaḥ || 3.140||
3.140. That meanest among twice-born men who in his folly contracts friendships through a funeral sacrifice, loses heaven, because he performed a Sraddha for the sake of friendship.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   140

सम्भोजानि साऽभिहिता पैशाची दक्षिणा द्विजैः । इहैवास्ते तु सा लोके गौरन्धेवैकवेश्मनि ॥ ३.१४१॥
sambhojāni sā'bhihitā paiśācī dakṣiṇā dvijaiḥ | ihaivāste tu sā loke gaurandhevaikaveśmani || 3.141||
3.141. A gift (of food) by twice-born men, consumed with (friends and relatives), is said to be offered to the Pisakas; it remains in this (world) alone like a blind cow in one stable.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   141

यथैरिणे बीजमुप्त्वा न वप्ता लभते फलम् । तथाऽनृचे हविर्दत्त्वा न दाता लभते फलम् ॥ ३.१४२॥
yathairiṇe bījamuptvā na vaptā labhate phalam | tathā'nṛce havirdattvā na dātā labhate phalam || 3.142||
3.142. As a husbandman reaps no harvest when he has sown the seed in barren soil, even so the giver of sacrificial food gains no reward if he presented it to a man unacquainted with the Rikas.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   142

दातॄन् प्रतिग्रहीतॄंश्च कुरुते फलभागिनः । विदुषे दक्षिणां दत्त्वा विधिवत्प्रेत्य चैह च ॥ ३.१४३॥
dātṝn pratigrahītṝṃśca kurute phalabhāginaḥ | viduṣe dakṣiṇāṃ dattvā vidhivatpretya caiha ca || 3.143||
3.143. But a present made in accordance with the rules to a learned man, makes the giver and the recipient partakers of rewards both in this (life) and after death.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   143

कामं श्राद्धेऽर्चयेन् मित्रं नाभिरूपमपि त्वरिम् । द्विषता हि हविर्भुक्तं भवति प्रेत्य निष्फलम् ॥ ३.१४४॥
kāmaṃ śrāddhe'rcayen mitraṃ nābhirūpamapi tvarim | dviṣatā hi havirbhuktaṃ bhavati pretya niṣphalam || 3.144||
3.144. (If no learned Brahmana be at hand), he may rather honour a (virtuous) friend than an enemy, though the latter may be qualified (by learning and so forth); for sacrificial food, eaten by a foe, bears no reward after death.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   144

यत्नेन भोजयेत्श्राद्धे बह्वृचं वेदपारगम् । शाखान्तगमथाध्वर्युं छन्दोगं तु समाप्तिकम् ॥ ३.१४५॥
yatnena bhojayetśrāddhe bahvṛcaṃ vedapāragam | śākhāntagamathādhvaryuṃ chandogaṃ tu samāptikam || 3.145||
3.145. Let him (take) pains (to) feed at a Sraddha an adherent of the Rig-veda who has studied one entire (recension of that) Veda, or a follower of the Yagur-veda who has finished one Sakha, or a singer of Samans who (likewise) has completed (the study of an entire recension).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   145

एषामन्यतमो यस्य भुञ्जीत श्राद्धमर्चितः । पितॄणां तस्य तृप्तिः स्यात्शाश्वती साप्तपौरुषी ॥ ३.१४६॥
eṣāmanyatamo yasya bhuñjīta śrāddhamarcitaḥ | pitṝṇāṃ tasya tṛptiḥ syātśāśvatī sāptapauruṣī || 3.146||
3.146. If one of these three dines, duly honoured, at a funeral sacrifice, the ancestors of him (who gives the feast), as far as the seventh person, will be satisfied for a very long time.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   146

एष वै प्रथमः कल्पः प्रदाने हव्यकव्ययोः । अनुकल्पस्त्वयं ज्ञेयः सदा सद्भिरनुष्ठितः ॥ ३.१४७॥
eṣa vai prathamaḥ kalpaḥ pradāne havyakavyayoḥ | anukalpastvayaṃ jñeyaḥ sadā sadbhiranuṣṭhitaḥ || 3.147||
3.147. This is the chief rule (to be followed) in offering sacrifices to the gods and manes; know that the virtuous always observe the following subsidiary rule.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   147

मातामहं मातुलं च स्वस्रीयं श्वशुरं गुरुम् । दौहित्रं विट्पतिं बन्धुं ऋत्विग्याज्यौ च भोजयेत् ॥ ३.१४८॥
mātāmahaṃ mātulaṃ ca svasrīyaṃ śvaśuraṃ gurum | dauhitraṃ viṭpatiṃ bandhuṃ ṛtvigyājyau ca bhojayet || 3.148||
3.148. One may also entertain (on such occasions) one’s maternal grandfather, a maternal uncle, a sister’s son, a father-in-law, one’s teacher, a daughter’s son, a daughter’s husband, a cognate kinsman, one’s own officiating priest or a man for whom one offers sacrifices.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   148

न ब्राह्मणं परीक्षेत दैवे कर्मणि धर्मवित् । पित्र्ये कर्मणि तु प्राप्ते परीक्षेत प्रयत्नतः ॥ ३.१४९॥
na brāhmaṇaṃ parīkṣeta daive karmaṇi dharmavit | pitrye karmaṇi tu prāpte parīkṣeta prayatnataḥ || 3.149||
3.149. For a rite sacred to the gods, he who knows the law will not make (too close) inquiries regarding an (invited) Brahmana; but when one performs a ceremony in honour of the manes, one must carefully examine (the qualities and parentage of the guest).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   149

ये स्तेनपतितक्लीबा ये च नास्तिकवृत्तयः । तान् हव्यकव्ययोर्विप्राननर्हान् मनुरब्रवीत् ॥ ३.१५०॥
ye stenapatitaklībā ye ca nāstikavṛttayaḥ | tān havyakavyayorviprānanarhān manurabravīt || 3.150||
3.150. Manu has declared that those Brahmanas who are thieves, outcasts, eunuchs, or atheists are unworthy (to partake) of oblations to the gods and manes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   150

जटिलं चानधीयानं दुर्बालं कितवं तथा । याजयन्ति च ये पूगांस्तांश्च श्राद्धे न भोजयेत् ॥ ३.१५१॥
jaṭilaṃ cānadhīyānaṃ durbālaṃ kitavaṃ tathā | yājayanti ca ye pūgāṃstāṃśca śrāddhe na bhojayet || 3.151||
3.151. Let him not entertain at a Sraddha one who wears his hair in braids (a student), one who has not studied (the Veda), one afflicted with a skin-disease, a gambler, nor those who sacrifice for a multitude (of sacrificers).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   151

चिकित्सकान् देवलकान् मांसविक्रयिणस्तथा । विपणेन च जीवन्तो वर्ज्याः स्युर्हव्यकव्ययोः ॥ ३.१५२॥
cikitsakān devalakān māṃsavikrayiṇastathā | vipaṇena ca jīvanto varjyāḥ syurhavyakavyayoḥ || 3.152||
3.152. Physicians, temple-priests, sellers of meat, and those who subsist by shop-keeping must be avoided at sacrifices offered to the gods and to the manes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   152

प्रेष्यो ग्रामस्य राज्ञश्च कुनखी श्यावदन्तकः । प्रतिरोद्धा गुरोश्चैव त्यक्ताग्निर्वार्धुषिस्तथा ॥ ३.१५३॥
preṣyo grāmasya rājñaśca kunakhī śyāvadantakaḥ | pratiroddhā guroścaiva tyaktāgnirvārdhuṣistathā || 3.153||
3.153. A paid servant of a village or of a king, man with deformed nails or black teeth, one who opposes his teacher, one who has forsaken the sacred fire, and a usurer;

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   153

यक्ष्मी च पशुपालश्च परिवेत्ता निराकृतिः । ब्रह्मद्विष्परिवित्तिश्च गणाभ्यन्तर एव च ॥ ३.१५४॥
yakṣmī ca paśupālaśca parivettā nirākṛtiḥ | brahmadviṣparivittiśca gaṇābhyantara eva ca || 3.154||
3.154. One suffering from consumption, one who subsists by tending cattle, a younger brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire before the elder, one who neglects the five great sacrifices, an enemy of the Brahmana race, an elder brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire after the younger, and one who belongs to a company or corporation,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   154

कुशीलवोऽवकीर्णी च वृषलीपतिरेव च । पौनर्भवश्च काणश्च यस्य चौपपतिर्गृहे ॥ ३.१५५॥
kuśīlavo'vakīrṇī ca vṛṣalīpatireva ca | paunarbhavaśca kāṇaśca yasya caupapatirgṛhe || 3.155||
3.155. An actor or singer, one who has broken the vow of studentship, one whose (only or first) wife is a Sudra female, the son of a remarried woman, a one-eyed man, and he in whose house a paramour of his wife (resides);

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   155

भृतकाध्यापको यश्च भृतकाध्यापितस्तथा । शूद्रशिष्यो गुरुश्चैव वाग्दुष्टः कुण्डगोलकौ ॥ ३.१५६॥
bhṛtakādhyāpako yaśca bhṛtakādhyāpitastathā | śūdraśiṣyo guruścaiva vāgduṣṭaḥ kuṇḍagolakau || 3.156||
3.156. He who teaches for a stipulated fee and he who is taught on that condition, he who instructs Sudra pupils and he whose teacher is a Sudra, he who speaks rudely, the son of an adulteress, and the son of a widow,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   156

अकारणे परित्यक्ता मातापित्रोर्गुरोस्तथा । ब्राह्मैर्यौनैश्च सम्बन्धैः संयोगं पतितैर्गतः ॥ ३.१५७॥
akāraṇe parityaktā mātāpitrorgurostathā | brāhmairyaunaiśca sambandhaiḥ saṃyogaṃ patitairgataḥ || 3.157||
3.157. He who forsakes his mother, his father, or a teacher without a (sufficient) reason, he who has contracted an alliance with outcasts either through the Veda or through a marriage,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   157

अगारदाही गरदः कुण्डाशी सोमविक्रयी । समुद्रयायी बन्दी च तैलिकः कूटकारकः ॥ ३.१५८॥
agāradāhī garadaḥ kuṇḍāśī somavikrayī | samudrayāyī bandī ca tailikaḥ kūṭakārakaḥ || 3.158||
3.158. An incendiary, a prisoner, he who eats the food given by the son of an adulteress, a seller of Soma, he who undertakes voyages by sea, a bard, an oil-man, a suborner to perjury,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   158

पित्रा विवदमानश्च कितवो मद्यपस्तथा । पापरोग्यभिशस्तश्च दाम्भिको रसविक्रयी ॥ ३.१५९॥
pitrā vivadamānaśca kitavo madyapastathā | pāparogyabhiśastaśca dāmbhiko rasavikrayī || 3.159||
3.159. He who wrangles or goes to law with his father, the keeper of a gambling-house, a drunkard, he who is afflicted with a disease (in punishment of former) crimes, he who is accused of a mortal sin, a hypocrite, a seller of substances used for flavouring food,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   159

धनुःशराणां कर्ता च यश्चाग्रेदिधिषूपतिः । मित्रध्रुग्द्यूतवृत्तिश्च पुत्राचार्यस्तथैव च ॥ ३.१६०॥
dhanuḥśarāṇāṃ kartā ca yaścāgredidhiṣūpatiḥ | mitradhrugdyūtavṛttiśca putrācāryastathaiva ca || 3.160||
3.160. A maker of bows and of arrows, he who lasciviously dallies with a brother’s widow, the betrayer of a friend, one who subsists by gambling, he who learns (the Veda) from his son,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   160

भ्रामरी गण्डमाली च श्वित्र्यथो पिशुनस्तथा । उन्मत्तोऽन्धश्च वर्ज्याः स्युर्वेदनिन्दक एव च ॥ ३.१६१॥
bhrāmarī gaṇḍamālī ca śvitryatho piśunastathā | unmatto'ndhaśca varjyāḥ syurvedanindaka eva ca || 3.161||
3.161. An epileptic man, who suffers from scrofulous swellings of the glands, one afflicted with white leprosy, an informer, a madman, a blind man, and he who cavils at the Veda must (all) be avoided.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   161

हस्तिगोऽश्वौष्ट्रदमको नक्षत्रैर्यश्च जीवति । पक्षिणां पोषको यश्च युद्धाचार्यस्तथैव च ॥ ३.१६२॥
hastigo'śvauṣṭradamako nakṣatrairyaśca jīvati | pakṣiṇāṃ poṣako yaśca yuddhācāryastathaiva ca || 3.162||
3.162. A trainer of elephants, oxen, horses, or camels, he who subsists by astrology, a bird-fancier, and he who teaches the use of arms,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   162

स्रोतसां भेदको यश्च तेषां चावरणे रतः । गृहसंवेशको दूतो वृक्षारोपक एव च ॥ ३.१६३॥
srotasāṃ bhedako yaśca teṣāṃ cāvaraṇe rataḥ | gṛhasaṃveśako dūto vṛkṣāropaka eva ca || 3.163||
3.163. He who diverts water-courses, and he who delights in obstructing them, an architect, a messenger, and he who plants trees (for money),

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   163

श्वक्रीडी श्येनजीवी च कन्यादूषक एव च । हिंस्रो वृषलवृत्तिश्च गणानां चैव याजकः ॥ ३.१६४॥
śvakrīḍī śyenajīvī ca kanyādūṣaka eva ca | hiṃsro vṛṣalavṛttiśca gaṇānāṃ caiva yājakaḥ || 3.164||
3.164. A breeder of sporting-dogs, a falconer, one who defiles maidens, he who delights in injuring living creatures, he who gains his subsistence from Sudras, and he who offers sacrifices to the Ganas,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   164

आचारहीनः क्लीबश्च नित्यं याचनकस्तथा । कृषिजीवी श्लीपदी च सद्भिर्निन्दित एव च ॥ ३.१६५॥
ācārahīnaḥ klībaśca nityaṃ yācanakastathā | kṛṣijīvī ślīpadī ca sadbhirnindita eva ca || 3.165||
3.165. He who does not follow the rule of conduct, a (man destitute of energy like a) eunuch, one who constantly asks (for favours), he who lives by agriculture, a club-footed man, and he who is censured by virtuous men,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   165

औरभ्रिको माहिषिकः परपूर्वापतिस्तथा । प्रेतनिर्यापकश्चैव वर्जनीयाः प्रयत्नतः ॥ ३.१६६॥
aurabhriko māhiṣikaḥ parapūrvāpatistathā | pretaniryāpakaścaiva varjanīyāḥ prayatnataḥ || 3.166||
3.166. A shepherd, a keeper of buffaloes, the husband of a remarried woman, and a carrier of dead bodies, (all these) must be carefully avoided.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   166

एतान् विगर्हिताचारानपाङ्क्तेयान् द्विजाधमान् । द्विजातिप्रवरो विद्वानुभयत्र विवर्जयेत् ॥ ३.१६७॥
etān vigarhitācārānapāṅkteyān dvijādhamān | dvijātipravaro vidvānubhayatra vivarjayet || 3.167||
3.167. A Brahmana who knows (the sacred law) should shun at (sacrifices) both (to the gods and to the manes) these lowest of twice-born men, whose conduct is reprehensible, and who are unworthy (to sit) in the company (at a repast).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   167

ब्राह्मणः ह्यनधीयानः स्तृणाग्निरिव शाम्यति । तस्मै हव्यं न दातव्यं न हि भस्मनि हूयते ॥ ३.१६८॥
brāhmaṇaḥ hyanadhīyānaḥ stṛṇāgniriva śāmyati | tasmai havyaṃ na dātavyaṃ na hi bhasmani hūyate || 3.168||
3.168. As a fire of dry grass is (unable to consume the offerings and is quickly) extinguished, even so (is it with) an unlearned Brahmana; sacrificial food must not be given to him, since it (would be) offered in ashes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   168

अपङ्क्त्यदाने यो दातुर्भवत्यूर्ध्वं फलौदयः । दैवे कर्मणि पित्र्ये वा तं प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ॥ ३.१६९॥
apaṅktyadāne yo dāturbhavatyūrdhvaṃ phalaudayaḥ | daive karmaṇi pitrye vā taṃ pravakṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ || 3.169||
3.169. I will fully declare what result the giver obtains after death, if he gives food, destined for the gods or manes, to a man who is unworthy to sit in the company.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   169

अव्रतैर्यद्द्विजैर्भुक्तं परिवेत्र्यादिभिस्तथा । अपाङ्क्तेयैर्यदन्यैश्च तद्वै रक्षांसि भुञ्जते ॥ ३.१७०॥
avratairyaddvijairbhuktaṃ parivetryādibhistathā | apāṅkteyairyadanyaiśca tadvai rakṣāṃsi bhuñjate || 3.170||
3.170. The Rakshasas, indeed, consume (the food) eaten by Brahmanas who have not fulfilled the vow of studentship, by a Parivettri and so forth, and by other men not admissible into the company.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   170

दाराग्निहोत्रसंयोगं कुरुते योऽग्रजे स्थिते । परिवेत्ता स विज्ञेयः परिवित्तिस्तु पूर्वजः ॥ ३.१७१॥
dārāgnihotrasaṃyogaṃ kurute yo'graje sthite | parivettā sa vijñeyaḥ parivittistu pūrvajaḥ || 3.171||
3.171. He must be considered as a Parivettri who marries or begins the performance of the Agnihotra before his elder brother, but the latter as a Parivitti.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   171

परिवित्तिः परिवेत्ता यया च परिविद्यते । सर्वे ते नरकं यान्ति दातृयाजकपञ्चमाः ॥ ३.१७२॥
parivittiḥ parivettā yayā ca parividyate | sarve te narakaṃ yānti dātṛyājakapañcamāḥ || 3.172||
3.172. The elder brother who marries after the younger, the younger brother who marries before the elder, the female with whom such a marriage is contracted, he who gives her away, and the sacrificing priest, as the fifth, all fall into hell.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   172

भ्रातुर्मृतस्य भार्यायां योऽनुरज्येत कामतः । धर्मेणापि नियुक्तायां स ज्ञेयो दिधिषूपतिः ॥ ३.१७३॥
bhrāturmṛtasya bhāryāyāṃ yo'nurajyeta kāmataḥ | dharmeṇāpi niyuktāyāṃ sa jñeyo didhiṣūpatiḥ || 3.173||
3.173. He who lasciviously dallies with the widow of a deceased brother, though she be appointed (to bear a child by him) in accordance with the sacred law, must be known to be a Didhishupati.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   173

परदारेषु जायेते द्वौ सुतौ कुण्डगोलकौ । पत्यौ जीवति कुण्डः स्यान् मृते भर्तरि गोलकः ॥ ३.१७४॥
paradāreṣu jāyete dvau sutau kuṇḍagolakau | patyau jīvati kuṇḍaḥ syān mṛte bhartari golakaḥ || 3.174||
3.174. Two (kinds of) sons, a Kunda and a Golaka, are born by wives of other men; (he who is born) while the husband lives, will be a Kunda, and (he who is begotten) after the husband’s death, a Golaka.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   174

ते तु जाताः परक्षेत्रे प्राणिनः प्रेत्य चैह च । दत्तानि हव्यकव्यानि नाशयन्ति प्रदायिनाम् ॥ ३.१७५॥
te tu jātāḥ parakṣetre prāṇinaḥ pretya caiha ca | dattāni havyakavyāni nāśayanti pradāyinām || 3.175||
3.175. But those two creatures, who are born of wives of other men, cause to the giver the loss (of the rewards), both in this life and after death, for the food sacred to gods or manes which has been given (to them).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   175

अपङ्क्त्यो यावतः पङ्क्त्यान् भुञ्जानाननुपश्यति । तावतां न फलं तत्र दाता प्राप्नोति बालिशः ॥ ३.१७६॥
apaṅktyo yāvataḥ paṅktyān bhuñjānānanupaśyati | tāvatāṃ na phalaṃ tatra dātā prāpnoti bāliśaḥ || 3.176||
3.176. The foolish giver (of a funeral repast) does not reap the reward for as many worthy guests as a man, inadmissible into company, can look on while they are feeding.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   176

वीक्ष्यान्धो नवतेः काणः षष्टेः श्वित्री शतस्य च । पापरोगी सहस्रस्य दातुर्नाशयते फलम् ॥ ३.१७७॥
vīkṣyāndho navateḥ kāṇaḥ ṣaṣṭeḥ śvitrī śatasya ca | pāparogī sahasrasya dāturnāśayate phalam || 3.177||
3.177. A blind man by his presence causes to the giver (of the feast) the loss of the reward for ninety (guests), a one-eyed man for sixty, one who suffers from white leprosy for a hundred, and one punished by a (terrible) disease for a thousand.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   177

यावतः संस्पृशेदङ्गैर्ब्राह्मणान् शूद्रयाजकः । तावतां न भवेद्दातुः फलं दानस्य पौर्तिकम् ॥ ३.१६८॥
yāvataḥ saṃspṛśedaṅgairbrāhmaṇān śūdrayājakaḥ | tāvatāṃ na bhaveddātuḥ phalaṃ dānasya paurtikam || 3.168||
3.178. The giver (of a Sraddha) loses the reward, due for such a non-sacrificial gift, for as many Brahmanas as a (guest) who sacrifices for Sudras may touch (during the meal) with his limbs.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   178

वेदविद्चापि विप्रोऽस्य लोभात्कृत्वा प्रतिग्रहम् । विनाशं व्रजति क्षिप्रमामपात्रमिवाम्भसि ॥ ३.१७९॥
vedavidcāpi vipro'sya lobhātkṛtvā pratigraham | vināśaṃ vrajati kṣipramāmapātramivāmbhasi || 3.179||
3.179. And if a Brahmana, though learned in the Veda, accepts through covetousness a gift from such (a man), he will quickly perish, like a vessel of unburnt clay in water.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   179

सोमविक्रयिणे विष्ठा भिषजे पूयशोणितम् । नष्टं देवलके दत्तमप्रतिष्ठं तु वार्धुषौ ॥ ३.१८०॥
somavikrayiṇe viṣṭhā bhiṣaje pūyaśoṇitam | naṣṭaṃ devalake dattamapratiṣṭhaṃ tu vārdhuṣau || 3.180||
3.180 (Food) given to a seller of Soma becomes ordure, (that given) to a physician pus and blood, but (that presented) to a temple-priest is lost, and (that given) to a usurer finds no place (in the world of the gods).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   180

यत्तु वाणिजके दत्तं नैह नामुत्र तद्भवेत् । भस्मनीव हुतं द्रव्यं तथा पौनर्भवे द्विजे ॥ ३.१८१॥
yattu vāṇijake dattaṃ naiha nāmutra tadbhavet | bhasmanīva hutaṃ dravyaṃ tathā paunarbhave dvije || 3.181||
3.181. What has been given to a Brahmana who lives by trade that is not (useful) in this world and the next, and (a present) to a Brahmana born of a remarried woman (resembles) an oblation thrown into ashes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   181

इतरेषु त्वपाङ्क्त्येषु यथोद्दिष्टेष्वसाधुषु । मेदोऽसृङ्मांसमज्जाऽस्थि वदन्त्यन्नं मनीषिणः ॥ ३.१८२॥
itareṣu tvapāṅktyeṣu yathoddiṣṭeṣvasādhuṣu | medo'sṛṅmāṃsamajjā'sthi vadantyannaṃ manīṣiṇaḥ || 3.182||
3.182. But the wise declare that the food which (is offered) to other unholy, inadmissible men, enumerated above, (is turned into) adipose secretions, blood, flesh, marrow, and bone.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   182

अपाङ्क्त्योपहता पङ्क्तिः पाव्यते यैर्द्विजोत्तमैः । तान्निबोधत कार्त्स्न्येन द्विजाग्र्यान् पङ्क्तिपावनान् ॥ ३.१८३॥
apāṅktyopahatā paṅktiḥ pāvyate yairdvijottamaiḥ | tānnibodhata kārtsnyena dvijāgryān paṅktipāvanān || 3.183||
3.183. Now hear by what chief of twice-born men a company defiled by (the presence of) unworthy (guests) is purified, and the full (description of) the Brahmanas who sanctify a company.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   183

अग्र्याः सर्वेषु वेदेषु सर्वप्रवचनेषु च । श्रोत्रियान्वयजाश्चैव विज्ञेयाः पङ्क्तिपावनाः ॥ ३.१८४॥
agryāḥ sarveṣu vedeṣu sarvapravacaneṣu ca | śrotriyānvayajāścaiva vijñeyāḥ paṅktipāvanāḥ || 3.184||
3.184. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who are the descendants of Srotriyas.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   184

त्रिणाचिकेतः पञ्चाग्निस्त्रिसुपर्णः षडङ्गवित् । ब्रह्मदेयात्मसन्तानो ज्येष्ठसामग एव च ॥ ३.१८५॥
triṇāciketaḥ pañcāgnistrisuparṇaḥ ṣaḍaṅgavit | brahmadeyātmasantāno jyeṣṭhasāmaga eva ca || 3.185||
3.185. A Trinakiketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisuparna, one who is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman married according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the Gyeshthasaman,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   185

वेदार्थवित्प्रवक्ता च ब्रह्मचारी सहस्रदः । शतायुश्चैव विज्ञेया ब्राह्मणाः पङ्क्तिपावनाः ॥ ३.१८६॥
vedārthavitpravaktā ca brahmacārī sahasradaḥ | śatāyuścaiva vijñeyā brāhmaṇāḥ paṅktipāvanāḥ || 3.186||
3.186. One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student, one who has given a thousand (cows), and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   186

पूर्वेद्युरपरेद्युर्वा श्राद्धकर्मण्युपस्थिते । निमन्त्रयीत त्र्य्ऽवरान् सम्यग्विप्रान् यथौदितान् ॥ ३.१८७॥
pūrvedyuraparedyurvā śrāddhakarmaṇyupasthite | nimantrayīta try'varān samyagviprān yathauditān || 3.187||
3.187. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes place, let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been mentioned above.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   187

निमन्त्रितो द्विजः पित्र्ये नियतात्मा भवेत्सदा । न च छन्दांस्यधीयीत यस्य श्राद्धं च तद्भवेत् ॥ ३.१८८॥
nimantrito dvijaḥ pitrye niyatātmā bhavetsadā | na ca chandāṃsyadhīyīta yasya śrāddhaṃ ca tadbhavet || 3.188||
3.188. A Brahmana who has been invited to a (rite) in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs the Sraddha (must act in the same manner).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   188

निमन्त्रितान् हि पितर उपतिष्ठन्ति तान् द्विजान् । वायुवत्चानुगच्छन्ति तथाऽसीनानुपासते ॥ ३.१८९॥
nimantritān hi pitara upatiṣṭhanti tān dvijān | vāyuvatcānugacchanti tathā'sīnānupāsate || 3.189||
3.189. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them (when they walk) like the wind, and sit near them when they are seated.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   189

केतितस्तु यथान्यायं हव्ये कव्ये द्विजोत्तमः । कथं चिदप्यतिक्रामन् पापः सूकरतां व्रजेत् ॥ ३.१९०॥
ketitastu yathānyāyaṃ havye kavye dvijottamaḥ | kathaṃ cidapyatikrāman pāpaḥ sūkaratāṃ vrajet || 3.190||
3.190. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in any way breaks (the appointment), becomes guilty (of a crime), and (in his next birth) a hog.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   190

आमन्त्रितस्तु यः श्राद्धे वृषल्या सह मोदते । दातुर्यद्दुष्कृतं किं चित्तत्सर्वं प्रतिपद्यते ॥ ३.१९१॥
āmantritastu yaḥ śrāddhe vṛṣalyā saha modate | dāturyadduṣkṛtaṃ kiṃ cittatsarvaṃ pratipadyate || 3.191||
3.191. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, takes upon himself all the sins which the giver (of the feast) committed.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   191

अक्रोधनाः शौचपराः सततं ब्रह्मचारिणः । न्यस्तशस्त्रा महाभागाः पितरः पूर्वदेवताः ॥ ३.१९२॥
akrodhanāḥ śaucaparāḥ satataṃ brahmacāriṇaḥ | nyastaśastrā mahābhāgāḥ pitaraḥ pūrvadevatāḥ || 3.192||
3.192. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste, averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   192

यस्मादुत्पत्तिरेतेषां सर्वेषामप्यशेषतः । ये च यैरुपचर्याः स्युर्नियमैस्तान्निबोधत ॥ ३.१९३॥
yasmādutpattireteṣāṃ sarveṣāmapyaśeṣataḥ | ye ca yairupacaryāḥ syurniyamaistānnibodhata || 3.193||
3.193. Now learn fully from whom all these (manes derive) their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   193

मनोर्हैरण्यगर्भस्य ये मरीच्यादयः सुताः । तेषां ऋषीणां सर्वेषां पुत्राः पितृगणाः स्मृताः ॥ ३.१९४॥
manorhairaṇyagarbhasya ye marīcyādayaḥ sutāḥ | teṣāṃ ṛṣīṇāṃ sarveṣāṃ putrāḥ pitṛgaṇāḥ smṛtāḥ || 3.194||
3.194. The (various) classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages, Mariki and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   194

विराट्सुताः सोमसदः साध्यानां पितरः स्मृताः । अग्निष्वात्ताश्च देवानां मारीचा लोकविश्रुताः ॥ ३.१९५॥
virāṭsutāḥ somasadaḥ sādhyānāṃ pitaraḥ smṛtāḥ | agniṣvāttāśca devānāṃ mārīcā lokaviśrutāḥ || 3.195||
3.195. The Somasads, the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas, the children of Mariki, are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   195

दैत्यदानवयक्षाणां गन्धर्वौरगरक्षसाम् । सुपर्णकिन्नराणां च स्मृता बर्हिषदोऽत्रिजाः ॥ ३.१९६॥
daityadānavayakṣāṇāṃ gandharvauragarakṣasām | suparṇakinnarāṇāṃ ca smṛtā barhiṣado'trijāḥ || 3.196||
3.196. The Barhishads, born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities, Rakshasas, Suparnas, and a Kimnaras,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   196

सोमपा नाम विप्राणां क्षत्रियाणां हविर्भुजः । वैश्यानामाज्यपा नाम शूद्राणां तु सुकालिनः ॥ ३.१९७॥
somapā nāma viprāṇāṃ kṣatriyāṇāṃ havirbhujaḥ | vaiśyānāmājyapā nāma śūdrāṇāṃ tu sukālinaḥ || 3.197||
3.197. The Somapas those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs those of the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the Sudras.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   197

सोमपास्तु कवेः पुत्रा हविष्मन्तोऽङ्गिरःसुताः । पुलस्त्यस्याज्यपाः पुत्रा वसिष्ठस्य सुकालिनः ॥ ३.१९८॥
somapāstu kaveḥ putrā haviṣmanto'ṅgiraḥsutāḥ | pulastyasyājyapāḥ putrā vasiṣṭhasya sukālinaḥ || 3.198||
3.198. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children of Angiras, the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   198

अनग्निदग्धानग्निदग्धान् काव्यान् बर्हिषदस्तथा । अग्निष्वात्तांश्च सौम्यांश्च विप्राणामेव निर्दिशेत् ॥ ३.१९९॥
anagnidagdhānagnidagdhān kāvyān barhiṣadastathā | agniṣvāttāṃśca saumyāṃśca viprāṇāmeva nirdiśet || 3.199||
3.199. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas, the Anagnidagdhas, the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas, are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   199

य एते तु गणा मुख्याः पितॄणां परिकीर्तिताः । तेषामपीह विज्ञेयं पुत्रपौत्रमनन्तकम् ॥ ३.२००॥
ya ete tu gaṇā mukhyāḥ pitṝṇāṃ parikīrtitāḥ | teṣāmapīha vijñeyaṃ putrapautramanantakam || 3.200||
3.200. But know also that there exist in this (world) countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   200

ऋषिभ्यः पितरो जाताः पितृभ्यो देवमानवाः । देवेभ्यस्तु जगत्सर्वं चरं स्थाण्वनुपूर्वशः ॥ ३.२०१॥
ṛṣibhyaḥ pitaro jātāḥ pitṛbhyo devamānavāḥ | devebhyastu jagatsarvaṃ caraṃ sthāṇvanupūrvaśaḥ || 3.201||
3.201. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both the movable and the immovable in due order.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   201

राजतैर्भाजनैरेषामथो वा रजतान्वितैः । वार्यपि श्रद्धया दत्तमक्षयायौपकल्पते ॥ ३.२०२॥
rājatairbhājanaireṣāmatho vā rajatānvitaiḥ | vāryapi śraddhayā dattamakṣayāyaupakalpate || 3.202||
3.202. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   202

दैवकार्याद्द्विजातीनां पितृकार्यं विशिष्यते । दैवं हि पितृकार्यस्य पूर्वमाप्यायनं स्मृतम् ॥ ३.२०३॥
daivakāryāddvijātīnāṃ pitṛkāryaṃ viśiṣyate | daivaṃ hi pitṛkāryasya pūrvamāpyāyanaṃ smṛtam || 3.203||
3.203. For twice-born men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; for the offering to the gods which precedes (the Sraddhas), has been declared to be a means of fortifying (the latter).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   203

तेषामारक्षभूतं तु पूर्वं दैवं नियोजयेत् । रक्षांसि विप्रलुम्पन्ति श्राद्धमारक्षवर्जितम् ॥ ३.२०४॥
teṣāmārakṣabhūtaṃ tu pūrvaṃ daivaṃ niyojayet | rakṣāṃsi vipralumpanti śrāddhamārakṣavarjitam || 3.204||
3.204. Let him first invite a (Brahmana) in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes); for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice which is left without such a protection.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   204

दैवाद्यन्तं तदीहेत पित्र्याद्यन्तं न तद्भवेत् । पित्र्याद्यन्तं त्वीहमानः क्षिप्रं नश्यति सान्वयः ॥ ३.२०५॥
daivādyantaṃ tadīheta pitryādyantaṃ na tadbhavet | pitryādyantaṃ tvīhamānaḥ kṣipraṃ naśyati sānvayaḥ || 3.205||
3.205. Let him make (the Sraddha) begin and end with (a rite) in honour of the gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a (rite) in honour of the manes, soon perishes together with his progeny.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   205

शुचिं देशं विविक्तं च गोमयेनोपलेपयेत् । दक्षिणाप्रवणं चैव प्रयत्नेनोपपादयेत् ॥ ३.२०६॥
śuciṃ deśaṃ viviktaṃ ca gomayenopalepayet | dakṣiṇāpravaṇaṃ caiva prayatnenopapādayet || 3.206||
3.206. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cowdung, and carefully make it sloping towards the south.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   206

अवकाशेषु चोक्षेषु जलतीरेषु चैव हि । विविक्तेषु च तुष्यन्ति दत्तेन पितरः सदा ॥ ३.२०७॥
avakāśeṣu cokṣeṣu jalatīreṣu caiva hi | vivikteṣu ca tuṣyanti dattena pitaraḥ sadā || 3.207||
3.207. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks of rivers, and in secluded spots.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   207

आसनेषूपकॢप्तेषु बर्हिष्मत्सु पृथक्पृथक् । उपस्पृष्टौदकान् सम्यग्विप्रांस्तानुपवेशयेत् ॥ ३.२०८॥
āsaneṣūpakḷpteṣu barhiṣmatsu pṛthakpṛthak | upaspṛṣṭaudakān samyagviprāṃstānupaveśayet || 3.208||
3.208. The (sacrificer) shall make the (invited) Brahmanas, who have duly performed their ablutions, sit down on separate, prepared seats, on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   208

उपवेश्य तु तान् विप्रानासनेष्वजुगुप्सितान् । गन्धमाल्यैः सुरभिभिरर्चयेद्दैवपूर्वकम् ॥ ३.२०९॥
upaveśya tu tān viprānāsaneṣvajugupsitān | gandhamālyaiḥ surabhibhirarcayeddaivapūrvakam || 3.209||
3.209. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats, he shall honour them with fragrant garlands and perfumes, beginning with (those who are invited in honour of) the gods.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   209

तेषामुदकमानीय सपवित्रांस्तिलानपि । अग्नौ कुर्यादनुज्ञातो ब्राह्मणो ब्राह्मणैः सह ॥ ३.२१०॥
teṣāmudakamānīya sapavitrāṃstilānapi | agnau kuryādanujñāto brāhmaṇo brāhmaṇaiḥ saha || 3.210||
3.210. Having presented to them water, sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa grass, the Brahmana (sacrificer) shall offer (oblations) in the sacred fire, after having received permission (to do so) from (all) the Brahmana (guests) conjointly.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   210

अग्नेः सोमयमाभ्यां च कृत्वाऽप्यायनमादितः । हविर्दानेन विधिवत्पश्चात्संतर्पयेत्पितॄन् ॥ ३.२११॥
agneḥ somayamābhyāṃ ca kṛtvā'pyāyanamāditaḥ | havirdānena vidhivatpaścātsaṃtarpayetpitṝn || 3.211||
3.211. Having first, according to the rule, performed, as a means of protecting (the Sraddha), oblations to Agni, to Soma, and to Yama, let him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   211

अग्न्यभावे तु विप्रस्य पाणावेवोपपादयेत् । यो ह्यग्निः स द्विजो विप्रैर्मन्त्रदर्शिभिरुच्यते ॥ ३.२१२॥
agnyabhāve tu viprasya pāṇāvevopapādayet | yo hyagniḥ sa dvijo viprairmantradarśibhirucyate || 3.212||
3.212. But if no (sacred) fire (is available), he shall place (the offerings) into the hand of a Brahmana; for Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare, ’What fire is, even such is a Brahmana.’

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   212

अक्रोधनान् सुप्रसादान् वदन्त्येतान् पुरातनान् । लोकस्याप्यायने युक्तान् श्राद्धदेवान् द्विजोत्तमान् ॥ ३.२१३॥
akrodhanān suprasādān vadantyetān purātanān | lokasyāpyāyane yuktān śrāddhadevān dvijottamān || 3.213||
3.213. They (also) call those first of twice-born men the ancient deities of the funeral sacrifice, free from anger, easily pleased, employed in making men prosper.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   213

अपसव्यमग्नौ कृत्वा आवृत्परिक्रमं । अपसव्येन हस्तेन निर्वपेदुदकं भुवि ॥ ३.२१४॥
apasavyamagnau kṛtvā āvṛtparikramaṃ | apasavyena hastena nirvapedudakaṃ bhuvi || 3.214||
3.214. After he has performed (the oblations) in the fire, (and) the whole series of ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south, let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot (where the cakes are to be placed).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   214

त्रींस्तु तस्माधविःशेषात्पिण्डान् कृत्वा समाहितः । औदकेनैव विधिना निर्वपेद्दक्षिणामुखः ॥ ३.२१५॥
trīṃstu tasmādhaviḥśeṣātpiṇḍān kṛtvā samāhitaḥ | audakenaiva vidhinā nirvapeddakṣiṇāmukhaḥ || 3.215||
3.215. But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial food, he must, concentrating his mind and turning towards the south, place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which (he poured out the libations of) water.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   215

न्युप्य पिण्डांस्ततस्तांस्तु प्रयतो विधिपूर्वकम् । तेषु दर्भेषु तं हस्तं निर्मृज्याल्लेपभागिनाम् ॥ ३.२१६॥
nyupya piṇḍāṃstatastāṃstu prayato vidhipūrvakam | teṣu darbheṣu taṃ hastaṃ nirmṛjyāllepabhāginām || 3.216||
3.216. Having offered those cakes according to the (prescribed) rule, being pure, let him wipe the same hand with (the roots of) those blades of Kusa grass for the sake of the (three ancestors) who partake of the wipings (lepa).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   216

आचम्यौदक्परावृत्य त्रिरायम्य शनैरसून् । षडृतूंश्च नमस्कुर्यात्पितॄनेव च मन्त्रवत् ॥ ३.२१७॥
ācamyaudakparāvṛtya trirāyamya śanairasūn | ṣaḍṛtūṃśca namaskuryātpitṝneva ca mantravat || 3.217||
3.217. Having (next) sipped water, turned round (towards the north), and thrice slowly suppressed his breath, (the sacrificer) who knows the sacred texts shall worship (the guardian deities of) the six seasons and the manes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   217

उदकं निनयेत्शेषं शनैः पिण्डान्तिके पुनः । अवजिघ्रेच्च तान् पिण्डान् यथान्युप्तान् समाहितः ॥ ३.२१८॥
udakaṃ ninayetśeṣaṃ śanaiḥ piṇḍāntike punaḥ | avajighrecca tān piṇḍān yathānyuptān samāhitaḥ || 3.218||
3.218. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes, and, with fixed attention, smell those cakes, in the order in which they were placed (on the ground).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   218

पिण्डेभ्यः स्वल्पिकां मात्रां समादायानुपूर्वशः । तानेव विप्रानासीनान् विधिवत्पूर्वमाशयेत् ॥ ३.२१९॥
piṇḍebhyaḥ svalpikāṃ mātrāṃ samādāyānupūrvaśaḥ | tāneva viprānāsīnān vidhivatpūrvamāśayet || 3.219||
3.219. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes, he shall make those seated Brahmana eat them, in accordance with the rule, before (their dinner).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   219

ध्रियमाणे तु पितरि पूर्वेषामेव निर्वपेत् । विप्रवद्वाऽपि तं श्राद्धं स्वकं पितरमाशयेत् ॥ ३.२२०॥
dhriyamāṇe tu pitari pūrveṣāmeva nirvapet | vipravadvā'pi taṃ śrāddhaṃ svakaṃ pitaramāśayet || 3.220||
3.220. But if the (sacrificer’s) father is living, he must offer (the cakes) to three remoter (ancestors); or he may also feed his father at the funeral sacrifice as (one of the) Brahmana (guests).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   220

पिता यस्य तु वृत्तः स्याज् जीवेच्चापि पितामहः । पितुः स नाम सङ्कीर्त्य कीर्तयेत्प्रपितामहम् ॥ ३.२२१॥
pitā yasya tu vṛttaḥ syāj jīveccāpi pitāmahaḥ | pituḥ sa nāma saṅkīrtya kīrtayetprapitāmaham || 3.221||
3.221. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, shall, after pronouncing his father’s name, mention (that of) his great-grandfather.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   221

पितामहो वा तत्श्राद्धं भुञ्जीतैत्यब्रवीन् मनुः । कामं वा समनुज्ञातः स्वयमेव समाचरेत् ॥ ३.२२२॥
pitāmaho vā tatśrāddhaṃ bhuñjītaityabravīn manuḥ | kāmaṃ vā samanujñātaḥ svayameva samācaret || 3.222||
3.222. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha (as a guest), or (the grandson) having received permission, may perform it, as he desires.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   222

तेषां दत्त्वा तु हस्तेषु सपवित्रं तिलौदकम् । तत्पिण्डाग्रं प्रयच्छेत्तु स्वधैषामस्त्विति ब्रुवन् ॥ ३.२२३॥
teṣāṃ dattvā tu hasteṣu sapavitraṃ tilaudakam | tatpiṇḍāgraṃ prayacchettu svadhaiṣāmastviti bruvan || 3.223||
3.223. Having poured water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa grass has been placed, into the hands of the (guests), he shall give (to each) that (above-mentioned) portion of the cake, saying, ’To those, Svadha!’

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   223

पाणिभ्यां तूपसङ्गृह्य स्वयमन्नस्य वर्धितम् । विप्रान्तिके पितॄन् ध्यायन् शनकैरुपनिक्षिपेत् ॥ ३.२२४॥
pāṇibhyāṃ tūpasaṅgṛhya svayamannasya vardhitam | viprāntike pitṝn dhyāyan śanakairupanikṣipet || 3.224||
3.224. But carrying (the vessel) filled with food with both hands, the (sacrificer) himself shall gently place it before the Brahmanas, meditating on the manes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   224

उभयोर्हस्तयोर्मुक्तं यदन्नमुपनीयते । तद्विप्रलुम्पन्त्यसुराः सहसा दुष्टचेतसः ॥ ३.२२५॥
ubhayorhastayormuktaṃ yadannamupanīyate | tadvipralumpantyasurāḥ sahasā duṣṭacetasaḥ || 3.225||
3.225. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought without being held with both hands.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   225

गुणांश्च सूपशाकाद्यान् पयो दधि घृतं मधु । विन्यसेत्प्रयतः पूर्वं भूमावेव समाहितः ॥ ३.२२६॥
guṇāṃśca sūpaśākādyān payo dadhi ghṛtaṃ madhu | vinyasetprayataḥ pūrvaṃ bhūmāveva samāhitaḥ || 3.226||
3.226. Let him, being pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the seasoning (for the rice), such as broths and pot herbs, sweet and sour milk, and honey,

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   226

भक्ष्यं भोज्यं च विविधं मूलानि च फलानि च । हृद्यानि चैव मांसानि पानानि सुरभीणि च ॥ ३.२२७॥
bhakṣyaṃ bhojyaṃ ca vividhaṃ mūlāni ca phalāni ca | hṛdyāni caiva māṃsāni pānāni surabhīṇi ca || 3.227||
3.227. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, and of soft food, roots, fruits, savoury meat, and fragrant drinks.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   227

उपनीय तु तत्सर्वं शनकैः सुसमाहितः । परिवेषयेत प्रयतो गुणान् सर्वान् प्रचोदयन् ॥ ३.२२८॥
upanīya tu tatsarvaṃ śanakaiḥ susamāhitaḥ | pariveṣayeta prayato guṇān sarvān pracodayan || 3.228||
3.228. All this he shall present (to his guests), being pure and attentive, successively invite them to partake of each (dish), proclaiming its qualities.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   228

नास्रमापातयेज्जातु न कुप्येन्नानृतं वदेत् । न पादेन स्पृशेदन्नं न चैतदवधूनयेत् ॥ ३.२२९॥
nāsramāpātayejjātu na kupyennānṛtaṃ vadet | na pādena spṛśedannaṃ na caitadavadhūnayet || 3.229||
3.229. Let him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, nor let him touch the food with his foot nor violently shake it.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   229

अस्रं गमयति प्रेतान् कोपोऽरीननृतं शुनः । पादस्पर्शस्तु रक्षांसि दुष्कृतीनवधूननम् ॥ ३.२३०॥
asraṃ gamayati pretān kopo'rīnanṛtaṃ śunaḥ | pādasparśastu rakṣāṃsi duṣkṛtīnavadhūnanam || 3.230||
3.230. A tear sends the (food) to the Pretas, anger to his enemies, a falsehood to the dogs, contact with his foot to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the sinners.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   230

यद्यद्रोचेत विप्रेभ्यस्तत्तद्दद्यादमत्सरः । ब्रह्मोद्याश्च कथाः कुर्यात्पितॄणामेतदीप्सितम् ॥ ३.२३१॥
yadyadroceta viprebhyastattaddadyādamatsaraḥ | brahmodyāśca kathāḥ kuryātpitṝṇāmetadīpsitam || 3.231||
3.231. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let him give without grudging it; let him give riddles from the Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   231

स्वाध्यायं श्रावयेत्पित्र्ये धर्मशास्त्राणि चैव हि । आख्यानानीतिहासांश्च पुराणानि खिलानि च ॥ ३.२३२॥
svādhyāyaṃ śrāvayetpitrye dharmaśāstrāṇi caiva hi | ākhyānānītihāsāṃśca purāṇāni khilāni ca || 3.232||
3.232. At a (sacrifice in honour) of the manes, he must let (his guests) hear the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred law, legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   232

हर्षयेद्ब्राह्मणांस्तुष्टो भोजयेच्च शनैःशनैः । अन्नाद्येनासकृच्चैतान् गुणैश्च परिचोदयेत् ॥ ३.२३३॥
harṣayedbrāhmaṇāṃstuṣṭo bhojayecca śanaiḥśanaiḥ | annādyenāsakṛccaitān guṇaiśca paricodayet || 3.233||
3.233. Himself being delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause them to partake gradually and slowly (of each dish), and repeatedly invite (them to eat) by (offering) the food and (praising) its qualities.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   233

व्रतस्थमपि दौहित्रं श्राद्धे यत्नेन भोजयेत् । कुतपं चासनं दद्यात्तिलैश्च विकिरेन् महीम् ॥ ३.२३४॥
vratasthamapi dauhitraṃ śrāddhe yatnena bhojayet | kutapaṃ cāsanaṃ dadyāttilaiśca vikiren mahīm || 3.234||
3.234. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice a daughter’s son, though he be a student, and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the ground.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   234

त्रीणि श्राद्धे पवित्राणि दौहित्रः कुतपस्तिलाः । त्रीणि चात्र प्रशंसन्ति शौचमक्रोधमत्वराम् ॥ ३.२३५॥
trīṇi śrāddhe pavitrāṇi dauhitraḥ kutapastilāḥ | trīṇi cātra praśaṃsanti śaucamakrodhamatvarām || 3.235||
3.235. There are three means of sanctification, (to be used) at a Sraddha, a daughter’s son, a Nepal blanket, and sesamum grains; and they recommend three (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger, and absence of haste.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   235

अत्युष्णं सर्वमन्नं स्याद्भुञ्जीरंस्ते च वाग्यताः । न च द्विजातयो ब्रूयुर्दात्रा पृष्टा हविर्गुणान् ॥ ३.२३६॥
atyuṣṇaṃ sarvamannaṃ syādbhuñjīraṃste ca vāgyatāḥ | na ca dvijātayo brūyurdātrā pṛṣṭā havirguṇān || 3.236||
3.236. All the food must be very hot, and the (guests) shall eat in silence; (even though) asked by the giver (of the feast), the Brahmanas shall not proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   236

यावदुष्मा भवत्यन्नं यावदश्नन्ति वाग्यताः । पितरस्तावदश्नन्ति यावन्नओक्ता हविर्गुणाः ॥ ३.२३७॥
yāvaduṣmā bhavatyannaṃ yāvadaśnanti vāgyatāḥ | pitarastāvadaśnanti yāvannaoktā havirguṇāḥ || 3.237||
3.237. As long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the food are not proclaimed, so long the manes partake (of it).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   237

यद्वेष्टितशिरा भुङ्क्ते यद्भुङ्क्ते दक्षिणामुखः । सौपानत्कश्च यद्भुङ्क्ते तद्वै रक्षांसि भुञ्जते ॥ ३.२३८॥
yadveṣṭitaśirā bhuṅkte yadbhuṅkte dakṣiṇāmukhaḥ | saupānatkaśca yadbhuṅkte tadvai rakṣāṃsi bhuñjate || 3.238||
3.238. What (a guest) eats, covering his head, what he eats with his face turned towards the south, what he eats with sandals on (his feet), that the Rakshasas consume.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   238

चाण्डालश्च वराहश्च कुक्कुटः श्वा तथैव च । रजस्वला च षण्ढश्च नैक्षेरन्नश्नतो द्विजान् ॥ ३.२३९॥
cāṇḍālaśca varāhaśca kukkuṭaḥ śvā tathaiva ca | rajasvalā ca ṣaṇḍhaśca naikṣerannaśnato dvijān || 3.239||
3.239. A Kandala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   239

होमे प्रदाने भोज्ये च यदेभिरभिवीक्ष्यते । दैवे हविषि पित्र्ये वा तद्गच्छत्ययथातथम् ॥ ३.२४०॥
home pradāne bhojye ca yadebhirabhivīkṣyate | daive haviṣi pitrye vā tadgacchatyayathātatham || 3.240||
3.240. What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes, that produces not the intended result.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   240

घ्राणेन शूकरो हन्ति पक्षवातेन कुक्कुटः । श्वा तु दृष्टिनिपातेन स्पर्शेणावरवर्णजः ॥ ३.२४१॥
ghrāṇena śūkaro hanti pakṣavātena kukkuṭaḥ | śvā tu dṛṣṭinipātena sparśeṇāvaravarṇajaḥ || 3.241||
3.241. A boar makes (the rite) useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a dog by throwing his eye (on them), a low-caste man by touching (them).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   241

खञ्जो वा यदि वा काणो दातुः प्रेष्योऽपि वा भवेत् । हीनातिरिक्तगात्रो वा तमप्यपनयेत्पुनः ॥ ३.२४२॥
khañjo vā yadi vā kāṇo dātuḥ preṣyo'pi vā bhavet | hīnātiriktagātro vā tamapyapanayetpunaḥ || 3.242||
3.242. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one deficient in a limb, or one with a redundant limb, be even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha), he must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held).

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   242

ब्राह्मणं भिक्षुकं वाऽपि भोजनार्थमुपस्थितम् । ब्राह्मणैरभ्यनुज्ञातः शक्तितः प्रतिपूजयेत् ॥ ३.२४३॥
brāhmaṇaṃ bhikṣukaṃ vā'pi bhojanārthamupasthitam | brāhmaṇairabhyanujñātaḥ śaktitaḥ pratipūjayet || 3.243||
3.243. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an ascetic who comes for food, he may, with the permission of (his) Brahmana (guests), show honour according to his ability.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   243

सार्ववर्णिकमन्नाद्यं संनीयाप्लाव्य वारिणा । समुत्सृजेद्भुक्तवतामग्रतो विकिरन् भुवि ॥ ३.२४४॥
sārvavarṇikamannādyaṃ saṃnīyāplāvya vāriṇā | samutsṛjedbhuktavatāmagrato vikiran bhuvi || 3.244||
3.244. Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and put them, scattering them (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of (his guests), when they have finished their meal.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   244

असंस्कृतप्रमीतानां त्यागिनां कुलयोषिताम् । उच्छिष्टं भागधेयं स्याद्दर्भेषु विकिरश्च यः ॥ ३.२४५॥
asaṃskṛtapramītānāṃ tyāgināṃ kulayoṣitām | ucchiṣṭaṃ bhāgadheyaṃ syāddarbheṣu vikiraśca yaḥ || 3.245||
3.245. The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered on Kusa grass, shall be the share of deceased (children) who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   245

उच्छेषणां भूमिगतमजिह्मस्याशठस्य च । दासवर्गस्य तत्पित्र्ये भागधेयं प्रचक्षते ॥ ३.२४६॥
uccheṣaṇāṃ bhūmigatamajihmasyāśaṭhasya ca | dāsavargasya tatpitrye bhāgadheyaṃ pracakṣate || 3.246||
3.246. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest, dutiful servants.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   246

आसपिण्डक्रियाकर्म द्विजातेः संस्थितस्य तु । अदैवं भोजयेत्श्राद्धं पिण्डमेकं च निर्वपेत् ॥ ३.२४७॥
āsapiṇḍakriyākarma dvijāteḥ saṃsthitasya tu | adaivaṃ bhojayetśrāddhaṃ piṇḍamekaṃ ca nirvapet || 3.247||
3.247. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the funeral sacrifice in honour of a (recently-) deceased Aryan (one Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods, and give one cake only.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   247

सहपिण्डक्रियायां तु कृतायामस्य धर्मतः । अनयैवावृता कार्यं पिण्डनिर्वपनं सुतैः ॥ ३.२४८॥
sahapiṇḍakriyāyāṃ tu kṛtāyāmasya dharmataḥ | anayaivāvṛtā kāryaṃ piṇḍanirvapanaṃ sutaiḥ || 3.248||
3.248. But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been performed according to the sacred law, the sons must offer the cakes with those ceremonies, (described above.)

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   248

श्राद्धं भुक्त्वा य उच्छिष्टं वृषलाय प्रयच्छति । स मूढो नरकं याति कालसूत्रमवाक्षिराः ॥ ३.२४९॥
śrāddhaṃ bhuktvā ya ucchiṣṭaṃ vṛṣalāya prayacchati | sa mūḍho narakaṃ yāti kālasūtramavākṣirāḥ || 3.249||
3.249. The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   249

श्राद्धभुग्वृषलीतल्पं तदहर्योऽधिगच्छति । तस्याः पुरीषे तं मासं पितरस्तस्य शेरते ॥ ३.२५०॥
śrāddhabhugvṛṣalītalpaṃ tadaharyo'dhigacchati | tasyāḥ purīṣe taṃ māsaṃ pitarastasya śerate || 3.250||
3.250. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters on the same day the bed of a Sudra female, the manes of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in her ordure.

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   250

पृष्ट्वा स्वदितमित्येवं तृप्तानाचामयेत्ततः । आचान्तांश्चानुजानीयादभितो रम्यतामिति ॥ ३.२५१॥
pṛṣṭvā svaditamityevaṃ tṛptānācāmayettataḥ | ācāntāṃścānujānīyādabhito ramyatāmiti || 3.251||
3.251. Having addressed the question, ’Have you dined well?’(to his guests), let him give water for sipping to them who are satisfied, and dismiss them, after they have sipped water, (with the words) ’Rest either (here or at home)!’

Adhyaya : 3

Shloka :   251

स्वधाऽस्त्वित्येव तं ब्रूयुर्ब्राह्मणास्तदनन्तरम् । स्वधाकारः परा ह्याषीः सर्वेषु पितृकर्मसु ॥ ३.२५२॥
svadhā'stvityeva taṃ brūyurbrāhmaṇāstadanantaram | svadhākāraḥ parā hyāṣīḥ sarveṣu pitṛkarmasu || 3.252||
3.252. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him, ’Let there be Svadha;’ for at all rites in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest benison.