Manu Smriti

Adhyaya 8

ॐ श्री परमात्मने नमः


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संस्कृत्म
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व्यवहारान् दिदृक्षुस्तु ब्राह्मणैः सह पार्थिवः । मन्त्रज्ञैर्मन्त्रिभिश्चैव विनीतः प्रविशेत्सभाम् ॥ ८.१॥
vyavahārān didṛkṣustu brāhmaṇaiḥ saha pārthivaḥ | mantrajñairmantribhiścaiva vinītaḥ praviśetsabhām || 8.1||
8.1. A king, desirous of investigating law cases, must enter his court of justice, preserving a dignified demeanour, together with Brahmanas and with experienced councillors.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   1

तत्रासीनः स्थितो वाऽपि पाणिमुद्यम्य दक्षिणम् । विनीतवेषाभरणः पश्येत्कार्याणि कार्यिणाम् ॥ ८.२॥
tatrāsīnaḥ sthito vā'pi pāṇimudyamya dakṣiṇam | vinītaveṣābharaṇaḥ paśyetkāryāṇi kāryiṇām || 8.2||
8.2. There, either seated or standing, raising his right arm, without ostentation in his dress and ornaments, let him examine the business of suitors,

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   2

प्रत्यहं देशदृष्टैश्च शास्त्रदृष्टैश्च हेतुभिः । अष्टादशसु मार्गेषु निबद्धानि पृथक्पृथक् ॥ ८.३॥
pratyahaṃ deśadṛṣṭaiśca śāstradṛṣṭaiśca hetubhiḥ | aṣṭādaśasu mārgeṣu nibaddhāni pṛthakpṛthak || 8.3||
8.3. Daily (deciding) one after another (all cases) which fall under the eighteen titles (of the law) according to principles drawn from local usages. and from the Institutes of the sacred law.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   3

तेषामाद्यं ऋणादानं निक्षेपोऽस्वामिविक्रयः । सम्भूय च समुत्थानं दत्तस्यानपकर्म च ॥ ८.४॥
teṣāmādyaṃ ṛṇādānaṃ nikṣepo'svāmivikrayaḥ | sambhūya ca samutthānaṃ dattasyānapakarma ca || 8.4||
8.4. Of those (titles) the first is the non-payment of debts, (then follow), (2) deposit and pledge, (3) sale without ownership, (4) concerns among partners, and (5) resumption of gifts,

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   4

वेतनस्यैव चादानं संविदश्च व्यतिक्रमः । क्रयविक्रयानुशयो विवादः स्वामिपालयोः ॥ ८.५॥
vetanasyaiva cādānaṃ saṃvidaśca vyatikramaḥ | krayavikrayānuśayo vivādaḥ svāmipālayoḥ || 8.5||
8.5. (6) Non-payment of wages, (7) non-performance of agreements, (8) rescission of sale and purchase, (9) disputes between the owner (of cattle) and his servants,

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   5

सीमाविवादधर्मश्च पारुष्ये दण्डवाचिके । स्तेयं च साहसं चैव स्त्रीसङ्ग्रहणमेव च ॥ ८.६॥
sīmāvivādadharmaśca pāruṣye daṇḍavācike | steyaṃ ca sāhasaṃ caiva strīsaṅgrahaṇameva ca || 8.6||
8.6. (10) Disputes regarding boundaries, (11) assault and (12) defamation, (13) theft, (14) robbery and violence,(15) adultery,

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   6

स्त्रीपुंधर्मो विभागश्च द्यूतमाह्वय एव च । पदान्यष्टादशैतानि व्यवहारस्थिताविह ॥ ८.७॥
strīpuṃdharmo vibhāgaśca dyūtamāhvaya eva ca | padānyaṣṭādaśaitāni vyavahārasthitāviha || 8.7||
8.7. (16) Duties of man and wife, (17) partition (of inheritance), (18) gambling and betting; these are in this world the eighteen topics which give rise to lawsuits.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   7

एषु स्थानेषु भूयिष्ठं विवादं चरतां नृणाम् । धर्मं शाश्वतमाश्रित्य कुर्यात्कार्यविनिर्णयम् ॥ ८.८॥
eṣu sthāneṣu bhūyiṣṭhaṃ vivādaṃ caratāṃ nṛṇām | dharmaṃ śāśvatamāśritya kuryātkāryavinirṇayam || 8.8||
8.8. Depending on the eternal law, let him decide the suits of men who mostly contend on the titles just mentioned.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   8

यदा स्वयं न कुर्यात्तु नृपतिः कार्यदर्शनम् । तदा नियुञ्ज्याद्विद्वांसं ब्राह्मणं कार्यदर्शने ॥ ८.९॥
yadā svayaṃ na kuryāttu nṛpatiḥ kāryadarśanam | tadā niyuñjyādvidvāṃsaṃ brāhmaṇaṃ kāryadarśane || 8.9||
8.9. But if the king does not personally investigate the suits, then let him appoint a learned Brahmana to try them.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   9

सोऽस्य कार्याणि सम्पश्येत्सभ्यैरेव त्रिभिर्वृतः । सभामेव प्रविश्याग्र्यामासीनः स्थित एव वा ॥ ८.१०॥
so'sya kāryāṇi sampaśyetsabhyaireva tribhirvṛtaḥ | sabhāmeva praviśyāgryāmāsīnaḥ sthita eva vā || 8.10||
8.10. That (man) shall enter that most excellent court, accompanied by three assessors, and fully consider (all) causes (brought) before the (king), either sitting down or standing.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   10

यस्मिन् देशे निषीदन्ति विप्रा वेदविदस्त्रयः । राज्ञश्चाधिकृतो विद्वान् ब्रह्मणस्तां सभां विदुः ॥ ८.११॥
yasmin deśe niṣīdanti viprā vedavidastrayaḥ | rājñaścādhikṛto vidvān brahmaṇastāṃ sabhāṃ viduḥ || 8.11||
8.11. Where three Brahmanas versed in the Vedas and the learned (judge) appointed by the king sit down, they call that the court of (four-faced) Brahman.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   11

धर्मो विद्धस्त्वधर्मेण सभां यत्रोपतिष्ठते । शल्यं चास्य न कृन्तन्ति विद्धास्तत्र सभासदः ॥ ८.१२॥
dharmo viddhastvadharmeṇa sabhāṃ yatropatiṣṭhate | śalyaṃ cāsya na kṛntanti viddhāstatra sabhāsadaḥ || 8.12||
8.12. But where justice, wounded by injustice, approaches and the judges do not extract the dart, there (they also) are wounded (by that dart of injustice).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   12

सभां वा न प्रवेष्टव्यं वक्तव्यं वा समञ्जसम् । अब्रुवन् विब्रुवन् वाऽपि नरो भवति किल्बिषी ॥ ८.१३॥
sabhāṃ vā na praveṣṭavyaṃ vaktavyaṃ vā samañjasam | abruvan vibruvan vā'pi naro bhavati kilbiṣī || 8.13||
8.13. Either the court must not be entered, or the truth must be spoken; a man who either says nothing or speaks falsely, becomes sinful.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   13

यत्र धर्मो ह्यधर्मेण सत्यं यत्रानृतेन च । हन्यते प्रेक्षमाणानां हतास्तत्र सभासदः ॥ ८.१४॥
yatra dharmo hyadharmeṇa satyaṃ yatrānṛtena ca | hanyate prekṣamāṇānāṃ hatāstatra sabhāsadaḥ || 8.14||
8.14. Where justice is destroyed by injustice, or truth by falsehood, while the judges look on, there they shall also be destroyed.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   14

धर्म एव हतो हन्ति धर्मो रक्षति रक्षितः । तस्माद्धर्मो न हन्तव्यो मा नो धर्मो हतोऽवधीत् ॥ ८.१५॥
dharma eva hato hanti dharmo rakṣati rakṣitaḥ | tasmāddharmo na hantavyo mā no dharmo hato'vadhīt || 8.15||
8.15. ’Justice, being violated, destroys; justice, being preserved, preserves: therefore justice must not be violated, lest violated justice destroy us.’

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   15

वृषो हि भगवान् धर्मस्तस्य यः कुरुते त्वलम् । वृषलं तं विदुर्देवास्तस्माद्धर्मं न लोपयेत् ॥ ८.१६॥
vṛṣo hi bhagavān dharmastasya yaḥ kurute tvalam | vṛṣalaṃ taṃ vidurdevāstasmāddharmaṃ na lopayet || 8.16||
8.16. For divine justice (is said to be) a bull (vrisha); that (man) who violates it (kurute ’lam) the gods consider to be (a man despicable like) a Sudra (vrishala); let him, therefore, beware of violating justice.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   16

एक एव सुहृद्धर्मो निधानेऽप्यनुयाति यः । शरीरेण समं नाशं सर्वमन्यधि गच्छति ॥ ८.१७॥
eka eva suhṛddharmo nidhāne'pyanuyāti yaḥ | śarīreṇa samaṃ nāśaṃ sarvamanyadhi gacchati || 8.17||
8.17. The only friend who follows men even after death is justice; for everything else is lost at the same time when the body (perishes).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   17

पादोऽधर्मस्य कर्तारं पादः साक्षिणं ऋच्छति । पादः सभासदः सर्वान् पादो राजानमृच्छति ॥ ८.१८॥
pādo'dharmasya kartāraṃ pādaḥ sākṣiṇaṃ ṛcchati | pādaḥ sabhāsadaḥ sarvān pādo rājānamṛcchati || 8.18||
8.18. One quarter of (the guilt of) an unjust (decision) falls on him who committed (the crime), one quarter on the (false) witness, one quarter on all the judges, one quarter on the king.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   18

राजा भवत्यनेनास्तु मुच्यन्ते च सभासदः । एनो गच्छति कर्तारं निन्दाऽर्हो यत्र निन्द्यते ॥ ८.१९॥
rājā bhavatyanenāstu mucyante ca sabhāsadaḥ | eno gacchati kartāraṃ nindā'rho yatra nindyate || 8.19||
8.19. But where he who is worthy of condemnation is condemned, the king is free from guilt, and the judges are saved (from sin); the guilt falls on the perpetrator (of the crime alone).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   19

जातिमात्रोपजीवी वा कामं स्याद्ब्राह्मणब्रुवः । धर्मप्रवक्ता नृपतेर्न शूद्रः कथंचन ॥ ८.२०॥
jātimātropajīvī vā kāmaṃ syādbrāhmaṇabruvaḥ | dharmapravaktā nṛpaterna śūdraḥ kathaṃcana || 8.20||
8.20. A Brahmana who subsists only by the name of his caste (gati), or one who merely calls himself a Brahmana (though his origin be uncertain), may, at the king’s pleasure, interpret the law to him, but never a Sudra.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   20

यस्य शूद्रस्तु कुरुते राज्ञो धर्मविवेचनम् । तस्य सीदति तद्राष्ट्रं पङ्के गौरिव पश्यतः ॥ ८.२१॥
yasya śūdrastu kurute rājño dharmavivecanam | tasya sīdati tadrāṣṭraṃ paṅke gauriva paśyataḥ || 8.21||
8.21. The kingdom of that monarch, who looks on while a Sudra settles the law, will sink (low), like a cow in a morass.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   21

यद्राष्ट्रं शूद्रभूयिष्ठं नास्तिकाक्रान्तमद्विजम् । विनश्यत्याशु तत्कृत्स्नं दुर्भिक्षव्याधिपीडितम् ॥ ८.२२॥
yadrāṣṭraṃ śūdrabhūyiṣṭhaṃ nāstikākrāntamadvijam | vinaśyatyāśu tatkṛtsnaṃ durbhikṣavyādhipīḍitam || 8.22||
8.22. That kingdom where Sudras are very numerous, which is infested by atheists and destitute of twice-born (inhabitants), soon entirely perishes, afflicted by famine and disease.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   22

धर्मासनमधिष्ठाय संवीताङ्गः समाहितः । प्रणम्य लोकपालेभ्यः कार्यदर्शनमारभेत् ॥ ८.२३॥
dharmāsanamadhiṣṭhāya saṃvītāṅgaḥ samāhitaḥ | praṇamya lokapālebhyaḥ kāryadarśanamārabhet || 8.23||
8.23. Having occupied the seat of justice, having covered his body, and having worshipped the guardian deities of the world, let him, with a collected mind, begin the trial of causes.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   23

अर्थानर्थावुभौ बुद्ध्वा धर्माधर्मौ च केवलौ । वर्णक्रमेण सर्वाणि पश्येत्कार्याणि कार्यिणाम् ॥ ८.२४॥
arthānarthāvubhau buddhvā dharmādharmau ca kevalau | varṇakrameṇa sarvāṇi paśyetkāryāṇi kāryiṇām || 8.24||
8.24. Knowing what is expedient or inexpedient, what is pure justice or injustice, let him examine the causes of suitors according to the order of the castes (varna).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   24

बाह्यैर्विभावयेत्लिङ्गैर्भावमन्तर्गतं नृणाम् । स्वरवर्णैङ्गिताकारैश्चक्षुषा चेष्टितेन च ॥ ८.२५॥
bāhyairvibhāvayetliṅgairbhāvamantargataṃ nṛṇām | svaravarṇaiṅgitākāraiścakṣuṣā ceṣṭitena ca || 8.25||
8.25. By external signs let him discover the internal disposition of men, by their voice, their colour, their motions, their aspect, their eyes, and their gestures.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   25

आकारैरिङ्गितैर्गत्या चेष्टया भाषितेन च । नेत्रवक्त्रविकारैश्च गृह्यतेऽन्तर्गतं मनः ॥ ८.२६॥
ākārairiṅgitairgatyā ceṣṭayā bhāṣitena ca | netravaktravikāraiśca gṛhyate'ntargataṃ manaḥ || 8.26||
8.26. The internal (working of the) mind is perceived through the aspect, the motions, the gait, the gestures, the speech, and the changes in the eye and of the face.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   26

बालदायादिकं रिक्थं तावद्राजाऽनुपालयेत् । यावत्स स्यात्समावृत्तो यावत्चातीतशैशवः ॥ ८.२७॥
bāladāyādikaṃ rikthaṃ tāvadrājā'nupālayet | yāvatsa syātsamāvṛtto yāvatcātītaśaiśavaḥ || 8.27||
8.27. The king shall protect the inherited (and other) property of a minor, until he has returned (from his teacher’s house) or until he has passed his minority.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   27

वशाऽपुत्रासु चैवं स्याद्रक्षणं निष्कुलासु च । पतिव्रतासु च स्त्रीषु विधवास्वातुरासु च ॥ ८.२८॥
vaśā'putrāsu caivaṃ syādrakṣaṇaṃ niṣkulāsu ca | pativratāsu ca strīṣu vidhavāsvāturāsu ca || 8.28||
8.28. In like manner care must be taken of barren women, of those who have no sons, of those whose family is extinct, of wives and widows faithful to their lords, and of women afflicted with diseases.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   28

जीवन्तीनां तु तासां ये तधरेयुः स्वबान्धवाः । तांशिष्यात्चौरदण्डेन धार्मिकः पृथिवीपतिः ॥ ८.२९॥
jīvantīnāṃ tu tāsāṃ ye tadhareyuḥ svabāndhavāḥ | tāṃśiṣyātcauradaṇḍena dhārmikaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ || 8.29||
8.29. A righteous king must punish like thieves those relatives who appropriate the property of such females during their lifetime.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   29

प्रणष्टस्वामिकं रिक्थं राजा त्र्यब्दं निधापयेत् । अर्वाक्त्र्यब्दाद्धरेत्स्वामी परेण नृपतिर्हरेत् ॥ ८.३०॥
praṇaṣṭasvāmikaṃ rikthaṃ rājā tryabdaṃ nidhāpayet | arvāktryabdāddharetsvāmī pareṇa nṛpatirharet || 8.30||
8.30. Property, the owner of which has disappeared, the king shall cause to be kept as a deposit during three years; within the period of three years the owner may claim it, after (that term) the king may take it.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   30

ममैदमिति यो ब्रूयात्सोऽनुयोज्यो यथाविधि । संवाद्य रूपसङ्ख्यादीन् स्वामी तद्द्रव्यमर्हति ॥ ८.३१॥
mamaidamiti yo brūyātso'nuyojyo yathāvidhi | saṃvādya rūpasaṅkhyādīn svāmī taddravyamarhati || 8.31||
8.31. He who says, ’This belongs to me,’ must be examined according to the rule; if he accurately describes the shape, and the number (of the articles found) and so forth, (he is) the owner, (and) ought (to receive) that property.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   31

अवेदयानो नष्टस्य देशं कालं च तत्त्वतः । वर्णं रूपं प्रमाणं च तत्समं दण्डमर्हति ॥ ८.३२॥
avedayāno naṣṭasya deśaṃ kālaṃ ca tattvataḥ | varṇaṃ rūpaṃ pramāṇaṃ ca tatsamaṃ daṇḍamarhati || 8.32||
8.32. But if he does not really know the time and the place (where it was) lost, its colour, shape, and size, he is worthy of a fine equal (in value) to the (object claimed)

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   32

आददीताथ षड्भागं प्रनष्टाधिगतान्नृपः । दशमं द्वादशं वाऽपि सतां धर्ममनुस्मरन् ॥ ८.३३॥
ādadītātha ṣaḍbhāgaṃ pranaṣṭādhigatānnṛpaḥ | daśamaṃ dvādaśaṃ vā'pi satāṃ dharmamanusmaran || 8.33||
8.33. Now the king, remembering the duty of good men, may take one-sixth part of property lost and afterwards found, or one-tenth, or at least one-twelfth.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   33

प्रणष्टाधिगतं द्रव्यं तिष्ठेद्युक्तैरधिष्ठितम् । यांस्तत्र चौरान् गृह्णीयात्तान् राजैभेन घातयेत् ॥ ८.३४॥
praṇaṣṭādhigataṃ dravyaṃ tiṣṭhedyuktairadhiṣṭhitam | yāṃstatra caurān gṛhṇīyāttān rājaibhena ghātayet || 8.34||
8.34. Property lost and afterwards found (by the king’s servants) shall remain in the keeping of (special) officials; those whom the king may convict of stealing it, he shall cause to be slain by an elephant.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   34

ममायमिति यो ब्रूयान्निधिं सत्येन मानवः । तस्याददीत षड्भागं राजा द्वादशमेव वा ॥ ८.३५॥
mamāyamiti yo brūyānnidhiṃ satyena mānavaḥ | tasyādadīta ṣaḍbhāgaṃ rājā dvādaśameva vā || 8.35||
8.35. From that man who shall truly say with respect to treasure-trove, ’This belongs to me,’ the king may take one-sixth or one-twelfth part.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   35

अनृतं तु वदन् दण्ड्यः स्ववित्तस्यांशमष्टमम् । तस्यैव वा निधानस्य सङ्ख्ययाऽल्पीयसीं कलाम् ॥ ८.३६॥
anṛtaṃ tu vadan daṇḍyaḥ svavittasyāṃśamaṣṭamam | tasyaiva vā nidhānasya saṅkhyayā'lpīyasīṃ kalām || 8.36||
8.36. But he who falsely says (so), shall be fined in one-eighth of his property, or, a calculation of (the value of) the treasure having been made, in some smaller portion (of that).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   36

विद्वांस्तु ब्राह्मणो दृष्ट्वा पूर्वोपनिहितं निधिम् । अशेषतोऽप्याददीत सर्वस्याधिपतिर्हि सः ॥ ८.३८॥
vidvāṃstu brāhmaṇo dṛṣṭvā pūrvopanihitaṃ nidhim | aśeṣato'pyādadīta sarvasyādhipatirhi saḥ || 8.38||
8.37. When a learned Brahmana has found treasure, deposited in former (times), he may take even the whole (of it); for he is master of everything.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   37

यं तु पश्येन्निधिं राजा पुराणं निहितं क्षितौ । तस्माद्द्विजेभ्यो दत्त्वाऽर्धमर्धं कोशे प्रवेशयेत् ॥ ८.३८॥
yaṃ tu paśyennidhiṃ rājā purāṇaṃ nihitaṃ kṣitau | tasmāddvijebhyo dattvā'rdhamardhaṃ kośe praveśayet || 8.38||
8.38. When the king finds treasure of old concealed in the ground let him give one half to Brahmanas and place the (other) half in his treasury.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   38

निधीनां तु पुराणानां धातूनामेव च क्षितौ । अर्धभाग्रक्षणाद्राजा भूमेरधिपतिर्हि सः ॥ ८.३९॥
nidhīnāṃ tu purāṇānāṃ dhātūnāmeva ca kṣitau | ardhabhāgrakṣaṇādrājā bhūmeradhipatirhi saḥ || 8.39||
8.39. The king obtains one half of ancient hoards and metals (found) in the ground, by reason of (his giving) protection, (and) because he is the lord of the soil.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   39

दातव्यं सर्ववर्णेभ्यो राज्ञा चौरैर्हृतं धनम् । राजा तदुपयुञ्जानश्चौरस्याप्नोति किल्बिषम् ॥ ८.४०॥
dātavyaṃ sarvavarṇebhyo rājñā caurairhṛtaṃ dhanam | rājā tadupayuñjānaścaurasyāpnoti kilbiṣam || 8.40||
8.40. Property stolen by thieves must be restored by the king to (men of) all castes (varna); a king who uses such (property) for himself incurs the guilt of a thief.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   40

जातिजानपदान् धर्मान् श्रेणीधर्मांश्च धर्मवित् । समीक्ष्य कुलधर्मांश्च स्वधर्मं प्रतिपादयेत् ॥ ८.४१॥
jātijānapadān dharmān śreṇīdharmāṃśca dharmavit | samīkṣya kuladharmāṃśca svadharmaṃ pratipādayet || 8.41||
8.41. (A king) who knows the sacred law, must inquire into the laws of castes (gati), of districts, of guilds, and of families, and (thus) settle the peculiar law of each.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   41

स्वानि कर्माणि कुर्वाणा दूरे सन्तोऽपि मानवाः । प्रिया भवन्ति लोकस्य स्वे स्वे कर्मण्यवस्थिताः ॥ ८.४२॥
svāni karmāṇi kurvāṇā dūre santo'pi mānavāḥ | priyā bhavanti lokasya sve sve karmaṇyavasthitāḥ || 8.42||
8.42. For men who follow their particular occupations and abide by their particular duty, become dear to people, though they may live at a distance.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   42

नोत्पादयेत्स्वयं कार्यं राजा नाप्यस्य पूरुषः । न च प्रापितमन्येन ग्रसेतार्थं कथं चन ॥ ८.४३॥
notpādayetsvayaṃ kāryaṃ rājā nāpyasya pūruṣaḥ | na ca prāpitamanyena grasetārthaṃ kathaṃ cana || 8.43||
8.43. Neither the king nor any servant of his shall themselves cause a lawsuit to be begun, or hush up one that has been brought (before them) by (some) other (man).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   43

यथा नयत्यसृक्पातैर्मृगस्य मृगयुः पदम् । नयेत्तथाऽनुमानेन धर्मस्य नृपतिः पदम् ॥ ८.४४॥
yathā nayatyasṛkpātairmṛgasya mṛgayuḥ padam | nayettathā'numānena dharmasya nṛpatiḥ padam || 8.44||
8.44. As a hunter traces the lair of a (wounded) deer by the drops of blood, even so the king shall discover on which side the right lies, by inferences (from the facts).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   44

सत्यमर्थं च सम्पश्येदात्मानमथ साक्षिणम् । देशं रूपं च कालं च व्यवहारविधौ स्थितः ॥ ८.४५॥
satyamarthaṃ ca sampaśyedātmānamatha sākṣiṇam | deśaṃ rūpaṃ ca kālaṃ ca vyavahāravidhau sthitaḥ || 8.45||
8.45. When engaged in judicial proceedings he must pay full attention to the truth, to the object (of the dispute), (and) to himself, next to the witnesses, to the place, to the time, and to the aspect.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   45

सद्भिराचरितं यत्स्याद्धार्मिकैश्च द्विजातिभिः । तद्देशकुलजातीनामविरुद्धं प्रकल्पयेत् ॥ ८.४६॥
sadbhirācaritaṃ yatsyāddhārmikaiśca dvijātibhiḥ | taddeśakulajātīnāmaviruddhaṃ prakalpayet || 8.46||
8.46. What may have been practised by the virtuous, by such twice-born men as are devoted to the law, that he shall establish as law, if it be not opposed to the (customs of) countries, families, and castes (gati).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   46

अधमर्णार्थसिद्ध्यर्थमुत्तमर्णेन चोदितः । दापयेद्धनिकस्यार्थमधमर्णाद्विभावितम् ॥ ८.४७॥
adhamarṇārthasiddhyarthamuttamarṇena coditaḥ | dāpayeddhanikasyārthamadhamarṇādvibhāvitam || 8.47||
8.47. When a creditor sues (before the king) for the recovery of money from a debtor, let him make the debtor pay the sum which the creditor proves (to be due).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   47

यैर्यैरुपायैरर्थं स्वं प्राप्नुयादुत्तमर्णिकः । तैर्तैरुपायैः सङ्गृह्य दापयेदधमर्णिकम् ॥ ८.४८॥
yairyairupāyairarthaṃ svaṃ prāpnuyāduttamarṇikaḥ | tairtairupāyaiḥ saṅgṛhya dāpayedadhamarṇikam || 8.48||
8.48. By whatever means a creditor may be able to obtain possession of his property, even by those means may he force the debtor and make him pay.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   48

धर्मेण व्यवहारेण छलेनाचरितेन च । प्रयुक्तं साधयेदर्थं पञ्चमेन बलेन च ॥ ८.४९॥
dharmeṇa vyavahāreṇa chalenācaritena ca | prayuktaṃ sādhayedarthaṃ pañcamena balena ca || 8.49||
8.49. By moral suasion, by suit of law, by artful management, or by the customary proceeding, a creditor may recover property lent; and fifthly, by force.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   49

यः स्वयं साधयेदर्थमुत्तमर्णोऽधमर्णिकात् । न स राज्ञाऽभियोक्तव्यः स्वकं संसाधयन् धनम् ॥ ८.५०॥
yaḥ svayaṃ sādhayedarthamuttamarṇo'dhamarṇikāt | na sa rājñā'bhiyoktavyaḥ svakaṃ saṃsādhayan dhanam || 8.50||
8.50. A creditor who himself recovers his property from his debtor, must not be blamed by the king for retaking what is his own.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   50

अर्थेऽपव्ययमानं तु करणेन विभावितम् । दापयेद्धनिकस्यार्थं दण्डलेशं च शक्तितः ॥ ८.५१॥
arthe'pavyayamānaṃ tu karaṇena vibhāvitam | dāpayeddhanikasyārthaṃ daṇḍaleśaṃ ca śaktitaḥ || 8.51||
8.51. But him who denies a debt which is proved by good evidence, he shall order to pay that debt to the creditor and a small fine according to his circumstances.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   51

अपह्नवेऽधमर्णस्य देहीत्युक्तस्य संसदि । अभियोक्ता दिशेद्देश्यं करणं वाऽन्यदुद्दिशेत् ॥ ८.५२॥
apahnave'dhamarṇasya dehītyuktasya saṃsadi | abhiyoktā diśeddeśyaṃ karaṇaṃ vā'nyaduddiśet || 8.52||
8.52. On the denial (of a debt) by a debtor who has been required in court to pay it, the complainant must call (a witness) who was present (when the loan was made), or adduce other evidence.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   52

अदेश्यं यश्च दिशति निर्दिश्यापह्नुते च यः । यश्चाधरोत्तरानर्थान् विगीतान्नावबुध्यते ॥ ८.५३॥
adeśyaṃ yaśca diśati nirdiśyāpahnute ca yaḥ | yaścādharottarānarthān vigītānnāvabudhyate || 8.53||
8.53. (The plaintiff) who calls a witness not present at the transaction, who retracts his statements, or does not perceive that his statements (are) confused or contradictory;

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   53

अपदिश्यापदेशं च पुनर्यस्त्वपधावति । सम्यक्प्रणिहितं चार्थं पृष्टः सन्नाभिनन्दति ॥ ८.५४॥
apadiśyāpadeśaṃ ca punaryastvapadhāvati | samyakpraṇihitaṃ cārthaṃ pṛṣṭaḥ sannābhinandati || 8.54||
8.54. Or who having stated what he means to prove afterwards varies (his case), or who being questioned on a fact duly stated by himself does not abide by it;

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   54

असम्भाष्ये साक्षिभिश्च देशे सम्भाषते मिथः । निरुच्यमानं प्रश्नं च नेच्छेद्यश्चापि निष्पतेत् ॥ ८.५५॥
asambhāṣye sākṣibhiśca deśe sambhāṣate mithaḥ | nirucyamānaṃ praśnaṃ ca necchedyaścāpi niṣpatet || 8.55||
8.55. Or who converses with the witnesses in a place improper for such conversation; or who declines to answer a question, properly put, or leaves (the court);

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   55

ब्रूहीत्युक्तश्च न ब्रूयादुक्तं च न विभावयेत् । न च पूर्वापरं विद्यात्तस्मादर्थात्स हीयते ॥ ८.५६॥
brūhītyuktaśca na brūyāduktaṃ ca na vibhāvayet | na ca pūrvāparaṃ vidyāttasmādarthātsa hīyate || 8.56||
8.56. Or who, being ordered to speak, does not answer, or does not prove what he has alleged; or who does not know what is the first (point), and what the second, fails in his suit.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   56

साक्षिणः सन्ति मेत्युक्त्वा दिशेत्युक्तो दिशेन्न यः । धर्मस्थः कारणैरेतैर्हीनं तमपि निर्दिशेत् ॥ ८.५७॥
sākṣiṇaḥ santi metyuktvā diśetyukto diśenna yaḥ | dharmasthaḥ kāraṇairetairhīnaṃ tamapi nirdiśet || 8.57||
8.57. Him also who says ’I have witnesses,’ and, being ordered to produce them, produces them not, the judge must on these (same) grounds declare to be non-suited.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   57

अभियोक्ता न चेद्ब्रूयाद् बन्ध्यो दण्ड्यश्च धर्मतः । न चेत्त्रिपक्षात्प्रब्रूयाद्धर्मं प्रति पराजितः ॥ ८.५८॥
abhiyoktā na cedbrūyād bandhyo daṇḍyaśca dharmataḥ | na cettripakṣātprabrūyāddharmaṃ prati parājitaḥ || 8.58||
8.58. If a plaintiff does not speak, he may be punished corporally or fined according to the law; if (a defendant) does not plead within three fortnights, he has lost his cause.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   58

यो यावद्निह्नुवीतार्थं मिथ्या यावति वा वदेत् । तौ नृपेण ह्यधर्मज्ञौ दाप्यौ तद्द्विगुणं दमम् ॥ ८.५९॥
yo yāvadnihnuvītārthaṃ mithyā yāvati vā vadet | tau nṛpeṇa hyadharmajñau dāpyau taddviguṇaṃ damam || 8.59||
8.59. In the double of that sum which (a defendant) falsely denies or on which (the plaintiff) falsely declares, shall those two (men) offending against justice be fined by the king.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   59

पृष्टोऽपव्ययमानस्तु कृतावस्थो धनेषिणा । त्र्यवरैः साक्षिभिर्भाव्यो नृपब्राह्मणसंनिधौ ॥ ८.६०॥
pṛṣṭo'pavyayamānastu kṛtāvastho dhaneṣiṇā | tryavaraiḥ sākṣibhirbhāvyo nṛpabrāhmaṇasaṃnidhau || 8.60||
8.60. (A defendant) who, being brought (into court) by the creditor, (and) being questioned, denies (the debt), shall be convicted (of his falsehood) by at least three witnesses (who must depose) in the presence of the Brahmana (appointed by) the king.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   60

यादृशा धनिभिः कार्या व्यवहारेषु साक्षिणः । तादृशान् सम्प्रवक्ष्यामि यथा वाच्यं ऋतं च तैः ॥ ८.६१॥
yādṛśā dhanibhiḥ kāryā vyavahāreṣu sākṣiṇaḥ | tādṛśān sampravakṣyāmi yathā vācyaṃ ṛtaṃ ca taiḥ || 8.61||
8.61. I will fully declare what kind of men may be made witnesses in suits by creditors, and in what manner those (witnesses) must give true (evidence).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   61

गृहिणः पुत्रिणो मौलाः क्षत्रविद्शूद्रयोनयः । अर्थ्युक्ताः साक्ष्यमर्हन्ति न ये के चिदनापदि ॥ ८.६२॥
gṛhiṇaḥ putriṇo maulāḥ kṣatravidśūdrayonayaḥ | arthyuktāḥ sākṣyamarhanti na ye ke cidanāpadi || 8.62||
8.62. Householders, men with male issue, and indigenous (inhabitants of the country, be they) Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, or Sudras, are competent, when called by a suitor, to give evidence, not any persons whatever (their condition may be) except in cases of urgency.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   62

आप्ताः सर्वेषु वर्णेषु कार्याः कार्येषु साक्षिणः । सर्वधर्मविदोऽलुब्धा विपरीतांस्तु वर्जयेत् ॥ ८.६३॥
āptāḥ sarveṣu varṇeṣu kāryāḥ kāryeṣu sākṣiṇaḥ | sarvadharmavido'lubdhā viparītāṃstu varjayet || 8.63||
8.63. Trustworthy men of all the (four) castes (varna) may be made witnesses in lawsuits, (men) who know (their) whole duty, and are free from covetousness; but let him reject those (of an) opposite (character).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   63

नार्थसम्बन्धिनो नाप्ता न सहाया न वैरिणः । न दृष्टदोषाः कर्तव्या न व्याध्यार्ता न दूषिताः ॥ ८.६४॥
nārthasambandhino nāptā na sahāyā na vairiṇaḥ | na dṛṣṭadoṣāḥ kartavyā na vyādhyārtā na dūṣitāḥ || 8.64||
8.64. Those must not be made (witnesses) who have an interest in the suit, nor familiar (friends), companions, and enemies (of the parties), nor (men) formerly convicted (of perjury), nor (persons) suffering under (severe) illness, nor (those) tainted (by mortal sin).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   64

न साक्षी नृपतिः कार्यो न कारुककुशीलवौ । न श्रोत्रियो न लिङ्गस्थो न सङ्गेभ्यो विनिर्गतः ॥ ८.६५॥
na sākṣī nṛpatiḥ kāryo na kārukakuśīlavau | na śrotriyo na liṅgastho na saṅgebhyo vinirgataḥ || 8.65||
8.65. The king cannot be made a witness, nor mechanics and actors, nor a: Srotriya, nor a student of the Veda, nor (an ascetic) who has given up (all) connexion (with the world),

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   65

नाध्यधीनो न वक्तव्यो न दस्युर्न विकर्मकृत् । न वृद्धो न शिशुर्नैको नान्त्यो न विकलेन्द्रियः ॥ ८.६६॥
nādhyadhīno na vaktavyo na dasyurna vikarmakṛt | na vṛddho na śiśurnaiko nāntyo na vikalendriyaḥ || 8.66||
8.66. Nor one wholly dependent, nor one of bad fame, nor a Dasyu, nor one who follows forbidden occupations, nor an aged (man), nor an infant, nor one (man alone), nor a man of the lowest castes, nor one deficient in organs of sense,

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   66

नार्तो न मत्तो नोन्मत्तो न क्षुत्तृष्णोपपीडितः । न श्रमार्तो न कामार्तो न क्रुद्धो नापि तस्करः ॥ ८.६७॥
nārto na matto nonmatto na kṣuttṛṣṇopapīḍitaḥ | na śramārto na kāmārto na kruddho nāpi taskaraḥ || 8.67||
8.67. Nor one extremely grieved, nor one intoxicated, nor a madman, nor one tormented by hunger or thirst, nor one oppressed by fatigue, nor one tormented by desire, nor a wrathful man, nor a thief.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   67

स्त्रीणां साक्ष्यं स्त्रियः कुर्युर्द्विजानां सदृशा द्विजाः । शूद्राश्च सन्तः शूद्राणां अन्त्यानामन्त्ययोनयः ॥ ८.६८॥
strīṇāṃ sākṣyaṃ striyaḥ kuryurdvijānāṃ sadṛśā dvijāḥ | śūdrāśca santaḥ śūdrāṇāṃ antyānāmantyayonayaḥ || 8.68||
8.68. Women should give evidence for women, and for twice-born men twice-born men (of the) same (kind), virtuous Sudras for Sudras, and men of the lowest castes for the lowest.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   68

अनुभावी तु यः कश्चित्कुर्यात्साक्ष्यं विवादिनाम् । अन्तर्वेश्मन्यरण्ये वा शरीरस्यापि चात्यये ॥ ८.६९॥
anubhāvī tu yaḥ kaścitkuryātsākṣyaṃ vivādinām | antarveśmanyaraṇye vā śarīrasyāpi cātyaye || 8.69||
8.69. But any person whatsoever, who has personal knowledge (of an act committed) in the interior apartments (of a house), or in a forest, or of (a crime causing) loss of life, may give evidence between the parties.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   69

स्त्रियाऽप्यसम्भावे कार्यं बालेन स्थविरेण वा । शिष्येण बन्धुना वाऽपि दासेन भृतकेन वा ॥ ८.७०॥
striyā'pyasambhāve kāryaṃ bālena sthavireṇa vā | śiṣyeṇa bandhunā vā'pi dāsena bhṛtakena vā || 8.70||
8.70. On failure (of qualified witnesses, evidence) may given (in such cases) by a woman, by an infant, by an aged man, by a pupil, by a relative, by a slave, or by a hired servant.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   70

बालवृद्धातुराणां च साक्ष्येषु वदतां मृषा । जानीयादस्थिरां वाचमुत्सिक्तमनसां तथा ॥ ८.७१॥
bālavṛddhāturāṇāṃ ca sākṣyeṣu vadatāṃ mṛṣā | jānīyādasthirāṃ vācamutsiktamanasāṃ tathā || 8.71||
8.71. But the (judge) should consider the evidence of infants, aged and diseased men, who (are apt to) speak untruly, as untrustworthy, likewise that of men with disordered minds.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   71

साहसेषु च सर्वेषु स्तेयसङ्ग्रहणेषु च । वाग्दण्डयोश्च पारुष्ये न परीक्षेत साक्षिणः ॥ ८.७२॥
sāhaseṣu ca sarveṣu steyasaṅgrahaṇeṣu ca | vāgdaṇḍayośca pāruṣye na parīkṣeta sākṣiṇaḥ || 8.72||
8.72. In all cases of violence, of theft and adultery, of defamation and assault, he must not examine the (competence of) witnesses (too strictly).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   72

बहुत्वं परिगृह्णीयात्साक्षिद्वैधे नराधिपः । समेषु तु गुणोत्कृष्टान् गुणिद्वैधे द्विजोत्तमान् ॥ ८.७३॥
bahutvaṃ parigṛhṇīyātsākṣidvaidhe narādhipaḥ | sameṣu tu guṇotkṛṣṭān guṇidvaidhe dvijottamān || 8.73||
8.73. On a conflict of the witnesses the king shall accept (as true) the evidence of the) majority; if (the conflicting parties are) equal in number, (that of) those distinguished by good qualities; on a difference between (equally) distinguished (witnesses, that of) the best among the twice-born.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   73

समक्षदर्शनात्साक्ष्यं श्रवणाच्चैव सिध्यति । तत्र सत्यं ब्रुवन् साक्षी धर्मार्थाभ्यां न हीयते ॥ ८.७४॥
samakṣadarśanātsākṣyaṃ śravaṇāccaiva sidhyati | tatra satyaṃ bruvan sākṣī dharmārthābhyāṃ na hīyate || 8.74||
8.74. Evidence in accordance with what has actually been seen or heard, is admissible; a witness who speaks truth in those (cases), neither loses spiritual merit nor wealth.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   74

साक्षी दृष्टश्रुतादन्यद्विब्रुवन्नार्यसंसदि । अवाङ्नरकमभ्येति प्रेत्य स्वर्गाच्च हीयते ॥ ८.७५॥
sākṣī dṛṣṭaśrutādanyadvibruvannāryasaṃsadi | avāṅnarakamabhyeti pretya svargācca hīyate || 8.75||
8.75. A witness who deposes in an assembly of honourable men (Arya) anything else but what he has seen or heard, falls after death headlong into hell and loses heaven.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   75

यत्रानिबद्धोऽपीक्षेत श‍ृणुयाद्वाऽपि किं चन । पृष्टस्तत्रापि तद्ब्रूयाद्यथादृष्टं यथाश्रुतम् ॥ ८.७६॥
yatrānibaddho'pīkṣeta śa‍्ṛṇuyādvā'pi kiṃ cana | pṛṣṭastatrāpi tadbrūyādyathādṛṣṭaṃ yathāśrutam || 8.76||
8.76. When a man (originally) not appointed to be a witness sees or hears anything and is (afterwards) examined regarding it, he must declare it (exactly) as he saw or heard it.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   76

एकोऽलुब्धस्तु त्वसाक्षी स्याद्बह्व्यः शुच्योऽपि न स्त्रियः । स्त्रीबुद्धेरस्थिरत्वात्तु दोषैश्चान्येऽपि ये वृताः ॥ ८.७७॥
eko'lubdhastu tvasākṣī syādbahvyaḥ śucyo'pi na striyaḥ | strībuddherasthiratvāttu doṣaiścānye'pi ye vṛtāḥ || 8.77||
8.77. One man who is free from covetousness may be (accepted as) witness; but not even many pure women, because the understanding of females is apt to waver, nor even many other men, who are tainted with sin.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   77

स्वभावेनैव यद्ब्रूयुस्तद्ग्राह्यं व्यावहारिकम् । अतो यदन्यद्विब्रूयुर्धर्मार्थं तदपार्थकम् ॥ ८.७८॥
svabhāvenaiva yadbrūyustadgrāhyaṃ vyāvahārikam | ato yadanyadvibrūyurdharmārthaṃ tadapārthakam || 8.78||
8.78. What witnesses declare quite naturally, that must be received on trials; (depositions) differing from that, which they make improperly, are worthless for (the purposes of) justice.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   78

सभान्तः साक्षिणः प्राप्तानर्थिप्रत्यर्थिसंनिधौ । प्राड्विवाकोऽनुयुञ्जीत विधिनाऽनेन सान्त्वयन् ॥ ८.७९॥
sabhāntaḥ sākṣiṇaḥ prāptānarthipratyarthisaṃnidhau | prāḍvivāko'nuyuñjīta vidhinā'nena sāntvayan || 8.79||
8.79. The witnesses being assembled in the court in the presence of the plaintiff and of the defendant, let the judge examine them, kindly exhorting them in the following manner:

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   79

यद्द्वयोरनयोर्वेत्थ कार्येऽस्मिंश्चेष्टितं मिथः । तद्ब्रूत सर्वं सत्येन युष्माकं ह्यत्र साक्षिता ॥ ८.८०॥
yaddvayoranayorvettha kārye'smiṃśceṣṭitaṃ mithaḥ | tadbrūta sarvaṃ satyena yuṣmākaṃ hyatra sākṣitā || 8.80||
8.80. ’What ye know to have been mutually transacted in this matter between the two men before us, declare all that in accordance with the truth; for ye are witnesses in this (cause).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   80

सत्यं साक्ष्ये ब्रुवन् साक्षी लोकान् आप्नोत्यपुष्कलान् । इह चानुत्तमां कीर्तिं वागेषा ब्रह्मपूजिता ॥ ८.८१॥
satyaṃ sākṣye bruvan sākṣī lokān āpnotyapuṣkalān | iha cānuttamāṃ kīrtiṃ vāgeṣā brahmapūjitā || 8.81||
8.81. ’A witness who speaks the truth in his evidence, gains (after death) the most excellent regions (of bliss) and here (below) unsurpassable fame; such testimony is revered by Brahman (himself).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   81

साक्ष्येऽनृतं वदन् पाशैर्बध्यते वारुणैर्भृशम् । विवशः शतमाजातीस्तस्मात्साक्ष्यं वदेदृतम् ॥ ८.८२॥
sākṣye'nṛtaṃ vadan pāśairbadhyate vāruṇairbhṛśam | vivaśaḥ śatamājātīstasmātsākṣyaṃ vadedṛtam || 8.82||
8.82. ’He who gives false evidence is firmly bound by Varuna’s fetters, helpless during one hundred existences; let (men therefore) give true evidence.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   82

सत्येन पूयते साक्षी धर्मः सत्येन वर्धते । तस्मात्सत्यं हि वक्तव्यं सर्ववर्णेषु साक्षिभिः ॥ ८.८३॥
satyena pūyate sākṣī dharmaḥ satyena vardhate | tasmātsatyaṃ hi vaktavyaṃ sarvavarṇeṣu sākṣibhiḥ || 8.83||
8.83. ’By truthfulness a witness is purified, through truthfulness his merit grows, truth must, therefore, be spoken by witnesses of all castes (varna).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   83

आत्मैव ह्यात्मनः साक्षी गतिरात्मा तथाऽत्मनः । माऽवमंस्थाः स्वमात्मानं नृणां साक्षिणमुत्तमम् ॥ ८.८४॥
ātmaiva hyātmanaḥ sākṣī gatirātmā tathā'tmanaḥ | mā'vamaṃsthāḥ svamātmānaṃ nṛṇāṃ sākṣiṇamuttamam || 8.84||
8.84. ’The Soul itself is the witness of the Soul, and the Soul is the refuge of the Soul; despise not thy own Soul, the supreme witness of men.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   84

मन्यन्ते वै पापकृतो न कश्चित्पश्यतीति नः । तांस्तु देवाः प्रपश्यन्ति स्वस्यैवान्तरपूरुषः ॥ ८.८५॥
manyante vai pāpakṛto na kaścitpaśyatīti naḥ | tāṃstu devāḥ prapaśyanti svasyaivāntarapūruṣaḥ || 8.85||
8.85. ’The wicked, indeed, say in their hearts, "Nobody sees us;" but the gods distinctly see them and the male within their own breasts.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   85

द्यौर्भूमिरापो हृदयं चन्द्रार्काग्नियमानिलाः । रात्रिः संध्ये च धर्मश्च वृत्तज्ञाः सर्वदेहिनाम् ॥ ८.८६॥
dyaurbhūmirāpo hṛdayaṃ candrārkāgniyamānilāḥ | rātriḥ saṃdhye ca dharmaśca vṛttajñāḥ sarvadehinām || 8.86||
8.86. ’The sky, the earth, the waters, (the male in) the heart, the moon, the sun, the fire, Yama and the wind, the night, the two twilights, and justice know the conduct of all corporeal beings.’

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   86

देवब्राह्मणसांनिध्ये साक्ष्यं पृच्छेदृतं द्विजान् । उदङ्मुखान् प्राङ्मुखान् वा पूर्वाह्णे वै शुचिः शुचीन् ॥ ८.८७॥
devabrāhmaṇasāṃnidhye sākṣyaṃ pṛcchedṛtaṃ dvijān | udaṅmukhān prāṅmukhān vā pūrvāhṇe vai śuciḥ śucīn || 8.87||
8.87. The (judge), being purified, shall ask in the forenoon the twice-born (witnesses) who (also have been) purified, (and stand) facing the north or the east, to give true evidence in the presence of (images of) the gods and of Brahmanas.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   87

ब्रूहीति ब्राह्मणं पृच्छेत्सत्यं ब्रूहीति पार्थिवम् । गोबीजकाञ्चनैर्वैश्यं शूद्रं सर्वैस्तु पातकैः ॥ ८.८८॥
brūhīti brāhmaṇaṃ pṛcchetsatyaṃ brūhīti pārthivam | gobījakāñcanairvaiśyaṃ śūdraṃ sarvaistu pātakaiḥ || 8.88||
8.88. Let him examine a Brahmana (beginning with) ’Speak,’ a Kshatriya (beginning with) ’Speak the truth,’ a Vaisya (admonishing him) by (mentioning) his kine, grain, and gold, a Sudra (threatening him) with (the guilt of) every crime that causes loss of caste;

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   88

ब्रह्मघ्नो ये स्मृता लोका ये च स्त्रीबालघातिनः । मित्रद्रुहः कृतघ्नस्य ते ते स्युर्ब्रुवतो मृषा ॥ ८.८९॥
brahmaghno ye smṛtā lokā ye ca strībālaghātinaḥ | mitradruhaḥ kṛtaghnasya te te syurbruvato mṛṣā || 8.89||
8.89. (Saying), ’Whatever places (of torment) are assigned (by the sages) to the slayer of a Brahmana, to the murderer of women and children, to him who betrays a friend, and to an ungrateful man, those shall be thy (portion), if thou speakest falsely.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   89

जन्मप्रभृति यत्किं चित्पुण्यं भद्र त्वया कृतम् । तत्ते सर्वं शुनो गच्छेद्यदि ब्रूयास्त्वमन्यथा ॥ ८.९०॥
janmaprabhṛti yatkiṃ citpuṇyaṃ bhadra tvayā kṛtam | tatte sarvaṃ śuno gacchedyadi brūyāstvamanyathā || 8.90||
8.90. ’(The reward) of all meritorious deeds which thou, good man, hast done since thy birth, shall become the share of the dogs, if in thy speech thou departest from the truth.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   90

एकोऽहमस्मीत्यात्मानं यस्त्वं कल्याण मन्यसे । नित्यं स्थितस्ते हृद्येष पुण्यपापैक्षिता मुनिः ॥ ८.९१॥
eko'hamasmītyātmānaṃ yastvaṃ kalyāṇa manyase | nityaṃ sthitaste hṛdyeṣa puṇyapāpaikṣitā muniḥ || 8.91||
8.91. ’If thou thinkest, O friend of virtue, with respect to thyself, "I am alone," (know that) that sage who witnesses all virtuous acts and all crimes, ever resides in thy heart.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   91

यमो वैवस्वतो देवो यस्तवैष हृदि स्थितः । तेन चेदविवादस्ते मा गङ्गां मा कुरून् गमः ॥ ८.९२॥
yamo vaivasvato devo yastavaiṣa hṛdi sthitaḥ | tena cedavivādaste mā gaṅgāṃ mā kurūn gamaḥ || 8.92||
8.92. ’If thou art not at variance with that divine Yama, the son of Vivasvat, who dwells in thy heart, thou needest neither visit the Ganges nor the (land of the) Kurus.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   92

नग्नो मुण्डः कपाली च भिक्षार्थी क्षुत्पिपासितः । अन्धः शत्रुकुलं गच्छेद्यः साक्ष्यमनृतं वदेत् ॥ ८.९३॥
nagno muṇḍaḥ kapālī ca bhikṣārthī kṣutpipāsitaḥ | andhaḥ śatrukulaṃ gacchedyaḥ sākṣyamanṛtaṃ vadet || 8.93||
8.93. ’Naked and shorn, tormented with hunger and thirst, and deprived of sight, shall the man who gives false evidence, go with a potsherd to beg food at the door of his enemy.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   93

अवाक्षिरास्तमस्यन्धे किल्बिषी नरकं व्रजेत् । यः प्रश्नं वितथं ब्रूयात्पृष्टः सन् धर्मनिश्चये ॥ ८.९४॥
avākṣirāstamasyandhe kilbiṣī narakaṃ vrajet | yaḥ praśnaṃ vitathaṃ brūyātpṛṣṭaḥ san dharmaniścaye || 8.94||
8.94. ’Headlong, in utter darkness shall the sinful man tumble into hell, who being interrogated in a judicial inquiry answers one question falsely.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   94

अन्धो मत्स्यानिवाश्नाति स नरः कण्टकैः सह । यो भाषतेऽर्थवैकल्यमप्रत्यक्षं सभां गतः ॥ ८.९५॥
andho matsyānivāśnāti sa naraḥ kaṇṭakaiḥ saha | yo bhāṣate'rthavaikalyamapratyakṣaṃ sabhāṃ gataḥ || 8.95||
8.95. ’That man who in a court (of justice) gives an untrue account of a transaction (or asserts a fact) of which he was not an eye-witness, resembles a blind man who swallows fish with the bones.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   95

यस्य विद्वान् हि वदतः क्षेत्रज्ञो नातिशङ्कते । तस्मान्न देवाः श्रेयांसं लोकेऽन्यं पुरुषं विदुः ॥ ८.९६॥
yasya vidvān hi vadataḥ kṣetrajño nātiśaṅkate | tasmānna devāḥ śreyāṃsaṃ loke'nyaṃ puruṣaṃ viduḥ || 8.96||
8.96. ’The gods are acquainted with no better man in this world than him, of whom his conscious Soul has no distrust, when he gives evidence.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   96

यावतो बान्धवान् यस्मिन् हन्ति साक्ष्येऽनृतं वदन् । तावतः सङ्ख्यया तस्मिन् श‍ृणु सौम्यानुपूर्वशः ॥ ८.९७॥
yāvato bāndhavān yasmin hanti sākṣye'nṛtaṃ vadan | tāvataḥ saṅkhyayā tasmin śa‍्ṛṇu saumyānupūrvaśaḥ || 8.97||
8.97. ’Learn now, O friend, from an enumeration in due order, how many relatives he destroys who gives false evidence in several particular cases.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   97

पञ्च पश्वनृते हन्ति दश हन्ति गवानृते । शतमश्वानृते हन्ति सहस्रं पुरुषानृते ॥ ८.९८॥
pañca paśvanṛte hanti daśa hanti gavānṛte | śatamaśvānṛte hanti sahasraṃ puruṣānṛte || 8.98||
8.98. ’He kills five by false Testimony regarding (small) cattle, he kills ten by false testimony regarding kine, he kills a hundred by false evidence concerning horses, and a thousand by false evidence concerning men.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   98

हन्ति जातानजातांश्च हिरण्यार्थेऽनृतं वदन् । सर्वं भूमिअनृते हन्ति मा स्म भूमिअनृतं वदीः ॥ ८.९९॥
hanti jātānajātāṃśca hiraṇyārthe'nṛtaṃ vadan | sarvaṃ bhūmianṛte hanti mā sma bhūmianṛtaṃ vadīḥ || 8.99||
8.99. ’By speaking falsely in a cause regarding gold, he kills the born and the unborn; by false evidence concerning land, he kills everything; beware, therefore, of false evidence concerning land.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   99

अप्सु भूमिवदित्याहुः स्त्रीणां भोगे च मैथुने । अब्जेषु चैव रत्नेषु सर्वेष्वश्ममयेषु च ॥ ८.१००॥
apsu bhūmivadityāhuḥ strīṇāṃ bhoge ca maithune | abjeṣu caiva ratneṣu sarveṣvaśmamayeṣu ca || 8.100||
8.100. ’They declare (false evidence) concerning water, concerning the carnal enjoyment of women, and concerning all gems, produced in water, or consisting of stones (to be) equally (wicked) as a lie concerning land.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   100

एतान् दोषानवेक्ष्य त्वं सर्वाननृतभाषणे । यथाश्रुतं यथादृष्टं सर्वमेवाञ्जसा वद ॥ ८.१०१॥
etān doṣānavekṣya tvaṃ sarvānanṛtabhāṣaṇe | yathāśrutaṃ yathādṛṣṭaṃ sarvamevāñjasā vada || 8.101||
8.101. ’Marking well all the evils (which are produced) by perjury, declare thou openly everything as (thou hast) heard or seen (it).’

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   101

गोरक्षकान् वाणिजकांस्तथा कारुकुशीलवान् । प्रेष्यान् वार्धुषिकांश्चैव विप्रान् शूद्रवदाचरेत् ॥ ८.१०२॥
gorakṣakān vāṇijakāṃstathā kārukuśīlavān | preṣyān vārdhuṣikāṃścaiva viprān śūdravadācaret || 8.102||
8.102. Brahmanas who tend cattle, who trade, who are mechanics, actors (or singers), menial servants or usurers, the (judge) shall treat like Sudras.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   102

तद्वदन् धर्मतोऽर्थेषु जानन्नप्यन्य्था नरः । न स्वर्गाच्च्यवते लोकाद्दैवीं वाचं वदन्ति ताम् ॥ ८.१०३॥
tadvadan dharmato'rtheṣu jānannapyanythā naraḥ | na svargāccyavate lokāddaivīṃ vācaṃ vadanti tām || 8.103||
8.103. In (some) cases a man who, though knowing (the facts to be) different, gives such (false evidence) from a pious motive, does not lose heaven; such (evidence) they call the speech of the gods.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   103

शूद्रविट्क्षत्रविप्राणां यत्रऋतोक्तौ भवेद्वधः । तत्र वक्तव्यमनृतं तधि सत्याद्विशिष्यते ॥ ८.१०४॥
śūdraviṭkṣatraviprāṇāṃ yatraṛtoktau bhavedvadhaḥ | tatra vaktavyamanṛtaṃ tadhi satyādviśiṣyate || 8.104||
8.104. Whenever the death of a Sudra, of a Vaisya, of a Kshatriya, or of a Brahmana would be (caused) by a declaration of the truth, a falsehood may be spoken; for such (falsehood) is preferable to the truth.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   104

वाग्दैवत्यैश्च चरुभिर्यजेरंस्ते सरस्वतीम् । अनृतस्यैनसस्तस्य कुर्वाणा निष्कृतिं पराम् ॥ ८.१०५॥
vāgdaivatyaiśca carubhiryajeraṃste sarasvatīm | anṛtasyainasastasya kurvāṇā niṣkṛtiṃ parām || 8.105||
8.105. Such (witnesses) must offer to Sarasvati oblations of boiled rice (karu) which are sacred to the goddess of speech, (thus) performing the best penance in order to expiate the guilt of that falsehood.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   105

कूष्माण्डैर्वाऽपि जुहुयाद्घृतमग्नौ यथाविधि । उदित्यृचा वा वारुण्या तृचेनाब्दैवतेन वा ॥ ८.१०६॥
kūṣmāṇḍairvā'pi juhuyādghṛtamagnau yathāvidhi | udityṛcā vā vāruṇyā tṛcenābdaivatena vā || 8.106||
8.106. Or such (a witness) may offer according to the rule, clarified butter in the fire, reciting the Kushmanda texts, or the Rik, sacred to Varuna, ’Untie, O Varuna, the uppermost fetter,’ or the three verses addressed to the Waters.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   106

त्रिपक्षादब्रुवन् साक्ष्यं ऋणादिषु नरोऽगदः । तदृणं प्राप्नुयात्सर्वं दशबन्धं च सर्वतः ॥ ८.१०७॥
tripakṣādabruvan sākṣyaṃ ṛṇādiṣu naro'gadaḥ | tadṛṇaṃ prāpnuyātsarvaṃ daśabandhaṃ ca sarvataḥ || 8.107||
8.107. A man who, without being ill, does not give evidence in (cases of) loans and the like within three fortnights (after the summons), shall become responsible for the whole debt and (pay) a tenth part of the whole (as a fine to the king).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   107

यस्य दृश्येत सप्ताहादुक्तवाक्यस्य साक्षिणः । रोगोऽग्निर्ज्ञातिमरणं ऋणं दाप्यो दमं च सः ॥ ८.१०८॥
yasya dṛśyeta saptāhāduktavākyasya sākṣiṇaḥ | rogo'gnirjñātimaraṇaṃ ṛṇaṃ dāpyo damaṃ ca saḥ || 8.108||
8.108. The witness to whom, within seven days after he has given evidence, happens (a misfortune through) sickness, a fire, or the death of a relative, shall be made to pay the debt and a fine.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   108

असाक्षिकेषु त्वर्थेषु मिथो विवदमानयोः । अविन्दंस्तत्त्वतः सत्यं शपथेनापि लम्भयेत् ॥ ८.१०९॥
asākṣikeṣu tvartheṣu mitho vivadamānayoḥ | avindaṃstattvataḥ satyaṃ śapathenāpi lambhayet || 8.109||
8.109. If two (parties) dispute about matters for which no witnesses are available, and the (judge) is unable to really ascertain the truth, he may cause it to be discovered even by an oath.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   109

महर्षिभिश्च देवैश्च कार्यार्थं शपथाः कृताः । वसिष्ठश्चापि शपथं शेपे पैजवने नृपे ॥ ८.११०॥
maharṣibhiśca devaiśca kāryārthaṃ śapathāḥ kṛtāḥ | vasiṣṭhaścāpi śapathaṃ śepe paijavane nṛpe || 8.110||
8.110. Both by the great sages and the gods oaths have been taken for the purpose of (deciding doubtful) matters; and Vasishtha even swore an oath before king (Sudas), the son of Pigavana.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   110

न वृथा शपथं कुर्यात्स्वल्पेऽप्यर्थे नरो बुधः । वृथा हि शपथं कुर्वन् प्रेत्य चैह च नश्यति ॥ ८.१११॥
na vṛthā śapathaṃ kuryātsvalpe'pyarthe naro budhaḥ | vṛthā hi śapathaṃ kurvan pretya caiha ca naśyati || 8.111||
8.111. Let no wise man swear an oath falsely, even in a trifling matter; for he who swears an oath falsely is lost in this (world) and after death.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   111

कामिनीषु विवाहेषु गवां भक्ष्ये तथेन्धने । ब्राह्मणाभ्युपपत्तौ च शपथे नास्ति पातकम् ॥ ८.११२॥
kāminīṣu vivāheṣu gavāṃ bhakṣye tathendhane | brāhmaṇābhyupapattau ca śapathe nāsti pātakam || 8.112||
8.112. No crime, causing loss of caste, is committed by swearing (falsely) to women, the objects of one’s desire, at marriages, for the sake of fodder for a cow, or of fuel, and in (order to show) favour to a Brahmana.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   112

सत्येन शापयेद्विप्रं क्षत्रियं वाहनायुधैः । गोबीजकाञ्चनैर्वैश्यं शूद्रं सर्वैस्तु पातकैः ॥ ८.११३॥
satyena śāpayedvipraṃ kṣatriyaṃ vāhanāyudhaiḥ | gobījakāñcanairvaiśyaṃ śūdraṃ sarvaistu pātakaiḥ || 8.113||
8.113. Let the (judge) cause a Brahmana to swear by his veracity, a Kshatriya by his chariot or the animal he rides on and by his weapons, a Vaisya by his kine, grain, and gold, and a Sudra by (imprecating on his own head the guilt) of all grievous offences (pataka).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   113

अग्निं वाऽहारयेदेनमप्सु चैनं निमज्जयेत् । पुत्रदारस्य वाप्येनं शिरांसि स्पर्शयेत्पृथक् ॥ ८.११४॥
agniṃ vā'hārayedenamapsu cainaṃ nimajjayet | putradārasya vāpyenaṃ śirāṃsi sparśayetpṛthak || 8.114||
8.114. Or the (judge) may cause the (party) to carry fire or to dive under water, or severally to touch the heads of his wives and children.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   114

यमिद्धो न दहत्यग्निरापो नोन्मज्जयन्ति च । न चार्तिं ऋच्छति क्षिप्रं स ज्ञेयः शपथे शुचिः ॥ ८.११५॥
yamiddho na dahatyagnirāpo nonmajjayanti ca | na cārtiṃ ṛcchati kṣipraṃ sa jñeyaḥ śapathe śuciḥ || 8.115||
8.115. He whom the blazing fire burns not, whom the water forces not to come (quickly) up, who meets with no speedy misfortune, must be held innocent on (the strength of) his oath.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   115

वत्सस्य ह्यभिशस्तस्य पुरा भ्रात्रा यवीयसा । नाग्निर्ददाह रोमापि सत्येन जगतः स्पशः ॥ ८.११६॥
vatsasya hyabhiśastasya purā bhrātrā yavīyasā | nāgnirdadāha romāpi satyena jagataḥ spaśaḥ || 8.116||
8.116. For formerly when Vatsa was accused by his younger brother, the fire, the spy of the world, burned not even a hair (of his) by reason of his veracity.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   116

यस्मिन् यस्मिन् विवादे तु कौटसाक्ष्यं कृतं भवेत् । तत्तत्कार्यं निवर्तेत कृतं चाप्यकृतं भवेत् ॥ ८.११७॥
yasmin yasmin vivāde tu kauṭasākṣyaṃ kṛtaṃ bhavet | tattatkāryaṃ nivarteta kṛtaṃ cāpyakṛtaṃ bhavet || 8.117||
8.117. Whenever false evidence has been given in any suit, let the (judge) reverse the judgment, and whatever has been done must be (considered as) undone.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   117

लोभान्मोहाद्भयात्मैत्रात्कामात्क्रोधात्तथैव च । अज्ञानाद्बालभावात्च साक्ष्यं वितथमुच्यते ॥ ८.११८॥
lobhānmohādbhayātmaitrātkāmātkrodhāttathaiva ca | ajñānādbālabhāvātca sākṣyaṃ vitathamucyate || 8.118||
8.118. Evidence (given) from covetousness, distraction, terror, friendship, lust, wrath, ignorance, and childishness is declared (to be) invalid.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   118

एषामन्यतमे स्थाने यः साक्ष्यमनृतं वदेत् । तस्य दण्डविशेषांस्तु प्रवक्ष्याम्यनुपूर्वशः ॥ ८.११९॥
eṣāmanyatame sthāne yaḥ sākṣyamanṛtaṃ vadet | tasya daṇḍaviśeṣāṃstu pravakṣyāmyanupūrvaśaḥ || 8.119||
8.119. I will propound in (due) order the particular punishments for him who gives false evidence from any one of these motives.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   119

लोभात्सहस्रं दण्ड्यस्तु मोहात्पूर्वं तु साहसम् । भयाद्द्वौ मध्यमौ दण्डौ मैत्रात्पूर्वं चतुर्गुणम् ॥ ८.१२०॥
lobhātsahasraṃ daṇḍyastu mohātpūrvaṃ tu sāhasam | bhayāddvau madhyamau daṇḍau maitrātpūrvaṃ caturguṇam || 8.120||
8.120. (He who commits perjury) through covetousness shall be fined one thousand (panas), (he who does it) through distraction, in the lowest amercement; (if a man does it) through fear, two middling amercements shall be paid as a fine, (if he does it) through friendship, four times the amount of the lowest (amercement).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   120

कामाद्दशगुणं पूर्वं क्रोधात्तु त्रिगुणं परम् । अज्ञानाद्द्वे शते पूर्णे बालिश्यात्शतमेव तु ॥ ८.१२१॥
kāmāddaśaguṇaṃ pūrvaṃ krodhāttu triguṇaṃ param | ajñānāddve śate pūrṇe bāliśyātśatameva tu || 8.121||
8.121. (He who does it) through lust, (shall pay) ten times the lowest amercement, but (he who does it) through wrath, three times the next (or second amercement); (he who does it) through ignorance, two full hundreds, but (he who does it) through childishness, one hundred (panas).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   121

एतानाहुः कौटसाक्ष्ये प्रोक्तान् दण्डान् मनीषिभिः । धर्मस्याव्यभिचारार्थमधर्मनियमाय च ॥ ८.१२२॥
etānāhuḥ kauṭasākṣye proktān daṇḍān manīṣibhiḥ | dharmasyāvyabhicārārthamadharmaniyamāya ca || 8.122||
8.122. They declare that the wise have prescribed these fines for perjury, in order to prevent a failure of justice, and in order to restrain injustice.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   122

कौटसाक्ष्यं तु कुर्वाणांस्त्रीन् वर्णान् धार्मिको नृपः । प्रवासयेद्दण्डयित्वा ब्राह्मणं तु विवासयेत् ॥ ८.१२३॥
kauṭasākṣyaṃ tu kurvāṇāṃstrīn varṇān dhārmiko nṛpaḥ | pravāsayeddaṇḍayitvā brāhmaṇaṃ tu vivāsayet || 8.123||
8.123. But a just king shall fine and banish (men of) the three (lower) castes (varna) who have given false evidence, but a Brahmana he shall (only) banish.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   123

दश स्थानानि दण्डस्य मनुः स्वयम्भुवोऽब्रवीत् । त्रिषु वर्णेषु यानि स्युरक्षतो ब्राह्मणो व्रजेत् ॥ ८.१२४॥
daśa sthānāni daṇḍasya manuḥ svayambhuvo'bravīt | triṣu varṇeṣu yāni syurakṣato brāhmaṇo vrajet || 8.124||
8.124. Manu, the son of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), has named ten places on which punishment may be (made to fall) in the cases of the three (lower) castes (varna); but a Brahmana shall depart unhurt (from the country).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   124

उपस्थमुदरं जिह्वा हस्तौ पादौ च पञ्चमम् । चक्षुर्नासा च कर्णौ च धनं देहस्तथैव च ॥ ८.१२५॥
upasthamudaraṃ jihvā hastau pādau ca pañcamam | cakṣurnāsā ca karṇau ca dhanaṃ dehastathaiva ca || 8.125||
8.125. (These are) the organ, the belly, the tongue, the two hands, and fifthly the two feet, the eye, the nose, the two ears, likewise the (whole) body.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   125

अनुबन्धं परिज्ञाय देशकालौ च तत्त्वतः । सारापराधो चालोक्य दण्डं दण्ड्येषु पातयेत् ॥ ८.१२६॥
anubandhaṃ parijñāya deśakālau ca tattvataḥ | sārāparādho cālokya daṇḍaṃ daṇḍyeṣu pātayet || 8.126||
8.126. Let the (king), having fully ascertained the motive, the time and place (of the offence), and having considered the ability (of the criminal to suffer) and the (nature of the) crime, cause punishment to fall on those who deserve it.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   126

अधर्मदण्डनं लोके यशोघ्नं कीर्तिनाशनम् । अस्वर्ग्यं च परत्रापि तस्मात्तत्परिवर्जयेत् ॥ ८.१२७॥
adharmadaṇḍanaṃ loke yaśoghnaṃ kīrtināśanam | asvargyaṃ ca paratrāpi tasmāttatparivarjayet || 8.127||
8.127. Unjust punishment destroys reputation among men, and fame (after death), and causes even in the next world the loss of heaven; let him, therefore, beware of (inflicting) it.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   127

अदण्ड्यान् दण्डयन् राजा दण्ड्यांश्चैवाप्यदण्डयन् । अयशो महदाप्नोति नरकं चैव गच्छति ॥ ८.१२८॥
adaṇḍyān daṇḍayan rājā daṇḍyāṃścaivāpyadaṇḍayan | ayaśo mahadāpnoti narakaṃ caiva gacchati || 8.128||
8.128. A king who punishes those who do not deserve it, and punishes not those who deserve it, brings great infamy on himself and (after death) sinks into hell.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   128

वाग्दण्डं प्रथमं कुर्याद्धिग्दण्डं तदनन्तरम् । तृतीयं धनदण्डं तु वधदण्डमतः परम् ॥ ८.१२९॥
vāgdaṇḍaṃ prathamaṃ kuryāddhigdaṇḍaṃ tadanantaram | tṛtīyaṃ dhanadaṇḍaṃ tu vadhadaṇḍamataḥ param || 8.129||
8.129. Let him punish first by (gentle) admonition, afterwards by (harsh) reproof, thirdly by a fine, after that by corporal chastisement.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   129

वधेनापि यदा त्वेतान्निग्रहीतुं न शक्नुयात् । तदेषु सर्वमप्येतत्प्रयुञ्जीत चतुष्टयम् ॥ ८.१३०॥
vadhenāpi yadā tvetānnigrahītuṃ na śaknuyāt | tadeṣu sarvamapyetatprayuñjīta catuṣṭayam || 8.130||
8.130. But when he cannot restrain such (offenders) even by corporal punishment, then let him apply to them even all the four (modes cojointly).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   130

लोकसंव्यवहारार्थं याः संज्ञाः प्रथिता भुवि । ताम्ररूप्यसुवर्णानां ताः प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ॥ ८.१३१॥
lokasaṃvyavahārārthaṃ yāḥ saṃjñāḥ prathitā bhuvi | tāmrarūpyasuvarṇānāṃ tāḥ pravakṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ || 8.131||
8.131. Those technical names of (certain quantities of) copper, silver, and gold, which are generally used on earth for the purpose of business transactions among men, I will fully declare.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   131

जालान्तरगते भानौ यत्सूक्ष्मं दृश्यते रजः । प्रथमं तत्प्रमाणानां त्रसरेणुं प्रचक्षते ॥ ८.१३२॥
jālāntaragate bhānau yatsūkṣmaṃ dṛśyate rajaḥ | prathamaṃ tatpramāṇānāṃ trasareṇuṃ pracakṣate || 8.132||
8.132. The very small mote which is seen when the sun shines through a lattice, they declare (to be) the least of (all) quantities and (to be called) a trasarenu (a floating particle of dust).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   132

त्रसरेणवोऽष्टौ विज्ञेया लिक्षैका परिमाणतः । ता राजसर्षपस्तिस्रस्ते त्रयो गौरसर्षपः ॥ ८.१३३॥
trasareṇavo'ṣṭau vijñeyā likṣaikā parimāṇataḥ | tā rājasarṣapastisraste trayo gaurasarṣapaḥ || 8.133||
8.133. Know (that) eight trasarenus (are equal) in bulk (to) a liksha (the egg of a louse), three of those to one grain of black mustard (ragasarshapa), and three of the latter to a white mustard-seed.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   133

सर्षपाः षट् यवो मध्यस्त्रियवं त्वेककृष्णलम् । पञ्चकृष्णलको माषस्ते सुवर्णस्तु षोडश ॥ ८.१३४॥
sarṣapāḥ ṣaṭ yavo madhyastriyavaṃ tvekakṛṣṇalam | pañcakṛṣṇalako māṣaste suvarṇastu ṣoḍaśa || 8.134||
8.134. Six grains of white mustard are one middle-sized barley-corn, and three barley-corns one krishnala (raktika, or gunga-berry); five krishnalas are one masha (bean), and sixteen of those one suvarna.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   134

पलं सुवर्णाश्चत्वारः पलानि धरणं दश । द्वे कृष्णले समधृते विज्ञेयो रूप्यमाषकः ॥ ८.१३५॥
palaṃ suvarṇāścatvāraḥ palāni dharaṇaṃ daśa | dve kṛṣṇale samadhṛte vijñeyo rūpyamāṣakaḥ || 8.135||
8.135. Four suvarnas are one pala, and ten palas one dharana; two krishnalas (of silver), weighed together, must be considered one mashaka of silver.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   135

ते षोडश स्याद्धरणं पुराणश्चैव राजतः । कार्षापणस्तु विज्ञेयस्ताम्रिकः कार्षिकः पणः ॥ ८.१३६॥
te ṣoḍaśa syāddharaṇaṃ purāṇaścaiva rājataḥ | kārṣāpaṇastu vijñeyastāmrikaḥ kārṣikaḥ paṇaḥ || 8.136||
8.136. Sixteen of those make a silver dharana, or purana; but know (that) a karsha of copper is a karshapana, or pana.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   136

धरणानि दश ज्ञेयः शतमानस्तु राजतः । चतुःसौवर्णिको निष्को विज्ञेयस्तु प्रमाणतः ॥ ८.१३७॥
dharaṇāni daśa jñeyaḥ śatamānastu rājataḥ | catuḥsauvarṇiko niṣko vijñeyastu pramāṇataḥ || 8.137||
8.137. Know (that) ten dharanas of silver make one satamana; four suvarnas must be considered (equal) in weight to a nishka.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   137

पणानां द्वे शते सार्धे प्रथमः साहसः स्मृतः । मध्यमः पञ्च विज्ञेयः सहस्रं त्वेव चोत्तमः ॥ ८.१३८॥
paṇānāṃ dve śate sārdhe prathamaḥ sāhasaḥ smṛtaḥ | madhyamaḥ pañca vijñeyaḥ sahasraṃ tveva cottamaḥ || 8.138||
8.138. Two hundred and fifty panas are declared (to be) the first (or lowest) amercement, five (hundred) are considered as the mean (or middlemost), but one thousand as the highest.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   138

ऋणे देये प्रतिज्ञाते पञ्चकं शतमर्हति । अपह्नवे तद्द्विगुणं तन् मनोरनुशासनम् ॥ ८.१३९॥
ṛṇe deye pratijñāte pañcakaṃ śatamarhati | apahnave taddviguṇaṃ tan manoranuśāsanam || 8.139||
8.139. A debt being admitted as due, (the defendant) shall pay five in the hundred (as a fine), if it be denied (and proved) twice as much; that is the teaching of Manu.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   139

वसिष्ठविहितां वृद्धिं सृजेद्वित्तविवर्धिनीम् । अशीतिभागं गृह्णीयान् मासाद्वार्धुषिकः शते ॥ ८.१४०॥
vasiṣṭhavihitāṃ vṛddhiṃ sṛjedvittavivardhinīm | aśītibhāgaṃ gṛhṇīyān māsādvārdhuṣikaḥ śate || 8.140||
8.140. A money-lender may stipulate as an increase of his capital, for the interest, allowed by Vasishtha, and take monthly the eightieth part of a hundred.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   140

द्विकं शतं वा गृह्णीयात्सतां धर्ममनुस्मरन् । द्विकं शतं हि गृह्णानो न भवत्यर्थकिल्बिषी ॥ ८.१४१॥
dvikaṃ śataṃ vā gṛhṇīyātsatāṃ dharmamanusmaran | dvikaṃ śataṃ hi gṛhṇāno na bhavatyarthakilbiṣī || 8.141||
8.141. Or, remembering the duty of good men, he may take two in the hundred (by the month), for he who takes two in the hundred becomes not a sinner for gain.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   141

द्विकं त्रिकं चतुष्कं च पञ्चकं च शतं समम् । मासस्य वृद्धिं गृह्णीयाद्वर्णानामनुपूर्वशः ॥ ८.१४२॥
dvikaṃ trikaṃ catuṣkaṃ ca pañcakaṃ ca śataṃ samam | māsasya vṛddhiṃ gṛhṇīyādvarṇānāmanupūrvaśaḥ || 8.142||
8.142. Just two in the hundred, three, four, and five (and not more), he may take as monthly interest according to the order of the castes (varna).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   142

न त्वेवाधौ सोपकारे कौसीदीं वृद्धिमाप्नुयात् । न चाधेः कालसंरोधात्निसर्गोऽस्ति न विक्रयः ॥ ८.१४३॥
na tvevādhau sopakāre kausīdīṃ vṛddhimāpnuyāt | na cādheḥ kālasaṃrodhātnisargo'sti na vikrayaḥ || 8.143||
8.143. But if a beneficial pledge (i.e. one from which profit accrues, has been given), he shall receive no interest on the loan; nor can he, after keeping (such) a pledge for a very long time, give or sell it.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   143

न भोक्तव्यो बलादाधिर्भुञ्जानो वृद्धिमुत्सृजेत् । मूल्येन तोषयेच्चैनमाधिस्तेनोऽन्यथा भवेत् ॥ ८.१४४॥
na bhoktavyo balādādhirbhuñjāno vṛddhimutsṛjet | mūlyena toṣayeccainamādhisteno'nyathā bhavet || 8.144||
8.144. A pledge (to be kept only) must not be used by force, (the creditor), so using it, shall give up his (whole) interest, or, (if it has been spoilt by use) he shall satisfy the (owner) by (paying its) original price; else he

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   144

आधिश्चोपनिधिश्चोभौ न कालात्ययमर्हतः । अवहार्यौ भवेतां तौ दीर्घकालमवस्थितौ ॥ ८.१४५॥
ādhiścopanidhiścobhau na kālātyayamarhataḥ | avahāryau bhavetāṃ tau dīrghakālamavasthitau || 8.145||
commits a theft of the pledge.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   145

सम्प्रीत्या भुज्यमानानि न नश्यन्ति कदा चन । धेनुरुष्ट्रो वहन्नश्वो यश्च दम्यः प्रयुज्यते ॥ ८.१४६॥
samprītyā bhujyamānāni na naśyanti kadā cana | dhenuruṣṭro vahannaśvo yaśca damyaḥ prayujyate || 8.146||
8.145. Neither a pledge nor a deposit can be lost by lapse of time; they are both recoverable, though they have remained long (with the bailee).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   146

यत्किं चिद्दशवर्षाणि संनिधौ प्रेक्षते धनी । भुज्यमानं परैस्तूष्णीं न स तत्लब्धुमर्हति ॥ ८.१४७॥
yatkiṃ ciddaśavarṣāṇi saṃnidhau prekṣate dhanī | bhujyamānaṃ paraistūṣṇīṃ na sa tatlabdhumarhati || 8.147||
8.146. Things used with friendly assent, a cow, a camel, a riding-horse, and (a beast) made over for breaking in, are never lost (to the owner).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   147

अजडश्चेदपोगण्डो विषये चास्य भुज्यते । भग्नं तद्व्यवहारेण भोक्ता तद्धनमर्हति॥ ८.१४८॥
ajaḍaścedapogaṇḍo viṣaye cāsya bhujyate | bhagnaṃ tadvyavahāreṇa bhoktā taddhanamarhati|| 8.148||
8.147. (But in general) whatever (chattel) an owner sees enjoyed by others during ten years, while, though present, he says nothing, that (chattel) he shall not recover.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   148

आधिः सीमा बालधनं निक्षेपौपनिधी स्त्रियः । राजस्वं श्रोत्रियस्वं च न भोगेन प्रणश्यति ॥ ८.१४९॥
ādhiḥ sīmā bāladhanaṃ nikṣepaupanidhī striyaḥ | rājasvaṃ śrotriyasvaṃ ca na bhogena praṇaśyati || 8.149||
8.148. If (the owner is) neither an idiot nor a minor and if (his chattel) is enjoyed (by another) before his eyes, it is lost to him by law; the adverse possessor shall retain that property.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   149

यः स्वामिनाऽननुज्ञातमाधिं भूङ्क्तेऽविचक्षणः । तेनार्धवृद्धिर्मोक्तव्या तस्य भोगस्य निष्कृतिः ॥ ८.१५०॥
yaḥ svāminā'nanujñātamādhiṃ bhūṅkte'vicakṣaṇaḥ | tenārdhavṛddhirmoktavyā tasya bhogasya niṣkṛtiḥ || 8.150||
8.149. A pledge, a boundary, the property of infants, an (open) deposit, a sealed deposit, women, the property of the king and the wealth of a Srotriya are not lost in consequence of (adverse) enjoyment.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   150

कुसीदवृद्धिर्द्वैगुण्यं नात्येति सकृदाहृता । धान्ये सदे लवे वाह्ये नातिक्रामति पञ्चताम् ॥ ८.१५१॥
kusīdavṛddhirdvaiguṇyaṃ nātyeti sakṛdāhṛtā | dhānye sade lave vāhye nātikrāmati pañcatām || 8.151||
8.150. The fool who uses a pledge without the permission of the owner, shall remit half of his interest, as a

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   151

कृतानुसारादधिका व्यतिरिक्ता न सिध्यति । कुसीदपथमाहुस्तं पञ्चकं शतमर्हति ॥ ८.१५२॥
kṛtānusārādadhikā vyatiriktā na sidhyati | kusīdapathamāhustaṃ pañcakaṃ śatamarhati || 8.152||
compensation for (such) use.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   152

नातिसांवत्सरीं वृद्धिं न चादृष्टां पुनर्हरेत् । चक्रवृद्धिः कालवृद्धिः कारिता कायिका च या ॥ ८.१५३॥
nātisāṃvatsarīṃ vṛddhiṃ na cādṛṣṭāṃ punarharet | cakravṛddhiḥ kālavṛddhiḥ kāritā kāyikā ca yā || 8.153||
8.151. In money transactions interest paid at one time (not by instalments) shall never exceed the double (of the principal); on grain, fruit, wool or hair, (and) beasts of burden it must not be more than five times (the original amount).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   153

ऋणं दातुमशक्तो यः कर्तुमिच्छेत्पुनः क्रियाम् । स दत्त्वा निर्जितां वृद्धिं करणं परिवर्तयेत् ॥ ८.१५४॥
ṛṇaṃ dātumaśakto yaḥ kartumicchetpunaḥ kriyām | sa dattvā nirjitāṃ vṛddhiṃ karaṇaṃ parivartayet || 8.154||
8.152. Stipulated interest beyond the legal rate, being against (the law), cannot be recovered; they call that a usurious way (of lending); (the lender) is (in no case) entitled to (more than) five in the hundred.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   154

अदर्शयित्वा तत्रैव हिरण्यं परिवर्तयेत् । यावती सम्भवेद्वृद्धिस्तावतीं दातुमर्हति ॥ ८.१५५॥
adarśayitvā tatraiva hiraṇyaṃ parivartayet | yāvatī sambhavedvṛddhistāvatīṃ dātumarhati || 8.155||
8.153. Let him not take interest beyond the year, nor such as is unapproved, nor compound interest, periodical interest, stipulated interest, and corporal interest.8.154. He who, unable to pay a debt (at the fixed time), wishes to make a new contract, may renew the agreement, after paying the interest which is due.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   155

चक्रवृद्धिं समारूढो देशकालव्यवस्थितः । अतिक्रामन् देशकालौ न तत्फलमवाप्नुयात् ॥ ८.१५६॥
cakravṛddhiṃ samārūḍho deśakālavyavasthitaḥ | atikrāman deśakālau na tatphalamavāpnuyāt || 8.156||
8.155. If he cannot pay the money (due as interest), he may insert it in the renewed (agreement); he must pay as much interest as may be due.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   156

समुद्रयानकुशला देशकालार्थदर्शिनः । स्थापयन्ति तु यां वृद्धिं सा तत्राधिगमं प्रति ॥ ८.१५७॥
samudrayānakuśalā deśakālārthadarśinaḥ | sthāpayanti tu yāṃ vṛddhiṃ sā tatrādhigamaṃ prati || 8.157||
8.156. He who has made a contract to carry goods by a wheeled carriage for money and has agreed to a certain place or time, shall not reap that reward, if he does not keep to the place and the time (stipulated).8.157. Whatever rate men fix, who are expert in sea-voyages and able to calculate (the profit) according to the place, the time, and the objects (carried), that (has legal force) in such cases with respect to the payment (to be made).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   157

यो यस्य प्रतिभूस्तिष्ठेद्दर्शनायैह मानवः । अदर्शयन् स तं तस्य प्रयच्छेत्स्वधनादृणम् ॥ ८.१५८॥
yo yasya pratibhūstiṣṭheddarśanāyaiha mānavaḥ | adarśayan sa taṃ tasya prayacchetsvadhanādṛṇam || 8.158||
8.158. The man who becomes a surety in this (world) for the appearance of a (debtor), and produces him not, shall pay the debt out of his own property.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   158

प्रातिभाव्यं वृथादानमाक्षिकं सौरिकां च यत् । दण्डशुल्कावशेषं च न पुत्रो दातुमर्हति ॥ ८.१५९॥
prātibhāvyaṃ vṛthādānamākṣikaṃ saurikāṃ ca yat | daṇḍaśulkāvaśeṣaṃ ca na putro dātumarhati || 8.159||
8.159. But money due by a surety, or idly promised, or lost at play, or due for spirituous liquor, or what remains unpaid of a fine and a tax or duty, the son (of the party owing it) shall not be obliged to pay.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   159

दर्शनप्रातिभाव्ये तु विधिः स्यात्पूर्वचोदितः । दानप्रतिभुवि प्रेते दायादानपि दापयेत् ॥ ८.१६०॥
darśanaprātibhāvye tu vidhiḥ syātpūrvacoditaḥ | dānapratibhuvi prete dāyādānapi dāpayet || 8.160||
8.160. This just mentioned rule shall apply to the case of a surety for appearance (only); if a surety for payment should die, the (judge) may compel even his heirs to discharge the debt.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   160

अदातरि पुनर्दाता विज्ञातप्रकृतावृणम् । पश्चात्प्रतिभुवि प्रेते परीप्सेत्केन हेतुना ॥ ८.१६१॥
adātari punardātā vijñātaprakṛtāvṛṇam | paścātpratibhuvi prete parīpsetkena hetunā || 8.161||
8.161. On what account then is it that after the death of a surety other than for payment, whose affairs are fully known, the creditor may (in some cases) afterwards demand the debt (of the heirs)?

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   161

निरादिष्टधनश्चेत्तु प्रतिभूः स्यादलंधनः । स्वधनादेव तद्दद्यान्निरादिष्ट इति स्थितिः ॥ ८.१६२॥
nirādiṣṭadhanaścettu pratibhūḥ syādalaṃdhanaḥ | svadhanādeva taddadyānnirādiṣṭa iti sthitiḥ || 8.162||
8.162. If the surety had received money (from him for whom he stood bail) and had money enough (to pay), then (the heir of him) who received it, shall pay (the debt) out of his property; that is the settled rule.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   162

मत्तोन्मत्तार्ताध्यधीनैर्बालेन स्थविरेण वा । असम्बद्धकृतश्चैव व्यवहारो न सिध्यति ॥ ८.१६३॥
mattonmattārtādhyadhīnairbālena sthavireṇa vā | asambaddhakṛtaścaiva vyavahāro na sidhyati || 8.163||
8.163. A contract made by a person intoxicated, or insane, or grievously disordered (by disease and so forth), or wholly dependent, by an infant or very aged man, or by an unauthorised (party) is invalid.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   163

सत्या न भाषा भवति यद्यपि स्यात्प्रतिष्ठिता । बहिश्चेद्भाष्यते धर्मात्नियताद्व्यवहारिकात् ॥ ८.१६४॥
satyā na bhāṣā bhavati yadyapi syātpratiṣṭhitā | bahiścedbhāṣyate dharmātniyatādvyavahārikāt || 8.164||
8.164. That agreement which has been made contrary to the law or to the settled usage (of the virtuous), can have no legal force, though it be established (by proofs).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   164

योगाधमनविक्रीतं योगदानप्रतिग्रहम् । यत्र वाऽप्युपधिं पश्येत्तत्सर्वं विनिवर्तयेत् ॥ ८.१६५॥
yogādhamanavikrītaṃ yogadānapratigraham | yatra vā'pyupadhiṃ paśyettatsarvaṃ vinivartayet || 8.165||
8.165. A fraudulent mortgage or sale, a fraudulent gift or acceptance, and (any transaction) where he detects fraud, the (judge) shall declare null and void.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   165

ग्रहीता यदि नष्टः स्यात्कुटुम्बार्थे कृतो व्ययः । दातव्यं बान्धवैस्तत्स्यात्प्रविभक्तैरपि स्वतः ॥ ८.१६६॥
grahītā yadi naṣṭaḥ syātkuṭumbārthe kṛto vyayaḥ | dātavyaṃ bāndhavaistatsyātpravibhaktairapi svataḥ || 8.166||
8.166. If the debtor be dead and (the money borrowed) was expended for the family, it must be paid by the relatives out of their own estate even if they are divided.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   166

कुटुम्बार्थेऽध्यधीनोऽपि व्यवहारं यमाचरेत् । स्वदेशे वा विदेशे वा तं ज्यायान्न विचालयेत् ॥ ८.१६७॥
kuṭumbārthe'dhyadhīno'pi vyavahāraṃ yamācaret | svadeśe vā videśe vā taṃ jyāyānna vicālayet || 8.167||
8.167. Should even a person wholly dependent make a contract for the behoof of the family, the master (of the house), whether (living) in his own country or abroad, shall not rescind it.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   167

बलाद्दत्तं बलाद्भुक्तं बलाद्यच्चापि लेखितम् । सर्वान् बलकृतानर्थानकृतान् मनुरब्रवीत् ॥ ८.१६८॥
balāddattaṃ balādbhuktaṃ balādyaccāpi lekhitam | sarvān balakṛtānarthānakṛtān manurabravīt || 8.168||
8.168. What is given by force, what is enjoyed by force, also what has been caused to be written by force, and all other transactions done by force, Manu has declared void.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   168

त्रयः परार्थे क्लिश्यन्ति साक्षिणः प्रतिभूः कुलम् । चत्वारस्तूपचीयन्ते विप्र आढ्यो वणिङ्नृपः ॥ ८.१६९॥
trayaḥ parārthe kliśyanti sākṣiṇaḥ pratibhūḥ kulam | catvārastūpacīyante vipra āḍhyo vaṇiṅnṛpaḥ || 8.169||
8.169. Three suffer for the sake of others, witnesses, a surety, and judges; but four enrich themselves (through others), a Brahmana, a money-lender, a merchant, and a king.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   169

अनादेयं नाददीत परिक्षीणोऽपि पार्थिवः । न चादेयं समृद्धोऽपि सूक्ष्ममप्यर्थमुत्सृजेत् ॥ ८.१७०॥
anādeyaṃ nādadīta parikṣīṇo'pi pārthivaḥ | na cādeyaṃ samṛddho'pi sūkṣmamapyarthamutsṛjet || 8.170||
8.170. No king, however indigent, shall take anything that ought not to be taken, nor shall he, however wealthy, decline taking that which he ought to take, be it ever so small.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   170

अनादेयस्य चादानादादेयस्य च वर्जनात् । दौर्बल्यं ख्याप्यते राज्ञः स प्रेत्यैह च नश्यति ॥ ८.१७१॥
anādeyasya cādānādādeyasya ca varjanāt | daurbalyaṃ khyāpyate rājñaḥ sa pretyaiha ca naśyati || 8.171||
8.171. In consequence of his taking what ought not to be taken, or of his refusing what ought to be received, a king will be accused of weakness and perish in this (world) and after death.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   171

स्वादानाद्वर्णसंसर्गात्त्वबलानां च रक्षणात् । बलं सञ्जायते राज्ञः स प्रेत्यैह च वर्धते ॥ ८.१७२॥
svādānādvarṇasaṃsargāttvabalānāṃ ca rakṣaṇāt | balaṃ sañjāyate rājñaḥ sa pretyaiha ca vardhate || 8.172||
8.172. By taking his due, by preventing the confusion of the castes (varna), and by protecting the weak, the power of the king grows, and he prospers in this (world) and after death.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   172

तस्माद्यम इव स्वामी स्वयं हित्वा प्रियाप्रिये । वर्तेत याम्यया वृत्त्या जितक्रोधो जितेन्द्रियः ॥ ८.१७३॥
tasmādyama iva svāmī svayaṃ hitvā priyāpriye | varteta yāmyayā vṛttyā jitakrodho jitendriyaḥ || 8.173||
8.173. Let the prince, therefore, like Yama, not heeding his own likings and dislikings, behave exactly like Yama, suppressing his anger and controlling himself.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   173

यस्त्वधर्मेण कार्याणि मोहात्कुर्यान्नराधिपः । अचिरात्तं दुरात्मानं वशे कुर्वन्ति शत्रवः ॥ ८.१७४॥
yastvadharmeṇa kāryāṇi mohātkuryānnarādhipaḥ | acirāttaṃ durātmānaṃ vaśe kurvanti śatravaḥ || 8.174||
8.174. But that evil-minded king who in his folly decides causes unjustly, his enemies soon subjugate.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   174

कामक्रोधौ तु संयम्य योऽर्थान् धर्मेण पश्यति । प्रजास्तमनुवर्तन्ते समुद्रमिव सिन्धवः ॥ ८.१७५॥
kāmakrodhau tu saṃyamya yo'rthān dharmeṇa paśyati | prajāstamanuvartante samudramiva sindhavaḥ || 8.175||
8.175. If, subduing love and hatred, he decides the causes according to the law, (the hearts of) his subjects turn towards him as the rivers (run) towards the ocean.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   175

यः साधयन्तं छन्देन वेदयेद्धनिकं नृपे । स राज्ञा तत्चतुर्भागं दाप्यस्तस्य च तद्धनम् ॥ ८.१७६॥
yaḥ sādhayantaṃ chandena vedayeddhanikaṃ nṛpe | sa rājñā tatcaturbhāgaṃ dāpyastasya ca taddhanam || 8.176||
8.176. (The debtor) who complains to the king that his creditor recovers (the debt) independently (of the court), shall be compelled by the king to pay (as a fine) one quarter (of the sum) and to his (creditor) the money(due).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   176

कर्मणाऽपि समं कुर्याद्धनिकायाधमर्णिकः । समोऽवकृष्टजातिस्तु दद्यात्श्रेयांस्तु तत्शनैः ॥ ८.१७७॥
karmaṇā'pi samaṃ kuryāddhanikāyādhamarṇikaḥ | samo'vakṛṣṭajātistu dadyātśreyāṃstu tatśanaiḥ || 8.177||
8.177. Even by (personal) labour shall the debtor make good (what he owes) to his creditor, if he be of the same caste or of a lower one; but a (debtor) of a higher caste shall pay it gradually (when he earns something).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   177

अनेन विधिना राजा मिथो विवदतां नृणाम् । साक्षिप्रत्ययसिद्धानि कार्याणि समतां नयेत् ॥ ८.१७८॥
anena vidhinā rājā mitho vivadatāṃ nṛṇām | sākṣipratyayasiddhāni kāryāṇi samatāṃ nayet || 8.178||
8.178. According to these rules let the king equitably decide between men, who dispute with each other the matters, which are proved by witnesses and (other) evidence.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   178

कुलजे वृत्तसम्पन्ने धर्मज्ञे सत्यवादिनि । महापक्षे धनिन्यार्ये निक्षेपं निक्षिपेद्बुधः ॥ ८.१७९॥
kulaje vṛttasampanne dharmajñe satyavādini | mahāpakṣe dhaninyārye nikṣepaṃ nikṣipedbudhaḥ || 8.179||
8.179. A se nsible man should make a deposit (only) with a person of (good) family, of good conduct, well acquainted with the law, veracious, having many relatives, wealthy, and honourable (arya).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   179

यो यथा निक्षिपेद्धस्ते यमर्थं यस्य मानवः । स तथैव ग्रहीतव्यो यथा दायस्तथा ग्रहः ॥ ८.१८०॥
yo yathā nikṣipeddhaste yamarthaṃ yasya mānavaḥ | sa tathaiva grahītavyo yathā dāyastathā grahaḥ || 8.180||
8.180. In whatever manner a person shall deposit anything in the hands of another, in the same manner ought the same thing to be received back (by the owner); as the delivery (was, so must be) the re-delivery.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   180

यो निक्षेपं याच्यमानो निक्षेप्तुर्न प्रयच्छति । स याच्यः प्राड्विवाकेन तत्निक्षेप्तुरसंनिधौ ॥ ८.१८१॥
yo nikṣepaṃ yācyamāno nikṣepturna prayacchati | sa yācyaḥ prāḍvivākena tatnikṣepturasaṃnidhau || 8.181||
8.181. He who restores not his deposit to the depositor at his request, may be tried by the judge in the depositor’s absence.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   181

साक्ष्यभावे प्रणिधिभिर्वयोरूपसमन्वितैः । अपदेशैश्च संन्यस्य हिरण्यं तस्य तत्त्वतः ॥ ८.१८२॥
sākṣyabhāve praṇidhibhirvayorūpasamanvitaiḥ | apadeśaiśca saṃnyasya hiraṇyaṃ tasya tattvataḥ || 8.182||
8.182. On failure of witnesses let the (judge) actually deposit gold with that (defendant) under some pretext or other through spies of suitable age and appearance (and afterwards demand it back).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   182

स यदि प्रतिपद्येत यथान्यस्तं यथाकृतम् । न तत्र विद्यते किं चिद्यत्परैरभियुज्यते ॥ ८.१८३॥
sa yadi pratipadyeta yathānyastaṃ yathākṛtam | na tatra vidyate kiṃ cidyatparairabhiyujyate || 8.183||
8.183. If the (defendant) restores it in the manner and shape in which it was bailed, there is nothing (of that description) in his hands, for which others accuse him.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   183

तेषां न दद्याद्यदि तु तधिरण्यं यथाविधि । उभौ निगृह्य दाप्यः स्यादिति धर्मस्य धारणा ॥ ८.१८४॥
teṣāṃ na dadyādyadi tu tadhiraṇyaṃ yathāvidhi | ubhau nigṛhya dāpyaḥ syāditi dharmasya dhāraṇā || 8.184||
8.184. But if he restores not that gold, as be ought, to those (spies), then he shall be compelled by force to restore both (deposits); that is a settled rule of law.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   184

निक्षेपोपनिधी नित्यं न देयौ प्रत्यनन्तरे । नश्यतो विनिपाते तावनिपाते त्वनाशिनौ ॥ ८.१८५॥
nikṣepopanidhī nityaṃ na deyau pratyanantare | naśyato vinipāte tāvanipāte tvanāśinau || 8.185||
8.185. An open or a sealed deposit must never be returned to a near relative (of the depositor during the latter’s lifetime); for if (the recipient) dies (without delivering them), they are lost, but if he does not die, they are not lost.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   185

स्वयमेव तु यौ दद्यान् मृतस्य प्रत्यनन्तरे । न स राज्ञाऽभियोक्तव्यो न निक्षेप्तुश्च बन्धुभिः ॥ ८.१८६॥
svayameva tu yau dadyān mṛtasya pratyanantare | na sa rājñā'bhiyoktavyo na nikṣeptuśca bandhubhiḥ || 8.186||
8.186. But (a depositary) who of his own accord returns them to a near relative of a deceased (depositor), must not be harassed (about them) by the king or by the depositor’s relatives.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   186

अच्छलेनैव चान्विच्छेत्तमर्थं प्रीतिपूर्वकम् । विचार्य तस्य वा वृत्तं साम्नैव परिसाधयेत् ॥ ८.१८७॥
acchalenaiva cānvicchettamarthaṃ prītipūrvakam | vicārya tasya vā vṛttaṃ sāmnaiva parisādhayet || 8.187||
8.187. And (in doubtful cases) he should try to obtain that object by friendly means, without (having recourse to) artifice, or having inquired into (depositary’s) conduct, he should settle (the matter) with gentle means.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   187

निक्षेपेष्वेषु सर्वेषु विधिः स्यात्परिसाधने । समुद्रे नाप्नुयात्किं चिद्यदि तस्मान्न संहरेत् ॥ ८.१८८॥
nikṣepeṣveṣu sarveṣu vidhiḥ syātparisādhane | samudre nāpnuyātkiṃ cidyadi tasmānna saṃharet || 8.188||
8.188. Such is the rule for obtaining back all those open deposits; in the case of a sealed deposit (the depositary) shall incur no (censure), unless he has taken out something.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   188

चौरैर्हृतं जलेनोढमग्निना दग्धमेव वा । न दद्याद्यदि तस्मात्स न संहरति किं चन ॥ ८.१८९॥
caurairhṛtaṃ jalenoḍhamagninā dagdhameva vā | na dadyādyadi tasmātsa na saṃharati kiṃ cana || 8.189||
8.189. (A deposit) which has been stolen by thieves or washed away by water or burned by fire, (the bailee) shall not make it good, unless he took part of it (for himself).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   189

निक्षेपस्यापहर्तारमनिक्षेप्तारमेव च । सर्वैरुपायैरन्विच्छेत्शपथैश्चैव वैदिकैः ॥ ८.१९०॥
nikṣepasyāpahartāramanikṣeptārameva ca | sarvairupāyairanvicchetśapathaiścaiva vaidikaiḥ || 8.190||
8.190. Him who appropriates a deposit and him (who asks for it) without having made it, (the judge) shall try by all (sorts of) means, and by the oaths prescribed in the Veda.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   190

यो निक्षेपं नार्पयति यश्चानिक्षिप्य याचते । तावुभौ चौरवत्शास्यौ दाप्यौ वा तत्समं दमम् ॥ ८.१९१॥
yo nikṣepaṃ nārpayati yaścānikṣipya yācate | tāvubhau cauravatśāsyau dāpyau vā tatsamaṃ damam || 8.191||
8.191. He who does not return a deposit and he who demands what he never bailed shall both be punished like thieves, or be compelled to pay a fine equal (to the value of the object retained or claimed).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   191

निक्षेपस्यापहर्तारं तत्समं दापयेद्दमम् । तथोपनिधिहर्तारमविशेषेण पार्थिवः ॥ ८.१९२॥
nikṣepasyāpahartāraṃ tatsamaṃ dāpayeddamam | tathopanidhihartāramaviśeṣeṇa pārthivaḥ || 8.192||
8.192. The king should compel him who does not restore an open deposit, and in like manner him who retains a sealed deposit, to pay a fine equal (to its value).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   192

उपधाभिश्च यः कश्चित्परद्रव्यं हरेन्नरः । ससहायः स हन्तव्यः प्रकाशं विविधैर्वधैः ॥ ८.१९३॥
upadhābhiśca yaḥ kaścitparadravyaṃ harennaraḥ | sasahāyaḥ sa hantavyaḥ prakāśaṃ vividhairvadhaiḥ || 8.193||
8.193. That man who by false pretences may possess himself of another’s property, shall be publicly punished by various (modes of) corporal (or capital) chastisement, together with his accomplices.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   193

निक्षेपो यः कृतो येन यावांश्च कुलसंनिधौ । तावानेव स विज्ञेयो विब्रुवन् दण्डमर्हति ॥ ८.१९४॥
nikṣepo yaḥ kṛto yena yāvāṃśca kulasaṃnidhau | tāvāneva sa vijñeyo vibruvan daṇḍamarhati || 8.194||
8.194. If a deposit of a particular description or quantity is bailed by anybody in the presence of a number (of witnesses), it must be known to be of that particular (description and quantity; the depositary) who makes a false statement (regarding it) is liable to a fine.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   194

मिथो दायः कृतो येन गृहीतो मिथ एव वा । मिथ एव प्रदातव्यो यथा दायस्तथा ग्रहः ॥ ८.१९५॥
mitho dāyaḥ kṛto yena gṛhīto mitha eva vā | mitha eva pradātavyo yathā dāyastathā grahaḥ || 8.195||
8.195. But if anything is delivered or received privately, it must be privately returned; as the bailment (was, so should be) the re-delivery.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   195

निक्षिप्तस्य धनस्यैवं प्रीत्योपनिहितस्य च । राजा विनिर्णयं कुर्यादक्षिण्वन्न्यासधारिणम् ॥ ८.१९६॥
nikṣiptasya dhanasyaivaṃ prītyopanihitasya ca | rājā vinirṇayaṃ kuryādakṣiṇvannyāsadhāriṇam || 8.196||
8.196. Thus let the king decide (causes) concerning a deposit and a friendly loan (for use) without showing (undue) rigour to the depositary.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   196

विक्रीणीते परस्य स्वं योऽस्वामी स्वाम्यसंमतः । न तं नयेत साक्ष्यं तु स्तेनमस्तेनमानिनम् ॥ ८.१९७॥
vikrīṇīte parasya svaṃ yo'svāmī svāmyasaṃmataḥ | na taṃ nayeta sākṣyaṃ tu stenamastenamāninam || 8.197||
8.197. If anybody sells the property of another man, without being the owner and without the assent of the owner, the (judge) shall not admit him who is a thief, though he may not consider himself as a thief, as a witness (in any case).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   197

अवहार्यो भवेत्चैव सान्वयः षट्शतं दमम् । निरन्वयोऽनपसरः प्राप्तः स्याच्चौरकिल्बिषम् ॥ ८.१९८॥
avahāryo bhavetcaiva sānvayaḥ ṣaṭśataṃ damam | niranvayo'napasaraḥ prāptaḥ syāccaurakilbiṣam || 8.198||
8.198. If the (offender) is a kinsman (of the owner), he shall be fined six hundred panas; if he is not a kinsman, nor has any excuse, he shall be guilty of theft.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   198

अस्वामिना कृतो यस्तु दायो विक्रय एव वा । अकृतः स तु विज्ञेयो व्यवहारे यथा स्थितिः ॥ ८.१९९॥
asvāminā kṛto yastu dāyo vikraya eva vā | akṛtaḥ sa tu vijñeyo vyavahāre yathā sthitiḥ || 8.199||
8.199. A gift or sale, made by anybody else but the owner, must be considered as null and void, according to the rule in judicial proceedings.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   199

सम्भोगो दृश्यते यत्र न दृश्येतागमः क्व चित् । आगमः कारणं तत्र न सम्भोग इति स्थितिः ॥ ८.२००॥
sambhogo dṛśyate yatra na dṛśyetāgamaḥ kva cit | āgamaḥ kāraṇaṃ tatra na sambhoga iti sthitiḥ || 8.200||
8.200. Where possession is evident, but no title is perceived, there the title (shall be) a proof (of ownership), not possession; such is the settled rule.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   200

विक्रयाद्यो धनं किं चिद्गृह्णीयात्कुलसंनिधौ । क्रयेण स विशुद्धं हि न्यायतो लभते धनम् ॥ ८.२०१॥
vikrayādyo dhanaṃ kiṃ cidgṛhṇīyātkulasaṃnidhau | krayeṇa sa viśuddhaṃ hi nyāyato labhate dhanam || 8.201||
8.201. He who obtains a chattel in the market before a number (of witnesses), acquires that chattel with a clear legal title by purchase.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   201

अथ मूलमनाहार्यं प्रकाशक्रयशोधितः । अदण्ड्यो मुच्यते राज्ञा नाष्टिको लभते धनम् ॥ ८.२०२॥
atha mūlamanāhāryaṃ prakāśakrayaśodhitaḥ | adaṇḍyo mucyate rājñā nāṣṭiko labhate dhanam || 8.202||
8.202. If the original (seller) be not producible, (the buyer) being exculpated by a public sale, must be dismissed by the king without punishment, but (the former owner) who lost the chattel shall receive it (back from the buyer).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   202

नान्यदन्येन संसृष्टरूपं विक्रयमर्हति । न चासारं न च न्यूनं न दूरेण तिरोहितम् ॥ ८.२०३॥
nānyadanyena saṃsṛṣṭarūpaṃ vikrayamarhati | na cāsāraṃ na ca nyūnaṃ na dūreṇa tirohitam || 8.203||
8.203. One commodity mixed with another must not be sold (as pure), nor a bad one (as good), nor less (than the proper quantity or weight), nor anything that is not at hand or that is concealed.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   203

अन्यां चेद्दर्शयित्वाऽन्या वोढुः कन्या प्रदीयते । उभे त एकशुल्केन वहेदित्यब्रवीन् मनुः ॥ ८.२०४॥
anyāṃ ceddarśayitvā'nyā voḍhuḥ kanyā pradīyate | ubhe ta ekaśulkena vahedityabravīn manuḥ || 8.204||
8.204. If, after one damsel has been shown, another be given to the bridegroom, he may marry them both for the same price; that Manu ordained.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   204

नोन्मत्ताया न कुष्ठिन्या न च या स्पृष्टमैथुना । पूर्वं दोषानभिख्याप्य प्रदाता दण्डमर्हति ॥ ८.२०५॥
nonmattāyā na kuṣṭhinyā na ca yā spṛṣṭamaithunā | pūrvaṃ doṣānabhikhyāpya pradātā daṇḍamarhati || 8.205||
8.205. He who gives (a damsel in marriage), having first openly declared her blemishes, whether she be insane, or afflicted with leprosy, or have lost her virginity, is not liable to punishment.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   205

ऋत्विग्यदि वृतो यज्ञे स्वकर्म परिहापयेत् । तस्य कर्मानुरूपेण देयोंशः सहकर्तृभिः ॥ ८.२०६॥
ṛtvigyadi vṛto yajñe svakarma parihāpayet | tasya karmānurūpeṇa deyoṃśaḥ sahakartṛbhiḥ || 8.206||
8.206. If an officiating priest, chosen to perform a sacrifice, abandons his work, a share only (of the fee) in proportion to the work (done) shall be given to him by those who work with him.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   206

दक्षिणासु च दत्तासु स्वकर्म परिहापयन् । कृत्स्नमेव लभेतांशमन्येनैव च कारयेत् ॥ ८.२०७॥
dakṣiṇāsu ca dattāsu svakarma parihāpayan | kṛtsnameva labhetāṃśamanyenaiva ca kārayet || 8.207||
8.207. But he who abandons his work after the sacrificial fees have been given, shall obtain his full share and cause to be performed (what remains) by another (priest).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   207

यस्मिन् कर्मणि यास्तु स्युरुक्ताः प्रत्यङ्गदक्षिणाः । स एव ता आददीत भजेरन् सर्व एव वा ॥ ८.२०८॥
yasmin karmaṇi yāstu syuruktāḥ pratyaṅgadakṣiṇāḥ | sa eva tā ādadīta bhajeran sarva eva vā || 8.208||
8.208. But if (specific) fees are ordained for the several parts of a rite, shall he (who performs the part) receive them, or shall they all share them?

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   208

रथं हरेत्चाध्वर्युर्ब्रह्माऽधाने च वाजिनम् । होता वाऽपि हरेदश्वमुद्गाता चाप्यनः क्रये ॥ ८.२०९॥
rathaṃ haretcādhvaryurbrahmā'dhāne ca vājinam | hotā vā'pi haredaśvamudgātā cāpyanaḥ kraye || 8.209||
8.209. The Adhvaryu priest shall take the chariot, and the Brahman at the kindling of the fires (Agnyadhana) a horse, the Hotri priest shall also take a horse, and the Udgatri the cart, (used) when (the Soma) is purchased.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   209

सर्वेषामर्धिनो मुख्यास्तदर्धेनार्धिनोऽपरे । तृतीयिनस्तृतीयांशाश्चतुर्थांशाश्च पादिनः ॥ ८.२१०॥
sarveṣāmardhino mukhyāstadardhenārdhino'pare | tṛtīyinastṛtīyāṃśāścaturthāṃśāśca pādinaḥ || 8.210||
8.210. The (four) chief priests among all (the sixteen), who are entitled to one half, shall receive a moiety (of the fee), the next (four) one half of that, the set entitled to a third share, one third, and those entitled to a fourth a quarter.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   210

सम्भूय स्वानि कर्माणि कुर्वद्भिरिह मानवैः । अनेन विधियोगेन कर्तव्यांशप्रकल्पना ॥ ८.२११॥
sambhūya svāni karmāṇi kurvadbhiriha mānavaiḥ | anena vidhiyogena kartavyāṃśaprakalpanā || 8.211||
8.211. By the application of these principles the allotment of shares must be made among those men who here (below) perform their work conjointly.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   211

धर्मार्थं येन दत्तं स्यात्कस्मै चिद्याचते धनम् । पश्चाच्च न तथा तत्स्यान्न देयं तस्य तद्भवेत् ॥ ८.२१२॥
dharmārthaṃ yena dattaṃ syātkasmai cidyācate dhanam | paścācca na tathā tatsyānna deyaṃ tasya tadbhavet || 8.212||
8.212. Should money be given (or promised) for a pious purpose by one man to another who asks for it, the gift shall be void, if the (money is) afterwards not (used) in the manner (stated).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   212

यदि संसाधयेत्तत्तु दर्पात्लोभेन वा पुनः । राज्ञा दाप्यः सुवर्णं स्यात्तस्य स्तेयस्य निष्कृतिः ॥ ८.२१३॥
yadi saṃsādhayettattu darpātlobhena vā punaḥ | rājñā dāpyaḥ suvarṇaṃ syāttasya steyasya niṣkṛtiḥ || 8.213||
8.213. But if the (recipient) through pride or greed tries to enforce (the fulfilment of the promise), he shall be compelled by the king to pay one suvarna as an expiation for his theft.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   213

दत्तस्यैषौदिता धर्म्या यथावदनपक्रिया । अत ऊर्ध्वं प्रवक्ष्यामि वेतनस्यानपक्रियाम् ॥ ८.२१४॥
dattasyaiṣauditā dharmyā yathāvadanapakriyā | ata ūrdhvaṃ pravakṣyāmi vetanasyānapakriyām || 8.214||
8.214. Thus the lawful subtraction of a gift has been fully explained; I will next propound (the law for) the non- payment of wages.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   214

भृतो नार्तो न कुर्याद्यो दर्पात्कर्म यथोदितम् । अनार्तो स दण्ड्यः कृष्णलान्यष्टौ न देयं चास्य वेतनम् ॥ ८.२१५॥
bhṛto nārto na kuryādyo darpātkarma yathoditam | anārto sa daṇḍyaḥ kṛṣṇalānyaṣṭau na deyaṃ cāsya vetanam || 8.215||
8.215. A hired (servant or workman) who, without being ill, out of pride fails to perform his work according to the agreement, shall be fined eight krishnalas and no wages shall be paid to him.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   215

आर्तस्तु कुर्यात्स्वस्थः सन् यथाभाषितमादितः । स दीर्घस्यापि कालस्य तत्लभेतेव वेतनम् ॥ ८.२१६॥
ārtastu kuryātsvasthaḥ san yathābhāṣitamāditaḥ | sa dīrghasyāpi kālasya tatlabheteva vetanam || 8.216||
8.216. But (if he is really) ill, (and) after recovery performs (his work) according to the original agreement, he shall receive his wages even after (the lapse of) a very long time.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   216

यथोक्तमार्तः सुस्थो वा यस्तत्कर्म न कारयेत् । न तस्य वेतनं देयमल्पोनस्यापि कर्मणः ॥ ८.२१७॥
yathoktamārtaḥ sustho vā yastatkarma na kārayet | na tasya vetanaṃ deyamalponasyāpi karmaṇaḥ || 8.217||
8.217. But if he, whether sick or well, does not (perform or) cause to be performed (by others) his work according to his agreement, the wages for that work shall not be given to him, even (if it be only) slightly incomplete.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   217

एष धर्मोऽखिलेनोक्तो वेतनादानकर्मणः । अत ऊर्ध्वं प्रवक्ष्यामि धर्मं समयभेदिनाम् ॥ ८.२१८॥
eṣa dharmo'khilenokto vetanādānakarmaṇaḥ | ata ūrdhvaṃ pravakṣyāmi dharmaṃ samayabhedinām || 8.218||
8.218. Thus the law for the non-payment of wages has been completely stated; I will next explain the law concerning men who break an agreement.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   218

यो ग्रामदेशसङ्घानां कृत्वा सत्येन संविदम् । विसंवदेन्नरो लोभात्तं राष्ट्राद्विप्रवासयेत् ॥ ८.२१९॥
yo grāmadeśasaṅghānāṃ kṛtvā satyena saṃvidam | visaṃvadennaro lobhāttaṃ rāṣṭrādvipravāsayet || 8.219||
8.219. If a man belonging to a corporation inhabiting a village or a district, after swearing to an agreement, breaks it through avarice, (the king) shall banish him from his realm,

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   219

निगृह्य दापयेच्चैनं समयव्यभिचारिणम् । चतुःसुवर्णान् षण्निष्कांश्शतमानं च राजकम् ॥ ८.२२०॥
nigṛhya dāpayeccainaṃ samayavyabhicāriṇam | catuḥsuvarṇān ṣaṇniṣkāṃśśatamānaṃ ca rājakam || 8.220||
8.220. And having imprisoned such a breaker of an agreement, he shall compel him to pay six nishkas, (each of) four suvarnas, and one satamana of silver.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   220

एतद्दण्डविधिं कुर्याद्धार्मिकः पृथिवीपतिः । ग्रामजातिसमूहेषु समयव्यभिचारिणाम् ॥ ८.२२१॥
etaddaṇḍavidhiṃ kuryāddhārmikaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ | grāmajātisamūheṣu samayavyabhicāriṇām || 8.221||
8.221. A righteous king shall apply this law of fines in villages and castes (gati) to those who break an agreement.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   221

क्रीत्वा विक्रीय वा किं चिद्यस्यैहानुशयो भवेत् । सोऽन्तर्दशाहात्तद्द्रव्यं दद्याच्चैवाददीत वा ॥ ८.२२२॥
krītvā vikrīya vā kiṃ cidyasyaihānuśayo bhavet | so'ntardaśāhāttaddravyaṃ dadyāccaivādadīta vā || 8.222||
8.222. If anybody in this (world), after buying or selling anything, repent (of his bargain), he may return or take (back) that chattel within ten days.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   222

परेण तु दशाहस्य न दद्यान्नापि दापयेत् । आददानो ददत्चैव राज्ञा दण्ड्यौ शतानि षट् ॥ ८.२२३॥
pareṇa tu daśāhasya na dadyānnāpi dāpayet | ādadāno dadatcaiva rājñā daṇḍyau śatāni ṣaṭ || 8.223||
8.223. But after (the lapse of) ten days he may neither give nor cause it to be given (back); both he who takes it (back) and he who gives it (back, except by consent) shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   223

यस्तु दोषवतीं कन्यामनाख्याय प्रयच्छति । तस्य कुर्यान्नृपो दण्डं स्वयं षण्णवतिं पणान् ॥ ८.२२४॥
yastu doṣavatīṃ kanyāmanākhyāya prayacchati | tasya kuryānnṛpo daṇḍaṃ svayaṃ ṣaṇṇavatiṃ paṇān || 8.224||
8.224. But the king himself shall impose a fine of ninety-six panas on him who gives a blemished damsel (to a suitor) without informing (him of the blemish).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   224

अकन्येति तु यः कन्यां ब्रूयाद्द्वेषेण मानवः । स शतं प्राप्नुयाद्दण्डं तस्या दोषमदर्शयन् ॥ ८.२२५॥
akanyeti tu yaḥ kanyāṃ brūyāddveṣeṇa mānavaḥ | sa śataṃ prāpnuyāddaṇḍaṃ tasyā doṣamadarśayan || 8.225||
8.225. But that man who, out of malice, says of a maiden, ’She is not a maiden,’ shall be fined one hundred (panas), if he cannot prove her blemish.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   225

पाणिग्रहणिका मन्त्राः कन्यास्वेव प्रतिष्ठिताः । नाकन्यासु क्व चिन्नॄणां लुप्तधर्मक्रिया हि ताः ॥ ८.२२६॥
pāṇigrahaṇikā mantrāḥ kanyāsveva pratiṣṭhitāḥ | nākanyāsu kva cinnṝṇāṃ luptadharmakriyā hi tāḥ || 8.226||
8.226. The nuptial texts are applied solely to virgins, (and) nowhere among men to females who have lost their virginity, for such (females) are excluded from religious ceremonies.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   226

पाणिग्रहणिका मन्त्रा नियतं दारलक्षणम् । तेषां निष्ठा तु विज्ञेया विद्वद्भिः सप्तमे पदे ॥ ८.२२७॥
pāṇigrahaṇikā mantrā niyataṃ dāralakṣaṇam | teṣāṃ niṣṭhā tu vijñeyā vidvadbhiḥ saptame pade || 8.227||
8.227. The nuptial texts are a certain proof (that a maiden has been made a lawful) wife; but the learned should know that they (and the marriage ceremony are complete with the seventh step (of the bride around the sacred fire).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   227

यस्मिन् यस्मिन् कृते कार्ये यस्येहानुशयो भवेत् । तमनेन विधानेन धर्म्ये पथि निवेशयेत् ॥ ८.२२८॥
yasmin yasmin kṛte kārye yasyehānuśayo bhavet | tamanena vidhānena dharmye pathi niveśayet || 8.228||
8.228. If anybody in this (world) repent of any completed transaction, (the king) shall keep him on the road of rectitude in accordance with the rules given above.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   228

पशुषु स्वामिनां चैव पालानां च व्यतिक्रमे । विवादं सम्प्रवक्ष्यामि यथावद्धर्मतत्त्वतः ॥ ८.२२९॥
paśuṣu svāmināṃ caiva pālānāṃ ca vyatikrame | vivādaṃ sampravakṣyāmi yathāvaddharmatattvataḥ || 8.229||
8.229. I will fully declare in accordance with the true law (the rules concerning) the disputes, (arising) from the transgressions of owners of cattle and of herdsmen.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   229

दिवा वक्तव्यता पाले रात्रौ स्वामिनि तद्गृहे । योगक्षेमेऽन्यथा चेत्तु पालो वक्तव्यतामियात् ॥ ८.२३०॥
divā vaktavyatā pāle rātrau svāmini tadgṛhe | yogakṣeme'nyathā cettu pālo vaktavyatāmiyāt || 8.230||
8.230. During the day the responsibility for the safety (of the cattle rests) on the herdsman, during the night on the owner, (provided they are) in his house; (if it be) otherwise, the herdsman will be responsible (for them also during the night).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   230

गोपः क्षीरभृतो यस्तु स दुह्याद्दशतो वराम् । गोस्वाम्यनुमते भृत्यः सा स्यात्पालेऽभृते भृतिः ॥ ८.२३१॥
gopaḥ kṣīrabhṛto yastu sa duhyāddaśato varām | gosvāmyanumate bhṛtyaḥ sā syātpāle'bhṛte bhṛtiḥ || 8.231||
8.231. A hired herdsman who is paid with milk, may milk with the consent of the owner the best (cow) out of ten; such shall be his hire if no (other) wages (are paid).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   231

नष्टं विनष्टं कृमिभिः श्वहतं विषमे मृतम् । हीनं पुरुषकारेण प्रदद्यात्पाल एव तु ॥ ८.२३२॥
naṣṭaṃ vinaṣṭaṃ kṛmibhiḥ śvahataṃ viṣame mṛtam | hīnaṃ puruṣakāreṇa pradadyātpāla eva tu || 8.232||
8.232. The herdsman alone shall make good (the loss of a beast) strayed, destroyed by worms, killed by dogs or (by falling) into a pit, if he did not duly exert himself (to prevent it).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   232

विघुष्य तु हृतं चौरैर्न पालो दातुमर्हति । यदि देशे च काले च स्वामिनः स्वस्य शंसति ॥ ८.२३३॥
vighuṣya tu hṛtaṃ caurairna pālo dātumarhati | yadi deśe ca kāle ca svāminaḥ svasya śaṃsati || 8.233||
8.233. But for (an animal) stolen by thieves, though he raised an alarm, the herdsman shall not pay, provided he gives notice to his master at the proper place and time.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   233

कर्णौ चर्म च वालांश्च बस्तिं स्नायुं च रोचनाम् । पशुषु स्वामिनां दद्यान् मृतेष्व अङ्कांश्च दर्शयेत् ॥ ८.२३४॥
karṇau carma ca vālāṃśca bastiṃ snāyuṃ ca rocanām | paśuṣu svāmināṃ dadyān mṛteṣva aṅkāṃśca darśayet || 8.234||
8.234. If cattle die, let him carry to his master their ears, skin, tails, bladders, tendons, and the yellow concrete bile, and let him point out their particular. marks.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   234

अजाविके तु संरुद्धे वृकैः पाले त्वनायति । यां प्रसह्य वृको हन्यात्पाले तत्किल्बिषं भवेत् ॥ ८.२३५॥
ajāvike tu saṃruddhe vṛkaiḥ pāle tvanāyati | yāṃ prasahya vṛko hanyātpāle tatkilbiṣaṃ bhavet || 8.235||
8.235. But if goats or sheep are surrounded by wolves and the herdsman does not hasten (to their assistance), lie shall be responsible for any (animal) which a wolf may attack and kill.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   235

तासां चेदवरुद्धानां चरन्तीनां मिथो वने । यामुत्प्लुत्य वृको हन्यान्न पालस्तत्र किल्बिषी ॥ ८.२३६॥
tāsāṃ cedavaruddhānāṃ carantīnāṃ mitho vane | yāmutplutya vṛko hanyānna pālastatra kilbiṣī || 8.236||
8.236. But if they, kept in (proper) order, graze together in the forest, and a wolf, suddenly jumping on one of them, kills it, the herdsman shall bear in that case no responsibility.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   236

धनुःशतं परीहारो ग्रामस्य स्यात्समन्ततः । शम्यापातास्त्रयो वाऽपि त्रिगुणो नगरस्य तु ॥ ८.२३७॥
dhanuḥśataṃ parīhāro grāmasya syātsamantataḥ | śamyāpātāstrayo vā'pi triguṇo nagarasya tu || 8.237||
8.237. On all sides of a village a space, one hundred dhanus or three samya-throws (in breadth), shall be reserved (for pasture), and thrice (that space) round a town.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   237

तत्रापरिवृतं धान्यं विहिंस्युः पशवो यदि । न तत्र प्रणयेद्दण्डं नृपतिः पशुरक्षिणाम् ॥ ८.२३८॥
tatrāparivṛtaṃ dhānyaṃ vihiṃsyuḥ paśavo yadi | na tatra praṇayeddaṇḍaṃ nṛpatiḥ paśurakṣiṇām || 8.238||
8.238. If the cattle do damage to unfenced crops on that (common), the king shall in that case not punish the herdsmen.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   238

वृतिं तत्र प्रकुर्वीत यामुष्त्रो न विलोकयेत् । छिद्रं च वारयेत्सर्वं श्वसूकरमुखानुगम् ॥ ८.२३९॥
vṛtiṃ tatra prakurvīta yāmuṣtro na vilokayet | chidraṃ ca vārayetsarvaṃ śvasūkaramukhānugam || 8.239||
8.239. (The owner of the field) shall make there a hedge over which a camel cannot look, and stop every gap through which a dog or a boar can thrust his head.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   239

पथि क्षेत्रे परिवृते ग्रामान्तीयेऽथ वा पुनः । सपालः शतदण्डार्हो विपालान् वारयेत्पशून् ॥ ८.२४०॥
pathi kṣetre parivṛte grāmāntīye'tha vā punaḥ | sapālaḥ śatadaṇḍārho vipālān vārayetpaśūn || 8.240||
8.240. (If cattle do mischief) in an enclosed field near a highway or near a village, the herdsman shall be fined one hundred (panas); (but cattle), unattended by a herdsman, (the watchman in the field) shall drive away.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   240

क्षेत्रेष्वन्येषु तु पशुः सपादं पणमर्हति । सर्वत्र तु सदो देयः क्षेत्रिकस्यैति धारणा ॥ ८.२४१॥
kṣetreṣvanyeṣu tu paśuḥ sapādaṃ paṇamarhati | sarvatra tu sado deyaḥ kṣetrikasyaiti dhāraṇā || 8.241||
8.241. (For damage) in other fields (each head of) cattle shall (pay a fine of one (pana) and a quarter, and in all (cases the value of) the crop (destroyed) shall be made good to the owner of the field; that is the settled rule.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   241

अनिर्दशाहां गां सूतां वृषान् देवपशूंस्तथा । सपालान् वा विपालान् वा न दण्ड्यान् मनुरब्रवीत् ॥ ८.२४२॥
anirdaśāhāṃ gāṃ sūtāṃ vṛṣān devapaśūṃstathā | sapālān vā vipālān vā na daṇḍyān manurabravīt || 8.242||
8.242. But Manu has declared that no fine shall be paid for (damage done by) a cow within ten days after her calving, by bulls and by cattle sacred to the gods, whether they are attended by a herdsman or not.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   242

क्षेत्रिकस्यात्यये दण्डो भागाद्दशगुणो भवेत् । ततोऽर्धदण्डो भृत्यानामज्ञानात्क्षेत्रिकस्य तु ॥ ८.२४३॥
kṣetrikasyātyaye daṇḍo bhāgāddaśaguṇo bhavet | tato'rdhadaṇḍo bhṛtyānāmajñānātkṣetrikasya tu || 8.243||
8.243. If (the crops are destroyed by) the husbandman’s (own) fault, the fine shall amount to ten times as much as (the king’s) share; but the fine (shall be) only half that amount if (the fault lay) with the servants and the farmer had no knowledge of it.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   243

एतद्विधानमातिष्ठेद्धार्मिकः पृथिवीपतिः । स्वामिनां च पशूनां च पालानां च व्यतिक्रमे ॥ ८.२४४॥
etadvidhānamātiṣṭheddhārmikaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ | svāmināṃ ca paśūnāṃ ca pālānāṃ ca vyatikrame || 8.244||
8.244. To these rules a righteous king shall keep in (all cases of) transgressions by masters, their cattle, and herdsmen.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   244

सीमां प्रति समुत्पन्ने विवादे ग्रामयोर्द्वयोः । ज्येष्ठे मासि नयेत्सीमां सुप्रकाशेषु सेतुषु ॥ ८.२४५॥
sīmāṃ prati samutpanne vivāde grāmayordvayoḥ | jyeṣṭhe māsi nayetsīmāṃ suprakāśeṣu setuṣu || 8.245||
8.245. If a dispute has arisen between two villages concerning a boundary, the king shall settle the limits in the month of Gyaishtha, when the landmarks are most distinctly visible.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   245

सीमावृक्षांश्च कुर्वीत न्यग्रोधाश्वत्थकिंशुकान् । शाल्मलीन् सालतालांश्च क्षीरिणश्चैव पादपान् ॥ ८.२४६॥
sīmāvṛkṣāṃśca kurvīta nyagrodhāśvatthakiṃśukān | śālmalīn sālatālāṃśca kṣīriṇaścaiva pādapān || 8.246||
8.246. Let him mark the boundaries (by) trees, (e.g.) Nyagrodhas, Asvatthas, Kimsukas, cotton-trees, Salas, Palmyra palms, and trees with milky juice,

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   246

गुल्मान् वेणूंश्च विविधान् शमीवल्लीस्थलानि च । शरान् कुब्जकगुल्मांश्च तथा सीमा न नश्यति ॥ ८.२४७॥
gulmān veṇūṃśca vividhān śamīvallīsthalāni ca | śarān kubjakagulmāṃśca tathā sīmā na naśyati || 8.247||
8.247. By clustering shrubs, bamboos of different kinds, Samis, creepers and raised mounds, reeds, thickets of Kubgaka; thus the boundary will not be forgotten.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   247

तडागान्युदपानानि वाप्यः प्रस्रवणानि च । सीमासंधिषु कार्याणि देवतायतनानि च ॥ ८.२४८॥
taḍāgānyudapānāni vāpyaḥ prasravaṇāni ca | sīmāsaṃdhiṣu kāryāṇi devatāyatanāni ca || 8.248||
8.248. Tanks, wells, cisterns, and fountains should be built where boundaries meet, as well as temples

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   248

उपछन्नानि चान्यानि सीमालिङ्गानि कारयेत् । सीमाज्ञाने नृणां वीक्ष्य नित्यं लोके विपर्ययम् ॥ ८.२४९॥
upachannāni cānyāni sīmāliṅgāni kārayet | sīmājñāne nṛṇāṃ vīkṣya nityaṃ loke viparyayam || 8.249||
8.249. And as he will see that through men’s ignorance of the boundaries trespasses constantly occur in the world, let him cause to be made other hidden marks for boundaries,

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   249

अश्मनोऽस्थीनि गोवालांस्तुषान् भस्म कपालिकाः । करीषमिष्टकाऽङ्गारांश्छर्करा वालुकास्तथा ॥ ८.२५०॥
aśmano'sthīni govālāṃstuṣān bhasma kapālikāḥ | karīṣamiṣṭakā'ṅgārāṃścharkarā vālukāstathā || 8.250||
8.250. Stones, bones, cow’s hair, chaff, ashes, potsherds, dry cowdung, bricks, cinders, pebbles, and sand,

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   250

यानि चैवम्प्रकाराणि कालाद्भूमिर्न भक्षयेत् । तानि संधिषु सीमायामप्रकाशानि कारयेत् ॥ ८.२५१॥
yāni caivamprakārāṇi kālādbhūmirna bhakṣayet | tāni saṃdhiṣu sīmāyāmaprakāśāni kārayet || 8.251||
8.251. And whatever other things of a similar kind the earth does not corrode even after a long time, those he should cause to be buried where one boundary joins (the other).

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   251

एतैर्लिङ्गैर्नयेत्सीमां राजा विवदमानयोः । पूर्वभुक्त्या च सततमुदकस्यागमेन च ॥ ८.२५२॥
etairliṅgairnayetsīmāṃ rājā vivadamānayoḥ | pūrvabhuktyā ca satatamudakasyāgamena ca || 8.252||
8.252. By these signs, by long continued possession, and by constantly flowing streams of water the king shall ascertain the boundary (of the land) of two disputing parties.

Adhyaya : 8

Shloka :   252

यदि स्ंशय एव स्यात्लिङ्गानामपि दर्शने । साक्षिप्रत्यय एव स्यात्सीमावादविनिश्चयः ॥ ८.२५३॥
yadi sṃśaya eva syātliṅgānāmapi darśane | sākṣipratyaya eva syātsīmāvādaviniścayaḥ || 8.253||
8.253. If there be a doubt even on inspection of the marks, the settlement of a dispute regarding boundaries shall depend on witnesses.